Biology Summer Work 2015: This packet has been put together by your. successful in Biology.

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1 Biology Summer Work 2015: This packet has been put together by your Biology teachers for you to work on during the summer. It will help you review topics that you have learned in 9 th grade and will help you be successful in Biology. This packet will be due on Thursday, September 3, Please expect to take the test on Wednesday, September 9, Name: 9 th Grade Teacher:

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3 Chemistry Review Name Lesson 1: Atomic Structure Basic Atomic Structure What are Atoms? (text w/music) Atomic Symbols Notes: (Your Biology teacher expects to see notes for every clip)

4 1. Identify the three types of particles that make up an atom and their charges: Particle Charge of particle 2. The Nucleus contains and 3. The space that surrounds the nucleus and contains electrons is called the 4. What keeps electrons from just shooting off away from the atom? (video #1). 5. A neutral atom has the same number of and. 6. The word atom means. 7. When comparing the mass of these particles, and have a mass of 1 atomic mass unit (AMU) while the mass of is 1/2000 AMU. Therefore, when calculating the mass of an atom, only the mass of the and are considered. ATOMIC NUMBER Elements are identified by the number of p+ they contain. 8. If an atom has 11 p +, it must be. 9. If an atom has p +, it must be N. 10. H has protons, neutrons and electrons. 11. Complete the table below using a periodic table (online or in your agenda pad) Element Element Atomic # # Protons # Neutrons # Electrons Mass # Name Symbol Lithium Li 3 6 C Atoms that exist and combine with other dissimilar atoms are called. 13. Elements are made up of and compounds are made of of molecules. 30 Zinc Atomic # Symbol Name Atomic Mass 3 Li 6.941

5 Chemistry Review Lesson 2: Atoms, Isotopes and Ions Atoms and Isotopes: What are Isotopes? Protons/neutrons/electrons in atoms/ions from mass/atomic number and charge Notes: (Your Biology teacher expects to see notes for every clip)

6 1. An isotope is a different of the same. 2. Isotopes and atoms of an element have the same # of but different numbers of. 3. Ions are atoms with unequal number of and. Neutral Atoms: 1. The # of and # of are equal. 2. A neutral oxygen atom has 8p +. How many e - will it have? 3. How many p + and e - does a neutral Calcium atom have? Stability # of protons never changes for a given element; only e- are lost or gained. 4. When the # of p + no longer equals # of e-, the atom is an: 5. An excess # of e - means the atom has a charge 6. Fewer e - than p + means the atom has a charge 7. Complete the table below using a periodic table (online or in your agenda pad) Element Element Atomic # # Protons # Neutrons # Electrons Mass # Name Symbol Iron Charge +/-/o Hg If you know only the following information can you always determine what the element is? (Yes/No). a) number of protons b) number of neutrons c) number of electrons in a neutral atom 9. The number of protons in one atom of an element determines the atom s, and the number of electrons determines the of an element. 10. The atomic number tells you the number of in one atom of an element. It also tells you the number of in a neutral atom of that element. 11. The atomic number gives the identity of an element as well as its location on the Periodic Table. No two different elements will have the same.

7 12. The of an element is the total number of protons and neutrons in the of the atom. 13. The of an element is the average mass of an element s naturally occurring atom, or isotopes, taking into account the of each isotope. 14. The mass number is used to calculate the number of and in one atom of an element. In order to calculate the number of neutrons you must subtract the from the. 15. Complete the table below. Element Ion Symbol Name H 1+ S 2- K 1+ # Protons # Electrons Charge Anion/Cation

8 Chemistry Review Lesson #3: Period Table and Lewis Dot Diagrams A Tour of the Periodic Table Notes: (There is a lot in this video; groups periods, gallium, reactivity, halogens etc.) Periodic Table Part II: How to use the table Notes: at least three points not mentioned above Drawing Lewis Dot Diagrams Notes: be specific this will help with the table on page 3

9 Answer the following questions: 1. In the periodic table, the vertical columns are called, while the rows are called. 2. Color the following groups on the periodic table below with the corresponding colors Alkali Metals - yellow Alkaline Earth Metals green Halogens - orange Noble Gases - red 3. The number of electrons in the outer energy shell of a particular atom are called electrons. 4. What are two ways to determine the number of valence electrons a particular atom has? Hint: One is much easier than the other. a) b) 5. The Alkali metals are ( circle one) Highly/ Non reactive, and all have valence electron(s) 6. The Alkaline Earth metals have valence electron(s). 7. The Halogens have valence electrons, thus they are (circle one) Highly/ Non -reactive. 8. The Noble gases have valence electrons, making them (circle one) Highly/ Non -reactive. 9. Circle the non-metals on the periodic table above. 10. Why are these non-metals, known as CHNOPS, so important to Biology? Here s the big connection!!! 11. Label the transition metals using a large bracket on the periodic table above. 12. Draw a zigzag line along the metalloids you should remember this from last year! 13. As we move towards the bottom of the periodic table, the atomic mass. (increases/decreases). 14. As we move across a row, the atomic mass. (increases/decreases) because

