Types of Chemical Reactions (rxns.)

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Types of Chemical Reactions (rxns.)"

Transcription

1 Types of Chemical Reactions (rxns.)

2 Chemical reactions occur when bonds (between the electrons of atoms) are formed or broken Chemical reactions involve l changes in the chemical composition of matter (the making of new materials with new properties) l energy changes Introduction Symbols represent elements Formulas describe compounds Chemical equations describe a chemical reaction

3 Types of Reactions Reactions are classified by their products. There are five types of chemical reactions we will talk about: 1. Synthesis reactions 2. Decomposition reactions 3. Single displacement reactions 4. Double displacement reactions 5. Combustion reactions You need to be able to identify the type of reaction and predict the product(s)

4 Steps to Writing Reactions Some steps for doing reactions: 1. Identify the type of reaction 2. Predict the product(s) using the type of reaction as a model 3. Balance it Don t forget about the diatomic elements! (BrINClHOF) For example, Oxygen is O 2 as an element. In a compound, it can t be a diatomic element because it s not an element anymore, it s a compound!

5 Synthesis Reactions l Synthesis (meaning to make) are Also called l Direct combination or combination reactions l Addition reactions typified by their single product. l If you have a reaction in which at least 2 elements or compounds are reacted and produce a single product, the reaction is a synthesis reaction.

6 Synthesis Reactions reactant + reactant à 1 product Basically: A + B à AB Example: 2H 2 + O 2 à 2H 2 O Example: C + O 2 à CO 2 Note: Single Product! This is your clue that this is a synthesis or combination reaction.

7 Synthesis Reactions Here is another example of a synthesis reaction

8 Examples of Synthesis Reactions l 2Na + S Na 2 S This one is an example of two elements in atomic form (Na and S) combining to form a compound (sodium sulfide). l 2H 2 + O 2 2H 2 O In this example, A and B are two elements in molecular form (hydrogen and oxygen molecules), and the product is water, which is simply the chemical combination of hydrogen and oxygen.

9 Examples of Synthesis Reactions l 4Fe + 3O 2 2Fe 2 O 3 In this example, substance A is an element in atomic form (Fe), and substance B is an element in molecular form (O 2 ). The result is a direct chemical combination of the two elements (FeO, iron oxide, which is rust ). l CuO + H 2 O Cu(OH) 2 This is an example where both substances going into the reaction are molecules. The result is what you get when you add all of the atoms in the reaction together.

10 Decomposition Reactions Decomposition reactions are really just the opposite of a synthesis reaction. Remember, if you can make a substance, you should be able to break it back apart into its components. A good way to remember decomposition reactions to to remember what happens when something decomposes. It falls apart!

11 Decomposition Reactions Decomposition reactions occur when a compound breaks up into the elements or in a few to simpler compounds 1 Reactant à Product + Product Basically: AB à A + B Example: 2 H 2 O à 2H 2 + O 2 Example: 2 HgO à 2Hg + O 2 Note: Single Reactant! The single reactant is your clue that this is a decomposition reaction.

12 Decomposition Reactions Another view of a decomposition reaction:

13 Decomposition Exceptions Carbonates and chlorates are special case decomposition reactions that do not go to the elements. Carbonates (CO 3 2- ) decompose to carbon dioxide and a metal oxide Example: CaCO 3 à CO 2 + CaO Chlorates (ClO 3- ) decompose to oxygen gas and a metal chloride Example: 2 Al(ClO 3 ) 3 à 2 AlCl O 2 There are other special cases, but we will not explore those in this class

14 Practice Predict the products. Then, write and balance the following decomposition reaction equations: Solid Lead (IV) oxide decomposes PbO 2(s) à Pb (s) + O 2(g) Aluminum nitride decomposes 2 AlN (s) à2 Al (s) + N 2(g)

15 Single Replacement Reactions Single replacement reactions occur when one chemical takes the place of another in a reaction. In the typical single replacement reaction, an element trades places with one of the ions in a compound.

