WORLD HISTORY CHAPTER 5 THE ROMANS

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1 WORLD HISTORY CHAPTER 5 THE ROMANS

2 BOARD QUESTIONS WHY WERE THE GRACCHUS BROTHERS KILLED? WHO WAS MARIUS? WHY IS SULLA IMPORTANT? WHO WAS IN THE FIRST TRIUMVIRATE? WHO WAS IN THE SECOND TRIUMVIRATE?

3 TERMS AND PEOPLE TO KNOW LATINS ETRUSCANS LIVY HANNIBAL ROME SICILY

4 TERMS AND PEOPLE TO KNOW CARTHAGE ALPS REPUBLIC PATRICIAN PLEBEIAN CONSUL PRAETOR

5 ROMAN REPUBLIC THE AREA KNOWN AS ITALY WAS RULED BY 7 KINGS IN THE BEGINNING A GROUP WHO CALLED THEMSELVES ROMANS CONQUERED THE AREA AND TURNED IT INTO A ROMAN REPUBLIC. MEANING THAT NOT A MONARCH BUT CERTAIN CITIZENS RAN THE GOVERNMENT.

6 ROMAN REPUBLIC ROME WAS SUCCESSFUL BECAUSE IT ALLOWED THE CONQUERED PEOPLE TO KEEP THEIR BELIEFS. IT ENCOURAGED A SENCE OF DUTY, COURAGE AND DISCIPLINE. THEY WERE VERY DIPLOMATIC. ALLOWING CONQUERED STATES TO RUN THEIR OWN AFFAIRS.

7 ROMAN REPUBLIC THE ROMANS ALSO EXCELLED A MILITARY MATTERS. THEY FOUGHT WITH A LOT OF HEART AND DISCIPLINE. THEY WERE BRILLIANT STRATEGISTS. THEY BUILT ROADS TO UNIFY THEIR LANDS TO INCREASE TRADE AND TROOP MOBILITY.

8 ROMAN GOVERNMENT PATRICIANS - WERE LARGE LANDOWNERS WHO BECAME ROMES RULING CLASS. THEY WERE THE MOST WEALTHY. PLEBEIANS - WERE CRAFTSPEOPLE, MERCHANTS, AND SMALL FARM OWNERS WHO MADE UP A LARGE GROUP OF CITIZENS. THESE TWO GROUPS MADE UP THE CITIZENS OF ROME.

9 ROMAN GOVERNMENT CONSULS - TWO CITIZENS WERE CHOSEN EVERY YEAR TO RUN THE GOVERNMENT AND LEAD THE ROMAN ARMY INTO BATTLE. PRAETORS - WERE ADDED AS A JUDGE TO HEAR CASES WERE NON CITIZENS WERE INVOLVED.

10 ROMAN GOVERNMENT TWELVE TABLES - THE FIRST ROMAN CODE OF LAWS. WHICH WAS POSTED IN THE CENTER OF TOWN FOR EVERYONE TO SEE. LAW OF NATIONS - STANDARD OF LAW DEVISED BY REASONING TO WOULD APPLY TO ALL PEOPLE LIVING UNDER ROMAN RULE.

11 THE FIRST PUNIC WAR 264 B.C.E - ROME VS. CARTHAGE ROME SENT AN ARMY TO SICILY AND THE CARTHAGINIANS BELIEVED SICILY WAS PART OF THEIR EMPIRE. THE ROMANS WERE STRONG ON LAND BUT HAD A WEAK NAVY. IN ORDER TO BEAT CARTHAGE THEY HAD TO BUILD A LARGE NAVY. WHICH TOOK MANY YEARS.

12 THE FIRST PUNIC WAR 241 B.C.E - AFTER A LONG STRUGGLE THE CARTHAGINIANS SURRENDER SICILY AND PAY A FINE TO ROME. SICILY BECOMES THE FIRST PROVINCE OF ROME.

