Britain s colonisation

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1 THE BRITISH EMPIRE

2 Britain s colonisation The British Empire was the biggest empire in the history. Large areas of North America, Australia, Africa and Asia were part of it. Britain s colonisation began in 16 th century and by the 19 th century it owned one quarter of the word s land. It was always day time in one of the British colonies so people said: The sun never sets on British Empire!

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4 What is a colony? Colonies were areas ruled by a governor of the British government and representing the Crown. The governor was responsible to the Colonial Office in London. He usually had powers. These were the most common form of imperial control.

5 First English colonies The first English colonies were formed in north America: in 1607 Captain John Smith founded a permanent colony at Jamestown in Virginia. After 1612, the East India Company began to build up a small empire of trading posts in India. The first successful English colonies in the West Indies were founded in the 1620s. The settlers set up sugar and tobacco plantations and used slave labour.

6 The British Empire made Britain rich because it controlled all trade with its colonies. They imported raw materials, transformed them into goods and then they sold the goods in their colonies.

7 East India Company It was a company created for the exploitation of the trade with Asia and India, particularly of spice trade. It acted as an agent of British imperialism in India from the early 18th century to the mid- 19th century.

8 The Seven Years war Seven Years war between France and Britain 1783 Treaty of Paris Britain gained a number of new colonies in North and Central America (Canada, Dominica, )

9 Local people s conditions But conditions for the local people in the colonies weren t good. They had to work long hours and they didn t earn a lot of money. They didn t participate in the local decisions. There were often rebellions in the colonies against the British and many people died in the oppression.

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11 Slave trade European countries forced Africans onto slave ships and transported them across the Atlantic Ocean. The first European nation to engage in the Transatlantic Slave Trade was Portugal. Captain John Hawkins made the first known English slaving voyage to Africa, in 1562, in the reign of Elizabeth I. The establishment of the Royal African Company in 1672 formalised the Slave Trade under a royal charter and gave a monopoly to the port of London. This Slave Trade was the richest part of Britain's trade in the 18th century.

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13 Triangular trade Stage 1: from Britain to Africa Slave ships leave Britain with goods. In Africa they exchanged goods for men and women who became slaves. Stage 2: from Africa to America Ships full of slaves sailed from Africa. In America they were sold and they worked in plantations. Stage 3: from America to Britain With the money made from the sale of Africans, raw materials such as sugar, coffee and tobacco were bought and carried back to Britain for sale.

14 Britain raw materials goods America Africa slaves

15 Independence Many British colonies demanded their political and economic independence. Some of them left the Empire peacefully. In other countries years of conflicts began.

16 In North America Americans did not want to pay taxes to Britain. In 1776, thirteen American colonies joined together to form the United States of America and declare themselves independent from Britain. Britain sent troops to fight them in a war. France, Spain and the Netherlands fought with America. Britain lost the Battle of Yorktown in America was no longer ruled by the British King, George III, and George Washington became the first president.

17 In India In India one local leader, Gandhi, became very famous for his peaceful protest against Britain. He was against the oppression and injustice of the British occupation of India.

18 The Commonwealth The British Empire was replaced by an organisation of colonies called the Commonwealth: In 1926, the British government agreed the Balfour Declaration: Canada, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa were completely independent countries, "freely associated as members of the British Commonwealth of Nations". In 1947, India and Pakistan were independent. In 1973, Britain joined the European Economic Community and became part of a trading community based on free trade between the countries of Europe.

19 from Britain to colonies Many people left Britain and went to live in the colonies. They took their religion, language and social structures with them. English became a global language ENGLISH BECAME A GLOBAL LANGUAGE Today about 1.5 billion people around the world speak English.

20 from colonies to Britain Many people left Britain and went to live in the colonies. They took their religion, language and social structures with them. BRITAIN HAS A MULTICULTURAL SOCIETY Today there are large Indian, African and Caribbean communities in the UK.

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