What do these modals express in each sentence?

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1 What do these modals express in each sentence? 1. How many people can be seated in this hall? 2. Can I help you? 3. I can ski quite well. 4. You can t park your car here. 5. She can be very nice if she s in a good mood. 6. Where can he have gone? 7. Of course you can have some juice if you d like some. 8. You can wash up and then you can do the beds. 9. Can you thread this needle for me, please? 10. It can t be true. I know he d never do a thing like that. 11. It couldn t be john He s in London today. 12. Could I use your phone? 13. You could tell me if you are going to be late. 14. Could I carry your suitcase for you? 15. Anne could talk when she was 18 months old. 16. Where could he have gone? 17. Could you help me move the piano? 18. It could rain later on (but I don t think it will). 19. I could buy a new car if I got the job. 20. He could have had an accident, but luckily he didn t. 21. You could have called the police, but you didn t. 22. I may go to the concert if I finish my work in time. 23. May I have a chocolate? Yes, of course you may. 24. I might go to the concert if I can only get my work finished. 25. You might tell me if you are going to be late. 26. Might I accompany you to the ball? 27. Where might he have gone? 28. You might have called the police, but you didn t.

2 29. That must be his sister she looks just like him. 30. I must complete this project by Monday. 31. You mustn t smoke in closed public places. 32. Must I do my homework now? 33. We really must go now. 34. You must obey the school rules. 35. He didn t have to stay in a hotel. 36. We have to buy a present for our grandfather. 37. Did I have to do my homework now? 38. The manager told me that I have to complete this project by Monday 39. You don t have to take a taxi; Dad will drive you to the airport. 40. We shall overcome all oppression someday. 41. Shall I open the door for you? 42. How shall I get to your house? 43. Shall we go to the theatre this evening? 44. He recommended that we should make an early start on our journey. 45. You should always do what your mother says. 46. The train should be here soon. It s already five minutes late. 47. You should tell me if you are going to be late. 48. Shop assistants should be polite to the customers. 49. I m sorry that you should feel that way. 50. If I won the lottery, I should buy a new house. 51. If he should turn up, tell him I ve gone home. 52. You should have called the police, but you didn t. 53. You will meet a tall, dark handsome man in the next few days. 54. The car just won t start. 55. He will keep smoking even though he knows I detest the habit. 56. She will always bring us flowers from her garden whenever she comes round. 57. If you will wash the dishes, I ll dry them.

3 58. Will you come to the party with me? 59. It will be fine tomorrow, according to the forecast. 60. It was in Paris where he had the idea that would make him a fortune. 61. Would you close the window, please? 62. If she would stop biting her nails, she could be a model. 63. We would spend all our holidays at the beach. 64. I would stay here forever if I didn t have to go back to work. 65. Shop assistants ought to be polite to the customers. 66. You ought to tell me if you are going to be late. 67. They ought to call us next. We got here before everyone else in the waiting room. 68. You ought to go to that new hairdresser s. 69. You ought to have called the police, but you didn t. 70. My brother needs to go to the library to get some information. 71. She doesn t need to do the shopping this week. 72. Need I dress smartly? (Do I need to dress smartly) 73. You needn t buy any dog food, we ve got plenty. 74. You needn t take a taxi; Dad will drive you to the airport. 75. You needn t have called Tom; I spoke to him this morning. 76. He didn t need to stay in a hotel.

