# Calculus for Middle School Teachers. Problems and Notes for MTHT 466

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1 Calculus for Middle School Teachers Problems and Notes for MTHT 466 Bonnie Saunders Fall

2 I Infinity Week 1 How big is Infinity? Problem of the Week: The Chess Board Problem There once was a humble servant who was also a chess master He taught his king to play the game of chess The king became fascinated by the game and offered the servant gold or jewels payment, but the servant replied that he only wanted rice: one grain for the first square of chess board, two on the second, four on the third, and so on with each square receiving twice as much as the previous square The king quickly agreed How much rice does the king owe the chess master? Suppose it was your job to pick up the rice What might you use to collect it? A grocery sack, a wheelbarrow, or perhaps a Mac truck? Where might you store the rice? 1 What is the largest number your calculator will display? 2 What is the largest integer your calculator will display that has a 9 in the one s place? What happens if you add 1 to this number? 3 What is the largest number you can think of? Write it down, then write down a larger one 4 (TEACHING PROJECT) Writing big numbers is made simpler by the use of exponents Discuss definitions and basic rules for working with positive exponents 5 The following are common errors made by middle school students when dealing with exponents Identify the error Why do you think the student made the error? Write a "teacher" explanation, using the basic rules of exponents, to help the students see the correct use of exponents a) = b) (5 2 ) 3 = 5 8 c) = 9 5 d) (2 + 3) 2 = Problems and Notes for MTHT 466 Saunders

3 Sets of numbers N = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, }, Natural numbers W = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, }, Whole numbers I = { 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, }, Integers Q = { m : m I, n I, n 0}, Rational numbers n Numbers that can be expressed as a ratio of two integers R, Real numbers 6 Something to think about: Are there signs or more \$ signs? How do you tell @ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ Definition of a one-to-one correspondence A one-to-one correspondence between sets A and B is a pairing of each object in A with one and only one object in B Counting Finite sets that can be put into a one-to-one correspondence necessarily have the same number of elements A set that contains n objects can be put into a one-to-one correspondence with the set that contains the first n natural numbers The process of making this particular one-to-one correspondence is called counting When a child understands one to one correspondence, the child is ready to count 7 Give examples of pairs of sets that can be put into one-to-one correspondence Give examples of pairs of sets that can NOT be put into one-to-one correspondence Problems and Notes for MTHT 466 Saunders

4 8 Give an example of a pair of sets and two different ways that the two sets can be put into one-to-one correspondence Infinite sets Sets with an infinite number of elements can be put into a one-to-one correspondence by using patterns or formulas 9 Give an example of a pair of sets that have an infinite number of elements that can be put into one-to-one correspondence 10 In what sense can we say that there are the same number of even whole numbers as there are whole numbers? In what sense can we say that there are twice as many whole numbers as even whole numbers? Problems and Notes for MTHT 466 Saunders

5 11 In some sense, there is one more whole number than there are natural numbers Explain the sense in which W and N contain the same number of numbers, that is show a one-to-one correspondence between these two sets Cardinality If there is any way to put two sets into a one-to-one correspondence, we say that they have the same cardinality We might say that the two sets have the same number of elements, but that is imprecise unless the set is finite 12 Show a one-one-correspondence between N and each of the following sets Show a pattern by making a table and use a formula a) the set of odd positive integers b) the set of negative integers c) the set of positive integers that are divisible by 3 d) the set of powers of 10, that is {1, 10, 100, 1000, } Problems and Notes for MTHT 466 Saunders

6 13 Show a one-one-correspondence between W and each of the sets in problem 12 a) the set of odd positive integers b) the set of negative integers c) the set of positive integers that are divisible by 3 d) the set of powers of 10, that is {1, 10, 100, 1000, } 14 CLASS DISCUSSION Are there more rational numbers than whole numbers? Discuss Problems and Notes for MTHT 466 Saunders

7 Handout Dodge Ball 15 Write a short paragraph explaining the strategies for Player One and Player Two in the game of Dodge Ball 16 CLASS DISCUSSION Are there more real numbers than rational numbers? Problems and Notes for MTHT 466 Saunders