16 Single Replacement Reactions A metal can replace a metal (+) OR a nonmetal can replace a nonmetal (-). element + compoundà product + product A + BC à AC + B (if A is a metal) OR A + BC à BA + C (if A is a nonmetal) (remember the cation always goes first!) When H 2 O splits into ions, it splits into H + and OH - (not H+ and O -2!!)

17 Single Replacement Reactions Another view:

18 The Activity Series l Not all single replacement reactions will occur. l This depends upon the location of the elements present in the activity series l Elements above MAY replace elements below; elements below MAY NOT replace elements above them on the series

19 You will be given a copy of this!!!!

20 Single Replacement Reactions Write and balance the following single replacement reaction equation: Zinc metal reacts with aqueous hydrochloric acid Zn (s) + 2 HCl (aq) à ZnCl 2 + H 2(g) Note: Zinc replaces the hydrogen ion in the reaction [If ZnCl 2 + H 2(g) à Zn (s) + HCl (aq) the reaction WOULD NOT OCCUR because Hydrogen is below zinc on the activity series]

21 Single Replacement Reactions Sodium chloride solid reacts with fluorine gas 2 NaCl (s) + F 2(g) à 2NaF (s) + Cl 2(g) Note that fluorine replaces chlorine in the compound Aluminum metal reacts with aqueous copper (II) nitrate 2Al (s) + 3 Cu(NO 3 ) 2(aq) à3 Cu (s) + 2 Al(NO 3 ) 3(aq)

22 Double Replacement Reactions Double replacement reactions are identified by two ions trading places and forming new compounds.

23 Double Replacement Reactions Double Replacement Reactions occur when a metal replaces a metal in a compound and a nonmetal replaces a nonmetal in a compound Compound + compound à product + product AB + CD à AD + CB Notice that one ion from compound AB replaces one ion from compound CD.

24 Double Replacement Reactions Think about it like foil ing in algebra, first and last ions go together + inside ions go together Example: AgNO 3(aq) + NaCl (s) à AgCl (s) + NaNO 3(aq) Another example: K 2 SO 4(aq) + Ba(NO 3 ) 2(aq) à2 KNO 3(aq) + BaSO 4(s)

25 Solubility l For a double replacement reaction to have occurred, a solid (precipitate) MUST be formed l There are rules to determine which of the materials formed is the solid l If no solid is formed, there is said to be no reaction.

26 Figure 8.4: The forming of solid AgCl.

27 Solubility Tables l l Solubility tables help determine which materials are soluble in water and which are not In general, Solubility Rules can be summarized as follows 1. All compounds containing alkali metal cations and the ammonium ion are soluble. 2. All compounds containing NO 3-, ClO 4-, ClO 3-, and C 2 H 3 O 2- anions are soluble. 3. All chlorides, bromides, and iodides are soluble except those containing Ag +, Pb 2+, or Hg All sulfates are soluble except those containing Hg 2+ 2, Pb 2+, Sr 2+, Ca 2+, or Ba All hydroxides are insoluble except compounds of the alkali metals, Ca 2+, Sr 2+, and Ba All compounds containing PO 3-4, S 2-, CO 2-3, and SO 2-3 ions are insoluble except those that also contain alkali metals or NH 4+. You will be given a copy of this!!!!

28 Combustion Reactions Combustion reactions are the ones that burn (or explode!). There are two types of combustion reactions complete or incomplete reactions. These reactions are identified by their products. They either produce carbon monoxide and water or carbon dioxide and water.

29 Complete Combustion Reactions These reactions burn efficiently which means they produce carbon dioxide and water. These reactions typically burn cleanly and leave very little residue behind.

