Rural developments in Latin America, Michiel Baud CEDLA

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1 Rural developments in Latin America, Michiel Baud CEDLA

2 Export-orientation, Expansion agrarian frontier Agrarian monocultures Replacement of traditional large landowners New forms of labour control

3 Growth Latin American export agriculture, (1000 metric tons) 1881/5 1896/ Coffee Brazil Colombia Cotton Brazil Mexico Sugar Cuba Peru Argentina Cacao Ecuador Brazil 16 30

4 Population, (millions) Total LA population 1930: : : : : 580 Agrarian population 1930: 21 million 1980: 39 million 2010: 120 million Sources: 1930/80: ILO; 2010: FAO Latin America: 22 million km2

5 Resource-rich region 25% of the potential arable land 40% of tropical forest 23% of livestock 30% of freshwater reserves Political resistance against malthusian policies

6

7

8 : slow agrarian growth Expansion of inefficient - agriculture Enclave production (epitomised by the banana plantations in Central America) Large-scale commercial farming Hacienda-type agriculture Small-scale farming (market oriented) Subsistence farming Debate around open-closed communities (also haciendas!) => economic and social issues

9 Historical land expansion and recent land demand Region Cultivated land area (millions of ha) Annual change (%) Sub-Saharan Africa Latin America East Asia & Pacific South Asia Oceania Middle-East & North Africa Eastern Europe& C Asia Western Europe North America World total Source: Adapted from Deininger (2011), from: Land grabbing in Latin America (2011)

10 Traditional products Temperate zones: wheat, cattle, maize Intermediate zones: coffee, cacao, henequen, wool Tropical zones: Tobacco, sugar

11 Agricultural production, Some crops expand (cotton, maize, sugar), others stagnate (coffee, rice, wheat) Urbanization and migration Foodcrop production expands but does not keep up with urban growth

12 Rural poverty Source: López and Valdés, Rural Poverty in Latin America, 2000 (p. 40)

13

14 Rural poverty and inequality Access to land Access to services (credit, schooling, medical care, water, electricity) Commercial opportunities Political and social liberties => indigenous populations among the extreme poor => Rural mobilization (f.i. Ecuador, Mexico) to influence absent state

15 Rural labour force Latin America strongly urbanized => 1980: 66 % (Africa 30%; South Asia 24%) Agriculture: 1950: 53 % 1980: 32 % 2010: 21 %

16 Source: FAO statistical Yearbook 2014; Latin America and the Caribbean

17 : contradictory processes Agrarian reform Structural adjustment and green revolution Conservation and protected areas

18 Agrarian Reform Mexico 1930s Bolivia 1953 Ecuador 1964, 1973 Chile 1967 Peru 1969 => More modernizing than redistributive! Partly strengthens small- and middle scale agriculture, but limited labour absorption and incomplete

19 Green Revolution Starts in Mexico => important role of State Only fully implemented in Mexico, Cono sur and tropical coastal areas Concentration of land => replacing small- and community farming (seasonal) semi-proletarianization

20 Protected areas : threefold expansion of protected areas => approx sites and 3 million km2 Latin America: 15% of worldwide protected area

21 Change in protected and harvest area, Source: Zimmerer, 2011

22 : non-traditional crops Central America => Commercial vegetable farming for US market (tomatoes, broccoli!), rice, cotton Andean region => new commercial products: flowers, fruit Amazon => colonization agriculture; emergence of coca! South America: Soja, grapes/wine, fruit

23 New crops: Food feed - fuel complex Flex crops => different uses. Food (crisis) not central In empty areas Incorporation of smallholders and little resistance

24 The rise of flex crops in South America and Central America Area harvested (in ha), South America Soya sugarcane Oil Palm ,534 2,124,775 38, ,639 2,582,414 56, ,443,590 2,485,528 57, ,467,817 2,904,841 50, ,467,985 3,623,922 83, ,306,828 4,975, , ,725,284 5,290, , ,912,325 5,692, , ,156,087 5,995, , ,234,628 7,025, , ,792,479 9,878, ,313 Central America Soya sugarcane Oil Palm , ,207 22, , ,413 26, , ,258 21, , ,752 24, , ,750 35, , ,627 41, , ,047 57, , ,158 76, ,992 1,071, , ,315 1,219, , ,444 1,231, ,204 Source: FAOSTAT; in Borras et al. Land grabbing in Latin America and the Caribbean (2011)

25 AMÉRICA LATINA Y EL CARIBE: PERFIL REGIONAL AMBIENTAL / LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN: REGIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE TIERRA Y SUELOS / LAND AND SOIL Superficie total / Total surface area ( ) ha (2011) Terrestre / Land area ( ) ha (2011) Aguas continentales / Inland waters 28 ( ) ha (2011) Proporción de superficie terrestre cubierta por bosques / Proportion of land area covered by forest 47.2 % (2010) Superficie agrícola / Agricultural area 740 ( ) ha (2011) Tierras arables / Arable land 168 ( ) ha (2011) Cultivos permanentes / Permanent crops 20 ( ) ha (2011) Praderas y pastos permanentes / Permanent meadows and pastures Intensidad de uso de fertilizantes (en toneladas por hectáreas agrícolas) / Fertilizer use intensity (tons per 1,000 ha of agricultural area) 552 ( ) ha (2011) 28 Tn (2011) Superficie cosechada por tipo de cultivo (ha) Harvest area by type of crop (ha) Algodón con semillas / Seed cotton Semilla de girasol / Sunflower seed Yuca (mandioca) / Cassava Sorgo / Sorghum Café / Coffee Arroz / Rice Frijoles secos / Dried beans Trigo / Wheat Caña de azúcar / Sugarcane Maíz / Maize Soja / Soybean

26 : Changes in Brazilian land use Increase: Sugar cane area 90,5 % soja 85,2 % maíz 26,8 % => together 32 million ha Decrease: Rice -27,5 % Wheat -11,5 % batata (-24,2 %), beans -19,2 %, yuca -5,1 % => Together 7 million ha

27 Results Expulsion of small-scale peasant production, but also new chances (incorporation) Shrinking rural labour market Environmental degradation

28

29 Changes, Expansion of agroindustry => (temporary) important for LA industrialization: food drink, timber State capacity for managing agrarian change fluctuates (Conasupo, Sinamos) NGO-influence increases

30 Changes in political context Structural adjustments Decreasing role of state Post-neoliberal policies

31 Changes in social context Indigenous struggle (territories) => new struggle for land Fair trade niche => important for reproduction small-scale peasant sector Migration => remittances

32 Maldonado, R., Hayem, M. (2014) "Remittances to Latin America and the Caribbean in 2013: Still Below Pre-Crisis Levels." Multilateral Investment Fund, Inter-American Development Bank. Washington, D.C., p. 3.

33 Maldonado, R., Hayem, M. (2014) "Remittances to Latin America and the Caribbean in 2013: Still Below Pre-Crisis Levels." Multilateral Investment Fund, Inter-American Development Bank. Washington, D.C., p. 5.

34 Recent developments New export-oriented agriculture => element of reprimarización (also mining) land grabbing biopiracy and transnational dependencies (Monsanto) Protected areas

35 Todays challenges Rural poverty New agrarian reform Maintaining food sovereignty Adapting to rural-urban connections Rural studies has become closely connected to environmental debates => debate on: productive environmentalism

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