DIGITAL GURUKUL STUDY NOTES CHAPTER 4 - AGRICULTURE

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1 DIGITAL GURUKUL STUDY NOTES CHAPTER 4 - AGRICULTURE Q.1 Explain the three types of economic activities? 1) Primary activities:-it include all the activities connected with extraction and production of natural resources. Agriculture, fishing and gathering are good examples. 2) Secondary activities:- These are concerned with the processing of natural resources. Manufacturing of steel, baking of bread and weaving of cloth are examples of this activity. 3) Tertiary activities:- It provide support to the primary and secondary sectors through services. Transport, trade, banking, insurance and advertising are examples of tertiary activities. Q.2 What do you understand by the term- Agriculture? The word agriculture means land cultivation. Agriculture is a primary activity. It includes growing crops, fruits, vegetables, flowers and rearing of livestock. Q3. Define the following:- a) Sericulture b) Pisciculture c) Viticulture d) Horticulture a) Sericulture- Commercial rearing of silk worms. It may supplement the income of the farmer. b) Pisciculture- Breeding of fish in specially constructed tanks and ponds. c)viticulture- Cultivation of grapes. d) Horticulture- Growing vegetables, flowers and fruits for commercial use. Q.4 List the factors influencing agricultural activities? The factors influencing agricultural activities are- 1) Favourable topography and type of soil- Altitude and slope determine the accumulation of the soil. The type of soil effects the cultivation of the crops. If the soil is fertile then the crops production will be more. The plain has fertile soil than the mountains. 2) Climate- The temperature and rainfall influence the agricultural activities in the particular region. Q.5 How agriculture is considered as farm system? Agriculture or farming can be looked at as a system. INPUT PROCESSES OUTPUT 1) The important inputs are seeds, fertilisers, machinery and labour. 2) The processes involved in the agricultural operations are ploughing, sowing, irrigation, weeding and harvesting. 3) The outputs from the system include crops, wool, dairy and poultry products. Q.6 Define- Organic farming. Organic Farming In this type of farming, organic manure and natural pesticides

2 are used instead of chemicals. No genetic modification is done to increase the yield of the crop. Q.7 Explain the features of subsistence farming and areas where it is practiced? The features of subsistence farming are as follows- 1) Subsistence farming is practised to meet the needs of the farmer s family. 2) Low levels of technology is used. 3) Household labour are used. 4) The production is less. 5) Subsistence farming can be further classified as intensive subsistence and primitive subsistence. Q.8 Explain the features of intensive subsistence agriculture? The features of intensive subsistence agriculture are- 1) In intensive subsistence agriculture the farmer cultivates a small plot of land and thus the production is less. 2) In it simple tools are used. 3) The labour used are more as most of the work is done manually. 4) Rice is the main crop. Other crops include wheat, maize, pulses and oilseeds. 5) Intensive subsistence agriculture is prevalent in the thick areas of the monsoon regions of south, southeast and east Asia. Q.9 What is Shifting cultivation? Where it is practiced? Shifting cultivation- A plot of land is cleared by felling the trees and burning them. The ashes are then mixed with the soil and crops like maize, yam, potatoes and cassava are grown. After the soil loses its fertility, the land is abandoned and the cultivator moves to a new plot. Shifting cultivation is also known as slash and burn agriculture It is practised in the thickly forested areas of Amazon basin, tropical Africa, parts of southeast Asia and Northeast India. These are the areas of heavy rainfall and quick regeneration of vegetation. Q.10 List the different names of shifting agriculture? Shifting cultivation is known by different names in different parts of the world are- 1) Jhumming in North-East India 2) Milpa in Mexico 3) Roca in Brazil. 4) Ladang in Malaysia Q.11 What is Nomadic farming? Where it is practiced? 1) In this type of farming, herdsmen move from place to place with their animals for fodder and water, along defined routes. This type of movement arises in response to climatic constraints and terrain. 2) Sheep, camel, yak and goats are most commonly reared. They provide milk, meat, wool, hides and other products to the herders and their families. 3) It is practised in the semi-arid and arid regions of Sahara, Central Asia and some parts of India, like Rajasthan and Jammu and Kashmir. Q.12 Explain the features of commercial farming?

3 The features of commercial farming are- 1) In commercial farming crops are grown and animals are reared for sale in market. 2) The area cultivated and the amount of capital used is large. 3) Most of the work is done by machines. 4) Commercial farming includes commercial grain farming, mixed farming and plantation agriculture Q.13 Explain the features of commercial grain farming? The features of commercial grain farming are- 1) In commercial grain farming crops are grown for commercial purpose. 2) Wheat and maize are common commercially grown grains. 3) Major areas where commercial grain farming is practised are temperate grasslands of North America, Europe and Asia. 4) These areas are sparsely populated with large farms spreading over hundreds of hectares. 5) Severe winters restrict the growing season and only a single crop can be grown. Q.14 What is Mixed farming? Mixed farming- the land is used for growing food and fodder crops and rearing livestock. It is practised in Europe, eastern USA, Argentina, southeast Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. Q.15 List the features of Plantation agriculture? The features of the Plantation agriculture are- 1) Plantation agriculture is a type of commercial farming where single crop of tea, coffee, sugarcane, cashew, rubber, banana or cotton are grown. 2) Large amount of labour and capital are required. 3) The produce may be processed on the farm itself or in nearby factories. 4) The development of a transport network is thus essential for such farming. 5) Major plantations are found in the tropical regions of the world. 6) Rubber in Malaysia, coffee in Brazil, tea in India and Sri Lanka are some examples. Q.16 Differentiate between the following:- a) Primary activities and secondary activities. b) Subsistence agriculture and Commercial farming. c) Mixed farming and Plantation agriculture. Primary economic activities 1) Primary activities include all those connected with extraction and production of natural resources. 2) Agriculture, fishing and gathering are good examples Secondary economic activities Secondary activities are concerned with the processing of these resources. Manufacturing of steel, baking of bread and weaving of cloth are examples of this activity. 3) Production is less. Production is more. 4) More labour is used. Less labour is used. 5) Less capital investment. More capital investment. 6) It is mostly practiced in the developing countries of the world. It is mostly practiced in developed countries of the world.