4 Modal verb CAN Note on usage Infinitive form if needed = to be able to Meanings Ability Negative certainty Negative logical assumptions (CAN T) Theoretical possibility General possibility, also in questions Habitual possibility Giving permission Offering Requesting Ordering Prohibition (Negative sentences) it s forbidden to do Sth; you are not allowed to do Sth; It s against the rules/law to do Sth. COULD Not used for specific ability in past (i.e. when meaning = managed to) must then use was/were able to General ability in the past Negative certainty Negative logical assumptions (COULDN T) Conditional (=would be able to) Weak possibility likely, perhaps (in a specific situation), also in questions Asking for permission (not giving it) Offering Requesting Criticism - To criticize someone else s actions in the present (It would be COULD + PERFECT INFINITIVE Possibility - It was possible but it didn t happen - Refers to the past. Criticism - To criticize someone else s actions in the past. (It would have been better if you had, but you didn t)) MAY Possibility likely, perhaps (in a specific situation). Never in questions. Permission - Asking for and giving (rather formal) MIGHT Permission - Asking for permission (Not giving it) Possibility (less possible than May) likely, perhaps (in a specific situation), also in questions. Criticism - To criticize someone else s actions in the present (It would be MIGHT + PERFECT INFINITIVE Criticism - To criticize someone else s actions in the past. (It would have been better if you had, but you didn t)) MUST Infinitive form if needed = to have to Obligation It s your duty; you re obliged to do Sth. Necessity - When the speaker decides that Sth. Is necessary. Deduction Positive logical assumptions Asking questions = Do you insist? Prohibition (Negative sentences) it s forbidden to do Sth; you are not allowed to do Sth; It s against the rules/law to do Sth. HAVE TO Necessity It s necessary to do Sth. Obligation Sb. else other than the speaker has made the decision) Asking questions = is it necessary? Absence of necessity It isn t necessary to do Sth. (don t/doesn t have to) Absence of necessity It wasn t necessary to do Sth. and we don t know if he/she did it. (didn t have to) SHALL Now used only with I and WE Simple future Offering Suggesting Requesting Requesting instructions or advice

5 Modal verb Note on usage Meanings SHOULD Expressing conditional (1 st person) After IF or IN CASE (with any person) to indicate less strong possibility Advising Strong Probability (It s logical) After various adjectives which stress personal reaction or attitude After a number of verbs, e.g. suggest, insist, to stress that something is important Obligation (Duty) Less emphatic than MUST Criticism - To criticize someone else s actions in the present (It would be SHOULD + PERFECT INFINITIVE Criticism - To criticize someone else s actions in the past. (It would have been better if you had, but you didn t) WILL Used with 2 nd and 3 rd persons and also increasingly, with I and WE Simple future Predicting Willingness Polite invitations and requests Refusals Habits, characteristic behaviour Criticizing (when will is stressed) WOULD Conditional Talking about the future in the past Past habits, characteristic behaviour Polite requests Willingness (after I wish, If) OUGHT TO The only modal used with TO Advising Strong probability (It s logical) Obligation (Duty) Less emphatic than MUST Criticism - To criticize someone else s actions in the present (It would be OUGHT TO + PERFECT INFINITIVE Criticism - To criticize someone else s actions in the past. (It would have been better if you had, but you didn t) NEED It can be used as a main verb or a modal verb with no difference in meaning. When it is used as a main verb it is followed by a TO infinitive and takes s in the third person singular. We form questions and negations with do/does Necessity Absence of necessity It isn t necessary to do Sth. (needn t/don t have to/ don t need to) Absence of necessity It wasn t necessary to do Sth. and we don t know if he/she did it. (didn t need to/didn t have to) Absence of necessity It wasn t necessary to do Sth. but it was done. (needn t + present perfect) Modal Verbs have a number of things in common. They are all used with the main verbs to add something about the speaker s attitude to the meaning of the main verb. They are all the same in all persons (i.e. They have no third person singular s) None of them use do to form their questions or negatives. They are followed by the infinitive without to of other verbs (except for ought to) Write sentences about a sport you know using the following modals. Will Would Should Ought Must May Can Might

6 Complete the sentences using must, have to, may, might, could or can t. 1. Perhaps Tom will work late tonight. Tom 2. It s possible that Mary is trying to call us. Mary 3. The students are obliged to finish the test in one hour. The students 4. It s possible that Mum is working in the garden. Mum 5. I m sure Rachel is hungry. Rachel 6. Perhaps Dad will take us out to dinner. Dad 7. I m sure Lucy hasn t reached the station yet. Lucy 8. It is necessary for Grandma to take her medication every morning. Grandma 9. It s likely that they have gone to the supermarket. They 10. I m certain Bob didn t leave the party early. Bob

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