8 Sequences A sequence is a list of numbers They are often denoted with subscripts, a 0, a 1, a 2, a 3,, a n, Sequences continue forever so that there is a one-to-one correspondence with W The subscripts can also start with 1, instead of 0 (Or, in fact, any other integer, positive or negative) The subscript numbers are called term numbers In elementary school, sequences are written down in tables In middle school, children begin to learn how to write formulas for the numbers in the tables 17 Joe has 107 baseball cards Every week he buys 5 more cards How many cards does he have after 3 weeks? How many cards does he have after one year? Make a table to help see the pattern Write a formula to compute how many cards he has after any number of weeks Explain your formula Arithmetic Sequences: constant consecutive difference An arithmetic sequence is a sequence in which the difference between any two consecutive numbers in the sequence is constant Arithmetic sequences are important in high school mathematics because formulas for arithmetic sequences correspond to equations for straight lines The difference is that equations for straight lines use real numbers, not just integers, for the independent variable 18 Write down three or four examples of arithmetic sequences Write down three or four sequences that are not arithmetic sequences Use tables or lists and formulas Problems and Notes for MTHT 466 Saunders

9 19 Remember an example of an arithmetic sequence from MATH 140 or MATH 141 that was constructed using pictures or objects Make a table and write a formula for the sequence Using the calculator to make sequences There are several ways to make sequences on a graphing caculator One common way is to make a function on the screen and then to make a table 20 Enter a function, Y 1, in your calculator and use it to make the table you created in problem Enter a function, Y 1, in your calculator and use it to make a table containing the arithmetic sequence 3, 10, 17, 24, 31, Graph the function with a reasonable window and record it below Include the values for the window Problems and Notes for MTHT 466 Saunders

10 PRACTICE WITH LISTS 22 Make a list in your calculator containing the arithmetic sequence: a 0 = 5, a 1 = 2, a 2 = 1, a 3 = 4, What is the 1000 th term in this sequence? What is a 1000? Why are they not the same? 23 Make a list in your calculator containing each of these arithmetic sequences Graph your results and answer the question a) 05, 075, 10, 125, If 05 = a 0, what is the term number for 1075? b) 0, 18, 36, 54, What number in this sequence is closest in value to 10000? c) 159, 148, 137, 126, What is the first negative number in this sequence? Problems and Notes for MTHT 466 Saunders

11 d) Make up an arithmetic sequence such that the 95th term is 0 Show the graph e) Make up an arithmetic sequence such that the first term is 23 and the 15th term is 51 Do you think that everyone will make up the same sequence? f) Make up an arithmetic sequence such that the fifth term is 40 and the 9th term is 12 Do you think that everyone will make up the same sequence? Problems and Notes for MTHT 466 Saunders

12 24 Consider the Problem of the Week and make a table to see the pattern Write a formula to compute how many grains of sand there are on the nth square of the checkerboard Explain your formula Geometric Sequences: constant consecutive ratios A geometric sequence is a sequence in which the ratio between any two consecutive numbers is always the same The sequence you made in problem 24 is a geometric sequence The constant ratio is 2 25 Enter a function, Y 1, in your calculator and use it to make a table containing the geometric sequence 1, 2, 4, 8, 16,? Graph the function with a reasonable window and record it below Include the values for the window 26 Consider the sequence that is the reciprocals of the numbers in the sequence in problem 25: Graph it 1, 1 2, 1 4, 1 8, 1 16, What is the smallest number in this sequence that your calculator can display exactly? What is the exact decimal expansion for the next number in the sequence? Problems and Notes for MTHT 466 Saunders

13 MORE PRACTICE WITH LISTS 27 Make a list in your calculator containing each of these geometric sequences Make a function and a table for each one Plot and graph your results and answer the question a) 03, 009, 0027, 0081, What number in this sequence is closest in value to 10 10? b) 6, 18, 54, 162, What number in this sequence is closest in value to 10000? c) 15000, 3750, 9375, What is the first number in this sequence that is less than 1? Problems and Notes for MTHT 466 Saunders

14 d) Make up a geometric sequence such that the 15th term is 1 Do you think that everyone will make up the same sequence? e) Make up an geometric sequence such that the third term is 3 and the 7th term is 48 Do you think that everyone will make up the same sequence? Problems and Notes for MTHT 466 Saunders

15 Other Kind of Sequences 28 Decide on a likely pattern that continues each of these sequences Make a table on your calculator for each of these sequences Display the 500th term of each on your calculator and determine whether that value is exact or approximate (or too big or too small for your calculator to determine)? a) 1, 4, 9, 16, b) 1 2, 2 3, 3 4, 4 5, c) 0, 2, 6, 12, 20, Problems and Notes for MTHT 466 Saunders

16 d) 1 3, 1 9, 1 27, e) 10, 01, 001, 0001, 00001, f) 10, 089, 078, 067, Problems and Notes for MTHT 466 Saunders

17 29 Conjecture and prove a formula for the nth term of an arithmetic sequence Carefully describe all the variables in your formula 30 Conjecture and prove a formula for the nth term of a geometric sequence Carefully describe all the variables in your formula Problems and Notes for MTHT 466 Saunders

