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1 Age of Exploration Mr. Day Marion County High School Background By 1400, Europeans were ready to venture beyond their borders Renaissance encouraged a new spirit of adventure and curiosity Printing press spread ideas and new maps and charts What was the most difficult trip you have ever been on? 1. Where were you going? 2. Why was it so difficult? 3. Was it worth it? The Push/Pull Factors Reasons for immigration I. Push Factors- Conditions that drive people from their homes A. Population growth B. Lack of jobs & land C. Food shortages D. Political and religious persecution II. Pull Factors- conditions that attract immigrants to a new area A. Promise of freedom and better life B. Family or friends already there C. Jobs available D. Availability of land 1

2 Motivations: Why did Europeans want to explore? God, Gold, and Glory GOD!!! Spread Christianity Crusades left hostility between Christians and Muslims Europeans believed they had a sacred duty to continue fighting Muslims and to convert non-christians GOLD!!! People want wealth; achieve that through trade Traded spices (nutmeg, ginger, cinnamon, pepper) Introduced during Crusades; people still demanded goods once wars ended Demand greater than supply= high prices GOLD!!! (cont d) Trade routes controlled by Italians and Muslims Muslims sold Asian goods to Italians Italian merchants resold items at increased prices to merchants throughout Europe Other traders did NOT like this and wanted new routes that bypassed Italian merchants GLORY!!! Many average people longed to have celebrity status so they would set out on an adventurous voyage on the open seas to see what they could find. Real Estate Activity Create a real estate pamphlet to lure residents and businesses to Marion County. 2

3 Real Estate Activity Create a real estate pamphlet to lure residents and businesses to Marion County. CATEGORY Writing - Organization Knowledge Gained Content - Accuracy Attractiveness & Organization Each section in the brochure has a clear beginning, middle, and end. All students in the group can accurately answer all questions related to facts in the brochure and to technical processes used to create the brochure. All facts in the brochure are accurate. The brochure has exceptionally attractive formatting and well- organized information. Almost all sections of the brochure have a clear beginning, middle and end. All students in the group can accurately answer most questions related to facts in the brochure and to technical processes used to create the brochure % 90% of the facts in the brochure are accurate. The brochure has attractive formatting and well- organized information. Most sections of the brochure have a clear beginning, middle and end. Most students in the group can accurately answer most questions related to facts in the brochure and to technical processes used to create the brochure % 80% of the facts in the brochure are accurate. The brochure has well- organized information. Less than half of the sections of the brochure have a clear beginning, middle and end. Several students in the group appear to have little knowledge about the facts or technical processes used in the brochure. Fewer than 80% of the facts in the brochure are accurate. The brochure\'s formatting and organization of material are confusing to the reader. NEW TECHNOLOGIES THAT IMPACTED EXPLORATION Better And Faster Ship Design Printing Press More Reliable Magnetic Compass The Invention Of The Clock Allowed For New Navigational Methods- Eventually Longitude Astrolabe- Latitude Navigation More Accurate Maps Gun Powder And New Weapons Cannons And Muskets New Exploration Technologies Caravel: a 2 or 3 masted sailing ship that was used by the Spanish and Portuguese in the 15th and 16th centuries had triangular sails that made it possible to sail against the wind New Exploration Technologies Astrolabe: a device that enabled navigators to learn their ship's location by charting the position of the stars (invented by the Muslims) New Exploration Technologies Compass: a device that allowed navigation to become much more precise, it uses the earth's magnetic field to indicate direction (Chinese invention) 3

4 NEW WEAPONS Weight Create a short essay explaining several technology changes that have changed your life. Cartography Early and Medieval Maps the art, technique, or production of compiling or drawing maps or charts Ptolemaic map Jerusalem maps Mappa Mundi 4

5 Late Medieval and Renaissance Cartography Portugal leads the way Portugal was 1 st to establish trading outposts along the west coast of Africa Portolan map Fra Mauro s map Prince Henry: son of Portugal s king Nation s most enthusiastic supporter of exploration Conquered Muslim city in North Africa where he discovered exotic wealth never found in Europe (gold, ivory and salt) Portugal leads the way (cont d) Portugal leads the way (cont d) Henry wanted to obtain west African gold, ivory and salt he founded a navigation school in Portugal (mapmakers, shipbuilders, scientists, and sea captains, gathered there to perfect their trade) By Henry s death, Portugal held a series of trading posts along western African shores. Traded for African gold, ivory and salt The western coast of Africa became known as the Ivory Coast or the Gold Coast Portugal leads the way (cont d) Portugal leads the way (cont d) Portugal secures a Sea Route to Asia 1. Bartolomeu Dias 1488 Sailed down w. coast of Africa where he reached the tip Huge storm arose, battered ships Realized his ships were blown around the tip Explored SE coast but crew was exhausted so they returned home Vasco da Gama 1498 began exploring east African coast Reached Calicut (SW coast of India) Amazed by spices, rare silks, precious gems Filled boats with goods and returned to Portugal where they sold them and made several thousand percent in profits. Da Gama s voyage of 27,000 miles gave Portugal a direct sea route to India 5

