How can we tell what the weather will be?

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1 Lesson 1 The Atmosphere and Weather Lesson 2 Clouds and Precipitation Lesson 3 Severe Storms Lesson 4 Climate How can we tell what the weather will be?

2 insolation troposphere weather air pressure humidity global wind barometer

3 How does the Sun warm Earth? 180 sunlight 150 sunlight 120 sunlight 90 sunlight

4 What are the layers of the atmosphere? thermosphere mesosphere stratosphere troposphere

5 What changes air pressure? volume temperature height above Earth s surface amount of water vapor lower air pressure at top of mountain higher air pressure at sea level

6 What are global winds? polar easterlies prevailing westerlies trade winds Key heated air cooled air wind trade winds prevailing westerlies polar easterlies

7 What are local winds? sea breeze day Key warm air land breeze day cold air

8 How do we measure air pressure and wind? anemometer aneroid barometer

9 Main Idea What causes winds? Heat energy from the Sun causes changes in air pressure. High-pressure air moves toward low-pressure air. The moving air is wind.

10 Vocabulary The condition of the troposphere at a particular time and place is called. Air pressure is the force put on a given area by the weight of the air above it. Insolation is the solar energy that reaches a planet. air pressure insolation weather

11 Vocabulary Global winds blow steadily over long distances in a predictable direction. Humidity is the amount of water vapor in air. The is the layer of gases closest to Earth s surface. A measures atmospheric pressure. barometer global winds humidity troposphere

12 Compare and Contrast How does the heat energy over an area at the equator compare to an area at the poles? Heat energy strikes Earth more directly at the equator. The Sun creates heat energy. Heat energy is spread over a greater area at the poles. End of Lesson

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20 air mass front weather map

21 How do clouds form? cumulus clouds cirrus clouds Clouds form when water vapor in the air cools and condenses around tiny particles of dust stratus clouds

22 How does precipitation form? rain sleet hail snow

23 What are air masses and fronts? mp cp mt ct maritime polar cool, moist air continental polar cold, dry air maritime tropical warm, moist air continental tropical hot, dry air

24 What are highs and lows? Low-pressure Systems High-pressure Systems warmer, humid air colder, drier air

25 What do weather maps tell you? A weather map shows the weather in a specific area at a specific time.

26 Main Idea What can water vapor form? Water vapor can form clouds, fog, rain, hail, sleet, or snow.

27 Vocabulary An is a large region of air that has a similar temperature and humidity. A shows the weather in a specific area at a specific time. A is the meeting place between two different large air masses. air mass front weather map

28 Draw Conclusions What type of cloud is a blanket-like layer of low-altitude clouds? blanket-like layer at low altitude This is a stratus cloud. End of Lesson

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34 thunderstorm blizzard tornado hurricane storm surge cyclone

35 What are thunderstorms? A thunderstorm is a rainstorm that includes lightning and thunder Fronts 2 3 Thunderheads Precipitation 1

36 What are winter storms? In the United States, a blizzard is a snowstorm with 35- mile-per-hour winds and enough snowfall that you can only see up to one quarter of a mile.

37 What are tornados? A tornado is a rotating, funnel-shaped cloud with wind speed up to 500 kilometers (300 miles) per hour.

38 What are hurricanes? A hurricane is a very large, swirling storm with very low pressure at the center, and wind speeds greater than 119 km/h.

39 How are storms tracked? Doppler radar weather balloons airplane

40 Main Idea What causes storms? Storms are caused by the collision of air masses that have different characteristics.

41 Vocabulary A is a snowstorm with 35-mile-perhour winds and enough snowfall that you can only see up to one quarter of a mile. Hurricane winds can cause waves to form a bulge of water in the ocean known as a. A is any storm with a low-pressure center that causes a circular pattern of winds to form. blizzard cyclone storm surge

42 Vocabulary A is a tropical storm that has wind speeds that reach more than 119 kilometers (74 miles) per hour. A is a rainstorm that includes lightning and thunder. A is a rotating, funnel-shaped cloud with wind speeds up to 500 kilometers (300 miles) per hour. tornado thunderstorm hurricane

43 Cause and Effect What causes a hurricane to form? warm water evaporates warm, moist air rises The air begins to rotate and forms wind. warm, moist air rises cooler air flows toward the space where warm air was Wind speed increases to more than 74 miles per hour. End of Lesson

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50 climate current rain shadow El Niño

51 What is climate? Climate means the average weather of a place.

52 What affects climate? distance from water ocean currents winds altitude mountain ranges

53 What is El Niño? normal conditions El Niño conditions La Niña conditions El Niño occurs every two to seven years when the cold current sinks and stops pushing cold water up to the surface.

54 Main Idea How is climate determined? Climate is determined by looking at the average weather patterns in an area or the type of plant growth in an area.

55 Vocabulary Every two to seven years, the cold current sinks and stops pushing cold water up to the surface causing a change in weather conditions known as. Climate is the average weather of a place. A is a constant movement of ocean water. A is the dry area on the leeward side of the moutain. climate current El Niño rain shadow

56 Classify If data showed the cold current along the coast of Peru moved closer to the surface, which weather condition is happening? Weather dry weather in South America wet weather in Australia Weather Condition air pressure increases in the western Pacific air pressure decreases in the eastern Pacific End of Lesson

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