30 Combustion Reactions Combustion reactions occur when a hydrocarbon reacts with oxygen gas. This is also called burning!!! In order to burn something you need the 3 things in the fire triangle : 1) A Fuel (hydrocarbon) 2) Oxygen to burn it with 3) Something to ignite the reaction (spark)

31 Combustion Reactions In general: C x H y + O 2 à CO 2 + H 2 O Products in combustion are ALWAYS carbon dioxide and water. (although incomplete burning does cause some byproducts like carbon monoxide) Combustion is used to heat homes and run automobiles (octane, as in gasoline, is C 8 H 18 )

32 Complete Combustion Reactions l CH 4 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O l They may also be written: O 2 CH 4 CO 2 + H 2 O With O 2 written above the arrow l Clues: CO 2 (carbon dioxide) in the product along with water

33 Combustion Example C 5 H O 2 à 5 CO H 2 O Write the products and balance the following combustion reaction: C 10 H O 2 à 10 CO H 2 O 2 C 10 H O 2 à 20 CO H 2 O

34 Incomplete Combustion Reactions Incomplete combustion reactions occur when something does not burn efficiently. This can cause a lot of harm if the gases produced cannot escape. Carbon monoxide,an odorless and colorless gas, is dangerous. People poisoned by this gas usually become sleepy and can die due to exposure.

35 Incomplete Combustion Reactions l CH 4 + O 2 CO + H 2 O + CO 2 l These reactions may also be written by: O 2 CH 4 CO + H 2 O + CO 2 Again, the O 2 is usually written over the arrow. l Clue: CO (Carbon monoxide as a product.)

36 Combustion Reactions Edgar Allen Poe s drooping eyes and mouth are potential signs of CO poisoning.

37 Predicting Products of Reactions l Completing reactions requires knowledge of the different reaction types (sometimes called mechanisms). l You must first identify the reaction type by the reactants. l The only type of reaction that cannot be predicted this way is the combustion reaction since the products are very similar.

38 First Step: l Identify reaction type Example: Al + O 2 Clue: 2 elements Synthesis or combination reaction

39 Second Step: l Write the net ionic equation for the reactants Al + O 2 becomes Al 3+ + O 2-

40 Step 3 l Using clues, complete reaction taking care to write each formula correctly by checking charges and criss-crossing if necessary. Al + O 2 Al 3+ O 2- Al + O 2 Al 2 O 3

41 Predicting Products of Reactions (cont.) l For Single Replacement reactions, check activity series to make sure the reaction goes. l Once you write the molecular equation, you should check for reactants and products that are soluble or insoluble. (Double Replacement only)

Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations

Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations Name Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations Period When a substance undergoes a chemical reaction, chemical bonds are broken and new bonds are formed. This results in one or more new substances, often

More information

Chapter 8: Chemical Equations and Reactions

Chapter 8: Chemical Equations and Reactions Chapter 8: Chemical Equations and Reactions I. Describing Chemical Reactions A. A chemical reaction is the process by which one or more substances are changed into one or more different substances. A chemical

More information

Potassium + Chlorine. K(s) + Cl 2 (g) 2 KCl(s)

Potassium + Chlorine. K(s) + Cl 2 (g) 2 KCl(s) Types of Reactions Consider for a moment the number of possible chemical reactions. Because there are millions of chemical compounds, it is logical to expect that there are millions of possible chemical

More information

2. DECOMPOSITION REACTION ( A couple have a heated argument and break up )

2. DECOMPOSITION REACTION ( A couple have a heated argument and break up ) TYPES OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS Most reactions can be classified into one of five categories by examining the types of reactants and products involved in the reaction. Knowing the types of reactions can help

More information

Chemical Equations and Chemical Reactions. Chapter 8.1

Chemical Equations and Chemical Reactions. Chapter 8.1 Chemical Equations and Chemical Reactions Chapter 8.1 Objectives List observations that suggest that a chemical reaction has taken place List the requirements for a correctly written chemical equation.

More information

Balancing Chemical Equations Worksheet

Balancing Chemical Equations Worksheet Balancing Chemical Equations Worksheet Student Instructions 1. Identify the reactants and products and write a word equation. 2. Write the correct chemical formula for each of the reactants and the products.

More information

Goals. 1. How are chemical reactions written?