18 Week 2 How small is infinity? Limits Problem of the Week: A probability investigation Suppose we have a box containing 5 white balls, 3 black balls, and 2 red balls What is the probability that a ball, drawn at random, will be black? One at a time we add 3 balls - one of each color - to the box and recompute the probability of drawing a black ball Is it possible that the probability will ever be 1 3? What is the largest possible probability that can be realized? 31 What is the smallest positive number your calculator will display? 32 What is the number closest to 1 3 that your calculator will display? Is this number - the one displayed - greater than or less than 1 3? What is the difference between the two numbers? Write down a number that is closer to 1 3 than the one your calculator displays 33 Repeat all parts of problem 32 for What is the number closest to 2 that your calculator will display? Can you tell if this number - the one displayed - is greater than or less than 2? 35 Give an several examples of what is suggested by these rather imprecise statements: 1 = LIT T LE BIG 1 LIT T LE = BIG 1 = CLOSET O1 CLOSET O1 Problems and Notes for MTHT 466 Saunders

19 36 (TEACHING PROJECT) Writing small numbers is made simpler by the use of negative exponents Discuss definitions and basic rules for working with non-positive exponents Research: Find a reference for these definitions and rules from a book or on the internet 37 The following are common errors made by middle school students when dealing with negative exponents Identify the error Why do you think the student made the error? Write a "teacher" explanation, in terms of the definition of exponents, to help the students see the correct use of exponents a) < 1 b) = c) < 1 d) is not an integer e) > 1 Problems and Notes for MTHT 466 Saunders

20 Definition: lim n a n = 0 No matter how small a positive number you can think of, there is a value of n large enough so that 1 n is smaller than that number for every single value of n that is greater than N 38 Explain: For any integers, n and N, n N if and only if 1 n 1 N 1 39 Consider: lim = 0 Think of a very smaller number and call it e Find an integer N such that 1 < e? Think of an even smaller value for e and find N such that n n N 1 < e Identify a procedure for finding such an N given any e N Problems and Notes for MTHT 466 Saunders

21 Rules for working with limits The sub-sequence rule for working with limits If lim n a n = 0, then the limit of any subsequence is also 0 The squeeze rule for working with limits If 0 b n a n for all values of n and if lim n a n = 0, then lim n b n = 0 The multiplication rule for working with limits If lim n a n = 0 and c is some number, then lim n c a n = 0 40 Which rule tells you that the limit is equal to 0? a) lim n 10 n b) The sequence 03, 003, 0003, 00003, , 1 c) lim n n 3 41 Find three more examples of sequences that converge to 0 Problems and Notes for MTHT 466 Saunders

22 Zooming in Beckmann activities: 2D, 2H, 2J 42 Are there any real numbers contained in all of the intervals, [ 1 n, 1 n ], for all values of n? 43 Draw "zoom-in" picture for each of these sequences of nested interval problems In each case the nested intervals contain exactly one number What is that number? Give the value as a fraction of whole numbers, not a decimal a) [3, 4], [33, 34], [333, 334], b) The middle third of the middle third of the middle third of [0, 1] c) The first tenth of the last tenth of [0, 1], then the last tenth of that interval, then the first tenth of that interval, then the last tenth of that interval, Problems and Notes for MTHT 466 Saunders

23 Sequences and limits Definition: limits that are not zero If lim n a n a = 0, then we say that lim n a n = a for any positive integer m 44 Find an example for each of the following rules Rules for working with limits If lim n a n+m = a for some positive integer m, then lim n a n = a For any real number b, if lim n a n = a, then lim n a n + b = a + b For any real number c, if lim n a n = a, then lim n ca n = ca If lim n a n = a and lim n b n = b, then lim n a n + b n = a + b If lim n a n = a and lim n b n = b, then lim n a nb n = ab If lim a n = a and lim b a n n = b and if b 0, then lim = a n n n b n b If a n < b n for all values of n, then lim n a n lim n b n Problems and Notes for MTHT 466 Saunders

24 The Advanced Squeeze Rule for working with limits If a n b n c n for all values of n and if lim n a n = lim n c n = d, then lim n b n = d A sequence may no have a limit There are two ways by which a sequence may not have a limit 1 The terms in the sequence may increase (or decrease) beyond all bounds In this case, we would write lim a n = (or lim a n = ) Examples: 1, 2, 3, 4, (or 2, 4, 8, 16, ) n n 2 Two different subsequences may have different limits Example: 19, 499, 1999, 49999, , Give examples of sequences that do not have limits 46 Identify a pattern for each of the following sequences Identify the limit exactly and explain how you know it is the limit If there is no limit, explain why it doesn t exist a) 1, 1 2, 1 4, 1 8, b) 10, 01, 001, 0001, c) 61, 601, 6001, 60001, , d) 59, 599, 5999, 59999, e) 03, 033, 0333, 03333, , f) 1 2, 3 4, 7 8, 15 16, g) 1 2, 2 3, 3 4, 4 5, 5 6, h) 2, 3 2, 4 3, 5 4, Problems and Notes for MTHT 466 Saunders