10 Bohr Diagrams: The Bohr Diagram is used to show the exact number of electrons for a particular atom of an element. The images below show Bohr Diagrams of Carbon. You Try: In the space provided, draw the Bohr diagram for Chlorine (Cl). a) How many valence electrons does an atom of Chlorine have? b) How did you know this by looking at your Bohr diagram? Electron Configuration and Stability Every atom wants to be stable, and stability for an atom is achieved by having the right number of electrons in its outermost shell. Atoms that already have the ideal number of electrons in their outer shell have no desire for more electrons, and don't want to lose any either. These atoms tend to be un-reactive or inert. Atoms that that do not have the ideal number tend to be reactive, striving to get their hands on more, or get rid of some electrons. The atom will strive to achieve stability by gaining or losing electrons in their outer shell. If this cannot be achieved by shuffling their own electrons around, atoms interact or react with other atoms to take/ give (ionic bonds) or share (covalent bonds) electrons to achieve their goal. Atoms that that do not have the ideal number tend to be reactive, striving to get their hands on more, or get rid of some electrons. The table below lists shells one to five, and shows the maximum number of electrons each shell can hold. Remember, a full shell makes a happy atom. We will only be working with 3 shells this year! Shell Can hold is stable with an outer shell holding

11 Lewis Dot Diagrams: It s really tedious and downright Bohr-ing (get it?) to draw out all of those rings, so we usually show valence electrons using the Lewis Dot Diagram. Watch the tutorial on drawing Lewis Dots and complete the table below. Element Name Symbol Protons Electrons How many shells? E - in the outer shell Lewis Dot Model show electrons in outermost shell Hydrogen H H Helium He 2 Lithium Li Beryllium Be 4 4 Carbon C 6 6 Oxygen O Fluorine F 9 Neon Ne Sodium Na Magnesium Mg Chlorine Cl Argon Ar

12 Chemistry Review Lesson #4: Bonding Bond's in Biological Molecules - Notes: (Your Biology teacher expects to see at least three concepts) Intro to Chemistry: Intro to Bonding 1. What do Bonds do? 2. Ionic Bonds produce. 3. Draw the Lewis dot structure of Sodium using pen and Draw a Lewis dot structure of Chlorine in pencil. 4. Use arrows to indicate what happens to the electrons when they interact and any charges that result. 5. What types of elements form ionic bonds? 6. Another term of covalent bond is 7. In covalent bonding, electrons are 8. Draw the Lewis dot of two hydrogen atoms, one in pen and one in pencil. Circle the shared electrons. 9. Redraw this molecule using a line to represent the covalent bond. 10. What type of molecules form Covalent bonds?

13 Intro to Chemistry: Ionic Bonding 2: 11. When atoms bond ionically, one atom electrons and another atom electrons. 12. If the first atom gives away 2 electrons, the charge of the atom will be. The charge of the atom that received the electrons will be. 13. How to these charged atoms behave toward one another and why? 14. What does the word "salt" mean to a chemist? 15. List some characteristics of Ionic Compounds Intro to Chemistry: Covalent Bonds ½ 16. What attracts two molecules toward each other in covalent bonds? Notes: (numerous definitions including polar and non-polar covalent bonds)

14 Ionic and Molecular Compounds Notes: That's Why Carbon Is a Tramp: Biology # What are organic molecules? 18. The atomic # of C=. 19. How does being small benefit carbon? 20. What does it mean when we say "carbon is kind"? 21. What does the speaker mean when saying "Carbon is a tramp"? 22. What is the octet rule? 23. Carbon it requires electrons to fill its outer orbital. 24. Draw a Lewis dot diagram of 1 carbon using a pen. Surround it with 4 Lewis dot diagrams of hydrogen using pencil. 25. Show how electrons are shared between these atoms. 26. What is the chemical formula for the molecule you just drew? 27. What is the difference between non-polar and polar covalent bonds? 28. Why do oxygen molecules "stick together"? 29. In general, which type of bond is the strongest?

15 Episode 1: Global Warming, It's All About Carbon Notes: Episode 2: Global Warming, It's All About Carbon Notes: 30. Create a Lewis Dot diagram for the compound KCl. Is this ionic or covalent? Label any charges 31. Create a Lewis Dot diagram for MgCl 2. Is this ionic or covalent? Label any charges 32. Create a Lewis Dot diagram for NH 3. Is this ionic or covalent? Circle any shared electrons 33. Create a Lewis Dot diagram for CH 4.Is this ionic or covalent? Circle any shared electrons 34. Create a Lewis Dot diagram for H 2 0. Is this ionic or covalent? Is this polar or non-polar?

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