6 Portugal leads the way (cont d) Spain also makes claim The Portuguese established limited trade relations with several mainland states (part of the continent, as opposed to peninsulas and offshore islands), including Thailand, Burma, Vietnam, and what remained of the old Angkor kingdom in Cambodia. Christopher Columbus 1492 he convinced Spain (although he was Italian) to pay for his plan to find a trade route to Asia by sailing west across the Atlantic Ocean Explored islands in the Caribbean and Honduras thinking he had landed in Asia. Spain also makes claim (cont d) Christofo Colon (Christopher Columbus) [1451 [ ] 1506] October 1492: landed on a Caribbean Island which he mistook for the East Indies (AKA - Indonesia.) Immediate impact of Columbus: Increased tension between Spain and Portugal. Columbus Four Voyages 6

7 Spain also makes claim (cont d) Spain also makes claim (cont d) Spain vs. Portugal Portugal believed Spain reached Asia and that Columbus claimed lands that the Portuguese might have reached first. In 1494 Spain and Portugal signed the Treaty of Tordesillas: imaginary North/South line that gave lands on the east to Portugal (light green) and the lands on the west to Spain (dark green). Pope Alexander VI divided the land between the 2 nations Amerigo Vespucci His descriptions of the lands led to the new name of the New World Treaty of Tordesillas Geographer who wrote notes about land they found New World named in his honor on a map in 1507 FERDINAND MAGELLAN Led the expedition that would become the first to sail around the world, named the Pacific Ocean MAGELLAN DID NOT SURVIVE THE VOYAGE OF THE 270 MEN AND 5 SHIPS WHO BEGAN THE VOYAGE AROUND THE GLOBE, ONLY 1 SHIP AND 18 MEN FINISHED AND RETURNED TO SPAIN 7

8 Magellan Dies: A Primary Source Read the first hand account of Magellan s death given by a member of Magellan s crew. THEN write at least a paragraph reflection about what you just read. Marco Polo Italian explorer and author. He made numerous trips to China and returned to Europe to write of his journeys. His accounts of his travels offered Europeans a firsthand view of Asian lands and stimulated interest in Asian trade. Why Gold? Mercantilism set of principles that dominated economic thought in the 17th century; it was the idea that the prosperity and wealth of a nation depended on a large supply of gold and silver Hernando Cortes established the 1 st colony in Mexico and conquered the Aztec Empire. Conquered the Aztec Empire ( ) 1521) Conquistador: A Spanish conqueror of the Americas Stole gold Millions of natives killed by smallpox Governor of Mexico Aztec Empire Aztecs (Native Americans from Mexico) Empire was vast and wealthy Capitol city was Tenochtitlan Cortes meets Montezuma Cortes landed at the perfect time. One Reed Year Quetzalcoatl (keht sahl koh AHTL) Sacrifice human hearts to appease the gods 8

9 Are They Gods? Layout of Tenochtitlan Aztec ruler Montezuma wondered if Cortes was Quetzalcoatl (keht sahl koh AHTL) Fair skinned Aztec god who would return from the East Cortes welcomed to the city Discovered gold in a secret room Fearing safety took Montezuma hostage and left for coast. Montezuma was killed (unknown killer) Siege of Tenochtitlan Cortes conquered the capitol Reasons for victory Superior weapons (guns, cannons, armor, dogs, horses) Made allies with Aztec enemies Aztecs fought to wound, Spanish fought to kill Disease Battle scene at Tenochtitlan Francisco Pizarro Conquered the Incas Held Atahualpa, the Inca ruler, prisoner Once he controlled the area, he exploited the Incas: taxes, labor in mines Spanish Conquest Empire extends into North America Juan Ponce de Leon claimed Florida Francisco Vasquez de Coronado: traveled in Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, etc Many missionaries settled in today s U.S. 9

