Section 1. Geography Origins of Rome Republic Punic Wars

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1 Ancient Rome BCE-CE The Romans knew how to govern people, establish legal structures and construct roads that took them to the ends of their known world 1

2 Section 1 Geography Origins of Rome Republic Punic Wars 2

3 Geography Middle of the Mediterranean Larger and more arable land than Greece- mts north and south River valleys- Po in the North, Tiber in middle of boot Rome - inland accessible by boatdefensible,on Seven Hills 3

4 Origins of Rome Legend: Romulus and Remus raised by shewolf 733bce traced boundaries with plow Later: Virgil s Aeneus, hero of Troy, roams the Med looking for a home Reality: Etruscans (Northern Italy), Latin's (Rome), and Greeks (Sicily) first to settle. 4

5 People and Government Rome was considered a Republic where the people vote for their leaders. This type of Government is very close to the USA. Plebeians are the regular people of Rome Patricians are the rich decision makers in Rome 5

6 Meanwhile, back in Rome, the importance of citizenship gradual struggle between the patrician and plebeian classes 2 consuls and Senate made up of patricians The popular assembly established with a representative tribune- veto power 450 BCE 12 Tables Roman Law codified Result- increase of privileges for plebes 6

7 The Punic Wars BCE Rome vs Phoenician s (Carthagianan) Major rival in Med- Phoenician Carthage First Punic War copied Ships and fought in Sicily Second Punic war Hannibal 216 Battle of Cannae on main land Italy Third- treaty infringement trumped up Cato s speech Carthage was destroyed Result Rome now the POWER in the Mediterranean 7

8 Section 2 Fall of the Republic Rise of the Empire Rise of Augustus Roman World Slavery in Rome Good the Bad the Ugly Emperors 8

9 Struggles Continue in the Republic Graft, corruption, struggle between patrician and plebeians Gracchi Brothers Tiberias and Gaius tried to help the plebeians. Marius consul 6 x Sulla- general seized Rome in 82 BCE restored power to Senate set precedent 9

10 Republic s Last Gasp First Triumvirate Julius Caesar, Pompey, Crassus Julius Caesar challenges the Senate with his Army from Britain as they cross the Rubicon River to take control 10

11 Caesar takes Power and Reforms Grants Citizenship to provinces. Expanded the Senate, to add his friends Created jobs through construction projects Started colonies so people without land could gain land 11

12 New Government After the fear of Caesar s power growing out of control. 44 BCE assassinated Caesar is assassinated as he address the Senate, Second Triumvirate Octavius, Marc Antony, Lepidus Battle of Actium 31 BCE End of an era 12

13 The Roman Empire Caesar Augustus- purpose to restore the republic 27 BC Augustus become First Citizen Princeps ended strife- beginning of Pax Romanae tried to impact life- morality, building sculpture- deified him, literature as well Consolidation- of power/ Senate limited SPQR Senatus Populusque Romanus- banner 13

14 The Roman World Expanding the Empire, while expanding trade Politically - emperor/ dictatorship Extended Roman citizenship as they spread The Roman family- gradual less influence for fathers family strong unit- run like the state women become more independent- socially and ownership politically active as wives of emperors 14

15 The Roman World (cont) Golden Age (Pax Romana)- literature Horace, Virgil, Ovid and Livy Religion- state religion, Roman gods reflected Greek emperor became divine connection to gods tolerant of other religions Mithras, Persian god of light Christianity- And there went out a decree from Caesar Augustus persecutions not as many as thought- made stronger sometimes combined with others- e.g. Celtic gods 15

16 Slavery in the Roman World Important to building projects and way of life Conquests supplied slaves so came from all over Not related to ethnicity or skin color Rebellions like Sparticus 73BCE occurred- Crassius 16

17 The Roman Provinces- still impacted Gaul- France today- many roads, aqueducts, theaters The Rhine- no border- Trier and Wiesbaden Britain- difficult place, Bath and Hadrian s wall Palestine- Masada- rebellion and magnificent cities like Baalbek Africa- riches of Egypt and the granary of the Empire 17

18 The Roman Emperors- the Good, Bad and Ugly Good- Marcus Aurelius-phil citizen of the world Calm and unified- Trajan, Hadrian, walls and rebels Bad- Caligula- named horse consul, Commodus, fought gladiators with blunted weapons, Nero, mass murder- inc his mother, pregnant wife, brother Many later emperors were generals- most powerful could become emperor 18

19 Section 3 Christianity in Rome 19

20 Christianity and Rome Helped Christianity spread- communication Appeal- unrest, questioning of polytheism explained spiritual aspects, Christ s teachings emphasis of eternal life community exclusive (mystery religion) Persecution- under Nero, blamed for fire mostly tolerant, Christians refused to worship state Effect- spread slowly- letters formed NT officially tolerated 313 Edict of Milan 20

21 Section 4 Rome Falls Empire splits Enemies at the Gates 21

22 Why a Roman Fall Instability caused by no real plan of succession (Inflation) Trouble on the borders Morally bankrupt? Division of Empire- Diocletian 22

23 Empire Splits Emperor Constantine splits the empire in two. Western Rome with the City of Rome as its Center, and Eastern Rome (Byzantine) with Constantinople as its center and Rome s Capital city. This weakens the western and they begin to fall. 23

24 The Barbarians at the Gates Pressure from Germanic tribes looking for safety Huns pressured the Visogoths-410- ran into the empire Vandals sacked Rome Series of invasions- physical damage, but also intellectual established German kingdoms in Westilliterate,look at art The East survives- becomes Byzantium- keeps the learning from the ancient world 24

25 Section 5 Culture Legacy Inventions 25

26 Greco-Roman Culture This is a mix of the Greek and Roman Cultures which is to be the base for the Western World (USA). 26

27 The Roman legacy- writing and the law Romans wrote down everything in the building block for later written languages Latin. some consider case law most important legacy- took idea that a written law can protect one person from another- put it into practice- Because it s the laws means something to us- not necessarily in other cultures. Virgil wrote the Aeneid (the Iliad), Tacitus wrote of the History of Rome and gave realistic accounts 27

28 The Roman Builders- All over the Empire Amazing accomplishments- Roads that still last Aqueducts- bringing water to every important city Temples for the gods- copied Greek style- massive Forum- public area of the city- center- oration etc. Theaters- for entertainment- drama Coliseums- more fun, fights, gladiators, animals Baths- public places- series of rooms dif temps 28

29 Byzantines Justinian Fall of Byzantines Religion 29

30 Byzantines Justinian was a powerful king. Wrote the Justinian Code-5,000 roman Laws. Justinian known for rebuilding the Empire. 30

31 Fall of Byzantines Outbreak of the Plague Was attacked by native people on all sides Slowly shrank until it was taken by invaders from the East. 31

32 Religious Byzantines were a Christian State. Lead to the separation of the Eastern and Western Orthodox Churches. 32

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