13 2ND PUNIC WAR CARTHAGE VOWED REVENGE AND BEGAN TO ADD NEW LANDS IN SPAIN. THE ROMANS ENCOURAGED ONE OF CARTHAGE S SPANISH ALLIES TO REVOLT AGAINST CARTHAGE. HANNIBAL THE GREATEST CARTHAGINIAN GENERAL STRUCK BACK BEGINNING THE 2ND WAR.

14 2ND PUNIC WAR HANNIBAL MOVED HIS 46,OOO SOLDIERS EAST FROM SPAIN THROUGH THE ALPS TO ROME. WHICH INCLUDED A LARGE NUMBER OF HORSES AND 37 WAR ELEPHANTS. THE ALPS PAID A LARGE TOLL ON THE CARTHAGINIAN ARMY KILLING MOST OF THE WAR ELEPHANTS. AFTER MAKING IT THROUGH THE ALPS THE CARTHAGINIANS THREATENED ROME.

15 2ND PUNIC WAR THE ROMANS DECIDE TO ME HANNIBAL S ARMY HEAD ON. A MISTAKE WHICH LEADS TO THE LOSS OF 40,000 ROMAN SOLDIERS. THE CARTHAGINIANS WERE NOT STRONG ENOUGH TO TAKE LARGE CITIES IN ROME AND THE ROMANS WERE NOT STRONG ENOUGH TO DEFEAT HANNIBAL.

16 2ND PUNIC WAR THE ROMANS GRADUALLY BEGIN TO REBUILD AND SEND SOLDIERS TO SPAIN PUSHING CARTHAGE OUT OF SPAIN. THEN IN A BRILLIANT PLAN ROMAN INVADES CARTHAGE. WHICH FORCED HANNIBAL TO GO BACK TO TRY AND PROTECT HIS HOME LAND. ROME CRUSHES HANNIBAL S FORCES AND ENDING THE WAR IN 202 B.C.E.

17 2ND PUNIC WAR SPAIN BECOMES A ROMAN PROVINCE. MAKING ROME THE MOST DOMINANT POWER IN THE WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN.

18 3RD PUNIC WAR ROMAN CITIZENS FOR A NUMBER OF YEARS AFTER THE 2ND PUNIC WAR CALLED FOR THE TOTAL DESTRUCTION OF CARTHAGE. IN 146 B.C.E THE ROMANS DESTROY CARTHAGE. FOR 10 DAYS ROMAN SOLDIERS BURNED AND DEMOLISHED CARTHAGE.

19 3RD PUNIC WAR THE 50,000 INHABITANTS OF CARTHAGE MEN, WOMEN, AND CHILDREN WERE SOLD INTO SLAVERY. CARTHAGE BECAME A ROMAN PROVINCE CALLED AFRICA.

20 ROMAN CONQUESTS IN 148 B.C.E ROME CONQUERED MACEDONIA. IN 146 B.C.E ROME CONQUERED GREECE. IN 129 B.C.E ROME CONQUERED PERGAMUM. MAKING ROME THE MASTER OF THE MEDITERRANEAN SEA.

21 BOARD QUESTIONS WHAT STARTED THE FIRST PUNIC WAR? HOW DID THE ROMANS WIN THE SECOND PUNIC WAR? WHAT IS A CONSUL? WHAT ARE THE TWO SOCIAL CLASSES OF ROME?

22 FROM REPUBLIC TO EMPIRE THE SENATE IN THE SECOND AND THIRD CENTURIES B.C.E BECAME THE CONTROLLING BODY OF ROME. SENATORS WERE FROM THE RICH LANDOWNING ARISTOCRACY. THEY WERE SENATORS FOR LIFE. CONTROLLING EVERY ASPECT OF ROMAN LIFE.