10 The Impact on the Spanish Colonies Exploitation of gold and silver Plantations established Trade increased Natives forced labor, lower class Bring language and religion(catholic) Woodcut of Potosi Benefits for Spain Wealthy empire from silver/gold Built an Armada Became one of the most powerful European nations the Spanish word for a large fleet of ships Religion and the Spanish Empire Jesuit and Franciscan missionaries brought Roman Catholicism to the New World Missionaries worked to stop Native American exploitation The Triangular Trade Triangular trade: : Trade network linking Europe, Africa, Americas Europe sent finished goods to Africa Africans went as slaves to the Americas The Americas sent raw materials to Europe The Middle Passage The journey slaves took to the Americas 10

11 The Slave Trade 1. Existed in Africa before the coming of the Europeans. 2. Portuguese replaced European slaves with Africans. Sugar cane & sugar plantations. First boatload of African slaves brought by the Spanish in ,000 enslaved Africans exported to other countries. 3. Between 16 c & 19 c, about 10 million Africans shipped to the Americas. Slave Ship Coffin Position Below Deck African Captives Thrown Overboard Sharks followed the slave ships! PLANTATIONS: a large agricultural estate Sugar became a major export crop Native peoples and African slaves worked the farms King Afonzo of Kongo In 1526 Afonso wrote a series of letters condemning the establishment of the trans-atlantic slave trade. He accused them of illegally purchasing free people as slaves. 11

12 Ibo Tribe The transatlantic slave trade affected the Ibo heavily. Slavery Personal Narrative Write a personal narrative of what it would have been like to been a captured slave heading to the Americas. The African society of Ibo in eastern Nigeria produced more slaves than practically any other in the continent The French in North America Further French Colonization Looking for water route to Pacific Northwest Passage New France: Quebec Also explored Great Lakes, Mississippi River Dominate fur trade Jesuit missionaries arrive New France remained small Champlain in Quebec La Salle in Mississippi Mississippi and Louisiana were claimed by the French Further French Colonization Robert Cavelier de La Salle followed the Mississippi River all the way south to the Gulf of Mexico Mississippi and Louisiana La Salle in Mississippi established. New Orleans established 1609 Henry Hudson explores waterways for the Dutch (Netherlands) Dutch claim land, found New Netherland now now Albany, New York City Dutch focus on fur trade The Dutch 12

13 The Dutch and Java They brought the island of Java under their control and established a fort. They used tactics such as trying to dominate the clove trade by limiting cultivation to one island and forcing others to stop growing and trading the spice. Dutch settlement in Java, 1665 Colonizing the Caribbean European nations start colonies in the Caribbean Large cotton and sugar plantations work by slaves New Colonial Rivals Newscast from the Past - Introduction You and your group will create a newscast from the past. Your group will have a pre-selected country to base your newscast on. English Exploration Henry VIII Wants to find Northwest Passage to Asia fails Henry VIII John Cabot Wanted to find a direct route to Asia Small ships, poor weather, and poor maps were obstacles Explored the coast of North America and Newfoundland Claimed North America for England 13

14 Voyages of John Cabot English Colonization in North America Slow colonization but sped up in 1600s Roanoke: failed colony Jamestown: first permanent settlement The 13 colonies Causes of migration English Motives Colonial Rivalries economic opportunities, like many of those who settled in Virginia. relief from religious persecution in England. Catholics in Maryland Puritans in Massachusetts Quakers in Pennsylvania Although much of the conflict was between the Europeans and the lands they conquered, there was also conflict between the Europeans over colonial interests. Trade Conflict Colonial Conflicts Newscast from the Past Finish Assigning Parts & Start Making Scripts You and your group will create a newscast from the past. Your group will have a pre-selected country to base your newscast on. The Columbian Exchange Disease Plants, animals, and foodstuffs Migrations and population shifts 14

15 Columbian Exchange: Plants and Animals From the Americas: Potatoes Pumpkin Coffee Maize Cocoa Squash Peanuts Hominy Pineapple Tomatoes Chicle Sorghum Quinine Avocados Alpaca Llamas Columbian Exchange: Plants and Animals From Europe: Wheat Pigs Cauliflower Chickens Radishes Cattle Peas Horse Cabbage Sheep Clover Columbian Exchange: European Diseases European diseases Smallpox, measles, influenza, and whooping cough Population and Migration Population changes Migration and colonization Forced migration Smallpox victim Slaves arriving in America Development of Global Trade World connected by trade Silver, bullionism, and mercantilism One of the most critical events in modern history Creation of world network New role for Europe Final Observations Mining in the colonies 15

16 Newscast from the Past Finish Scripts You and your group will create a newscast from the past. Your group will have a pre-selected country to base your newscast on. 16

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