4 Subsistence agriculture Commercial farming 1) This type of farming is practiced to meet the needs of the farmer s family. In commercial farming crops are grown and animals are reared for sale in the market. 2) The level of the technology is low. The level of technology is high. Most of the work is done by machines. 3) Household labour is used to produce on small output. Most of the work is done by Machines to produce on large scale. 4) It can be classified as commercial It can be classified as intensive grain farming, mixed farming and plantation agriculture. subsistence and primitive subsistence farming. Mixed farming 1) In mixed farming the land is for growing food and fodder crops and rearing livestock. 2) It is practised in Europe, eastern USA, Argentina, southeast Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. Plantation agriculture Plantations are a type of commercial farming where single crop of tea, coffee, sugarcane, cashew, rubber, banana or cotton are grown. Major plantations are found in the tropical regions of the world. Rubber in Malaysia, coffee in Brazil, tea in India and Sri Lanka. Q.17 Complete the following table showing the distribution of major crops;- Major crops Climatic condition Soil Regions Rice High temperature, Alluvial clayey soil. China, Japan, India, high humidity and West Bengal and rainfall Bangladesh. Wheat Moderate Drained loamy soil. USA, Canada, temperature and Argentina, Russia rainfall all during and India. growing season and bright sunshine at the time of harvest. Millets (jowar, bajra and ragi) Maize Low rainfall and high to moderate temperature and adequate rainfall. Moderate temperature, moderate rainfall and lots of sunshine. Cotton High temperature, high rainfall, 210 frost free days and bright sunshine for its growth. Jute High temperature, heavy rainfall and humid climate. Less fertile and sandy soil. Well drained fertile soil. Black, alluvial soil. India, China, Nigeria and Nigeria. North America, Brazil, China, Russia, Canada, India and Mexico. China, USA, India, Pakistan, Brazil and Egypt. Alluvial soil. India and Bangladesh. Coffee Warm and wet climate Well drained loamy soil. Brazil, Columbia and India.

5 Tea Cool climate and well distributed high rainfall. Well drained heavy soils. Kenya, India, China and Sri lanka. Q.18 What is Agricultural development? How is agricultural development achieved in agriculture? Agricultural Development refers to efforts made to increase farm production in order to meet the growing demand of increasing population. Agricultural development can be achieved in many ways:- 1) Increasing the cropped area. 2) Increasing the number of crops grown. 3) Improving irrigation facilities. 4) Use of fertilizers. 5) Using of high yielding variety of seeds. 6) Mechanisation of agriculture should be implemented which is the use of more machines to increase the production of the crops. Q.19 How is agriculture in developed countries different from the developing countries? Developing countries with large populations usually practise intensive agriculture where crops are grown on small holdings mostly for subsistence. It is practiced in India, Sri lanka and Burma. In the developed countries people usually practice commercial agriculture where crops are grown on large holdings mostly for export purpose. Commercial agriculture is practiced in USA, Canada and Australia. Q.20 Bring out the difference between the farms in India and USA? Farms in India 1) Farm holdings are small that is 1.5 hectares. 2) The house of the farmer is in the main village. 3) The major crops grown are wheat, rice and pulses. 4) The farms lack storage facilities and they are forced to sell the produce even when the market is not favourable for them. 5) The farmers use bullocks for ploughing while tubewells for irrigating the fields. 6) The farmer in India is like a peasant farmer. 7) The farmers are not educated and take the advice of their friends and elders. Farms in USA Farms are larger that is generally 250 hectares. The farmer generally live in the farm. The major crops grown are corn, soyabean, wheat, cotton and sugarbeet. The grains are stored in the automated grain storage or depatched to market agencies. The farmers use tractors, seed drills, levelers, combined harvesters and thresher to perform various agricultural operations. The farmer in USA works like a businessman. The farmers are educated and had the knowledge to use various tools and implements for agricultural operations.

6 Q.21 Give reasons for the following:- 1) In India agriculture is a primary activity. In India agriculture is a primary activity because it is connected with extraction and production of natural resources. India is developing country where 75% of the population is engaged in the agriculture which include fishing, mining, gathering etc. 2) Different crops are grown in different regions. Different crops are grown in different regions because different crops require different climatic condition like temperature and rainfall for survival and growth.

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