23 FROM REPUBLIC TO EMPIRE MANY SMALL FARMERS COULD NOT COMPETE WITH THE LARGE FARMS AND LOST EVERYTHING. THEIR FARMS BECAME PUBLIC LAND THAT WAS THEN BOUGHT BY THE LARGE FARMERS. (SENATORS) THE FARMERS WHO LOST THEIR LAND WOULD THEN MOVE TO ROME.

24 FROM REPUBLIC TO EMPIRE TWO BROTHERS TIBERIUS AND GAIUS GRACCHUS THOUGHT THAT ROMES GROWING PROBLEMS CAME FROM THESE SMALL FARMS BEING LOST. SO THEY BELIEVED THE LARGE FARMERS SHOULD GIVE THE PUBLIC LAND BACK TO THE SMALL FARMERS.

25 FROM REPUBLIC TO EMPIRE WHEN THE BROTHERS TRIED TO PASS A LAW MAKING THE LARGE LAND OWNERS GIVE UP THE PUBLIC LAND. THE SOME LARGE LANDOWNERS BEING SENATORS WERE OUTRAGED AND PAID PEOPLE TO KILL THE BROTHERS.

26 FROM REPUBLIC TO EMPIRE IN 107 B.C.E MARIUS CONSUL OF ROME BEGAN TO RECUIT MEMBERS OF HIS ARMY A DIFFERENT WAY. HE BEGAN TO TAKE NONE LANDOWNERS AS MEMBERS OF HIS ARMY TO GET THEM OFF THE STREETS OF ROME. THEY WOULD DO ANYTHING FOR MARIUS BECAUSE HE WOULD SHARE THE SPOILS OF WAR WITH THEM.

27 FROM REPUBLIC TO EMPIRE CONSUL SULLA ALSO TOOK ADVANTAGE OF THE NEW MILITARY SYSTEM WHEN HE TOOK COMAND OF THE WAR IN ASIA. THE CONCIL TRIED TO LATER TAKE THAT COMMAND FROM SULLA AND GIVE IT TO MARIUS. SULLA WAS OUTRAGED AND ATTACKED MARIUS ARMY AND TOOK CONTROL OF ROME ITSELF.

28 FROM REPUBLIC TO EMPIRE SULLA BELIEVED HE WAS DOING WHAT WAS BEST FOR ROME. BUT WHAT HE DID WAS SHOW OTHER ROMAN GENERALS HOW EASY IT WAS TO TAKE OVER ROME.

29 FIRST TRIUMVIRATE CRASSUS - RICHEST MAN IN ROME POMPEY - MILITARY GENERAL IN SPAIN JULIUS CAESAR - MILITARY GENERAL IN SPAIN AND WAR HERO. ONCE IN POWER POMPEY AND CAESAR DON T NEED CRASSUS. THEN POMPEY AND CAESAR DON T WANT TO SHARE POWER. CAESAR WINS THE BATTLE.

30 FIRST TRIUMVIRATE CAESAR BECOMES LEADER OF ROME. HE IS THEN KILLED BY A CLOSE FRIEND WHO BELIEVED CAESAR HAD TO MUCH POWER.

31 SECOND TRIUMVIRATE LEPIDUS - WEAK BUT HAD THE FAVOR OF THE PEOPLE ANTONY - CAESAR S ASSISTANT, VERY RELIABLE. OCTAVIAN (AUGUSTUS) - CAESAR S HEIR AND GRANDNEPHEW.

32 SECOND TRIUMVIRATE LIKE THE FIRST TRIUMVIRATE THE TWO STRONG LEADERS PUSHED OUT THE WEAK. AUGUSTUS TOOK THE WESTERN PART OF THE EMPIRE. ANTONY TOOK THE EASTERN PART OF THE EMPIRE.

33 SECOND TRIUMVIRATE ANTONY ALLIED HIMSELF WITH CLEOPATRA QUEEN OF EGYPT. BUT THE TWO COULD NOT DEFEAT AUGUSTUS. BOTH ANTONY AND CLEOPATRA COMMITTED SUICIDE.

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