25 i) 11, 19, 101, 199, 1001, 1999, j) 2 1 2, 3 1 3, 4 1 4, 5 1 5, k) 18, 188, 1888, 18888, 47 USING A CALCULATOR TO GUESS A LIMIT Find a pattern and use your calculator to guess whether or not there is a limit for each of these sequences and what the limit may be You should find more values of the sequence than those that appear on this page a) 1 2, 2 3, 3 5, 5 8, 8 13, b) 1 2, 1 2, 1 2, c) 2, 2 + 2, , d) a n = the fractional part of (375n) e) 4 2 2, , , f) 2 1, ( 3 2 )2, ( 4 3 )3, ( 5 4 )4, g) 2sin(90 ), 3sin(60 ), 4sin(45 ), 5sin(36 ), h) 4sin(90 ), 8sin(45 ), 16sin(225 ), i) 4tan(90 ), 8tan(45 ), 16tan(225 ), Problems and Notes for MTHT 466 Saunders

26 Week 3 Adding an infinity of numbers Problem of the Week: A nickel vs million It s your first day on a new job and you have your choice of two ways to be paid: METHOD #1: You get one nickel the first day From then on everyday you get one and one half times what you got the day before METHOD #2: You get a million dollars every day Which pay schedule would you choose and why? First some formulas for adding finite sums Handout Picture proofs 48 Confirm each of these formulas for n = 1 to n = 20 by making a table of values: n a) n = 1 2 n(n + 1) or k = 1 n(n + 1) 2 b) n 2 = 1 6 n(n + 1)(2n 1) or n k=1 k=1 k 2 = 1 n(n + 1)(2n 1) 6 c) n 1 = n 2 or n (2k 1) = n 2 k=1 49 Confirm each of this statements, guess a general formula, write it with summation notation Can you think of a picture proof for your formula? = = = Confirm each of this statements, guess a general formula, write it with summation notation Can you think of a picture proof for your formula? = = = Problems and Notes for MTHT 466 Saunders

27 Geometric Series Handout Hughes-Hallett: Section: 91: #15, #16, #17, #18 51 Draw a picture to show how to add an infinite number of numbers n + = 1 2 n n=1 52 Use base ten blocks to show that 03 = 1 3 How is this infinite series involved in your argument? n + = 3 10 n n=1 53 Give a convincing argument that 09 = 1 How is this infinite series involved in your argument? n + = 9 10 n n=1 Problems and Notes for MTHT 466 Saunders

28 54 Show that for any real number, x 1, N k=0 x k = 1 + x + x 2 + x x N = xn+1 1 x 1 Summing an infinite number of numbers We can compute the sum an infinite number of terms by taking limits, for example we say that x k = 1 + x + x 2 + x x N + = lim k=0 Looking at the result from 54 we can see that k=0 N x k N k=0 x k = 1 + x + x 2 + x x N x N = lim N x 1 Now we just take the limit as N If 0 x < 1, then the right is 1 1 x and we can have n=0 x n = 1 + x + x 2 + x 3 + x x n + = 1 1 x lim N xn = 0, so, in the end, the limit on You will see another formula that has another variable This formula comes about by multiplying everything by a constant, r rx n = r + rx + rx 2 + rx 3 + rx rx n + = r 1 x n=0 You can use these two formulas, or modify them slightly to do the next problem Problems and Notes for MTHT 466 Saunders

29 55 Write each series using summation notation and find the limit In each case the left hand problem gives you a formula to use for the right hand problem a) 1 + x + x 2 + x x n + = n + = b) x 3 + x x n + = = c) 1 + x 2 + x x 2n + = = d) x 3 + x 6 + x 9 + x 12 + = = Problems and Notes for MTHT 466 Saunders

30 56 Find the limit for n + Explain why your answer is the fraction form for the repeating decimal Find the fraction form for each of these repeating decimals a) 04 b) 036 c) 321 d) 5121 e) 3421 f) Problems and Notes for MTHT 466 Saunders

31 Using the calculator to compute other infinite sums 58 Other infinite sums may or may not have limits like the geometric series does Use your calculator (or other means) to conjecture whether or not any of these infinite sums are finite a) n + = b) = c) n(n + 1) = d) n + = e) n 2 n + = f) n = Problems and Notes for MTHT 466 Saunders

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