Goals. 1. How are chemical reactions written? Goals 1. How are chemical reactions written? Given the identities of reactants and products, be able to write a balanced chemical equation or net ionic equation. 2. How are chemical reactions of ionic

More information

Chapter 8 Review and Study Guide

Chapter 8 Review and Study Guide Name: Class: Date: Chapter 8 Review and Study Guide Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Knowledge about what products are produced in a chemical

More information

All Reactants All Products

All Reactants All Products 6.1: Describing Chemical Reactions page 225 Chemists use word equations to describe a wide variety of chemical reactions, simple and complicated, that occur everyday. In a chemical reaction, one or more

More information

Balancing Equations Notes

Balancing Equations Notes . Unit 9 Chemical Equations and Reactions What is a Chemical Equation? A Chemical Equation is a written representation of the process that occurs in a chemical reaction. A chemical equation is written

More information

The formation of a gas is evidence of. 1. A chemical change. 2. A physical change. 3. No change in energy 4. Both (1) and (2)

The formation of a gas is evidence of. 1. A chemical change. 2. A physical change. 3. No change in energy 4. Both (1) and (2) Chapter 8 Review The formation of a gas is evidence of 1. A chemical change. 2. A physical change. 3. No change in energy 4. Both (1) and (2) The formation of a gas is evidence of 1. A chemical change.

More information

Chapter 5. Chemical Reactions and Equations. Introduction. Chapter 5 Topics. 5.1 What is a Chemical Reaction

Chapter 5. Chemical Reactions and Equations. Introduction. Chapter 5 Topics. 5.1 What is a Chemical Reaction Introduction Chapter 5 Chemical Reactions and Equations Chemical reactions occur all around us. How do we make sense of these changes? What patterns can we find? 1 2 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies,

More information

Worksheet # 11. 4. When heated, nickel (II) carbonate undergoes a decomposition reaction. Write a balanced equation to describe this reaction

Worksheet # 11. 4. When heated, nickel (II) carbonate undergoes a decomposition reaction. Write a balanced equation to describe this reaction Worksheet # 11 1. A solution of sodium chloride is mixed with a solution of lead (II) nitrate. A precipitate of lead (II) chloride results, leaving a solution of sodium nitrated. Determine the class of

More information

CHEMICAL EQUATIONS and REACTION TYPES

CHEMICAL EQUATIONS and REACTION TYPES 31 CHEMICAL EQUATIONS and REACTION TYPES The purpose of this laboratory exercise is to develop skills in writing and balancing chemical equations. The relevance of this exercise is illustrated by a series

More information

6 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions

6 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions 6 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Water is by far the most common medium in which chemical reactions occur naturally. It is not hard to see this: 70% of our body mass is water and about 70% of the surface

More information

Steps to Predicting the Products of Chemical Reactions. CP Chemistry

Steps to Predicting the Products of Chemical Reactions. CP Chemistry Steps to Predicting the Products of Chemical Reactions CP Chemistry TYPES OF REACTIONS REVIEW 2 NaNO 3 + PbO Pb(NO 3 ) 2 + Na 2 O C 2 H 4 O 2 + 2 O 2 2 CO 2 + 2 H 2 O ZnSO 4 + Li 2 CO 3 ZnCO 3 + Li 2 SO

More information

H 2 + O 2 H 2 O. - Note there is not enough hydrogen to react with oxygen - It is necessary to balance equation.

H 2 + O 2 H 2 O. - Note there is not enough hydrogen to react with oxygen - It is necessary to balance equation. CEMICAL REACTIONS 1 ydrogen + Oxygen Water 2 + O 2 2 O reactants product(s) reactant substance before chemical change product substance after chemical change Conservation of Mass During a chemical reaction,

More information

Solubility Rules and Net Ionic Equations

Solubility Rules and Net Ionic Equations Solubility Rules and Net Ionic Equations Why? Solubility of a salt depends upon the type of ions in the salt. Some salts are soluble in water and others are not. When two soluble salts are mixed together

More information

Chapter 9. Answers to Questions

Chapter 9. Answers to Questions Chapter 9 Answers to Questions 1. Word equation: Silicon Tetrachloride + Water Silicon Dioxide + Hydrogen Chloride Formulas: Next, the chemical formulas are needed. As these are all covalent compounds,

More information

Chapter 6 Notes Science 10 Name:

Chapter 6 Notes Science 10 Name: 6.1 Types of Chemical Reactions a) Synthesis (A + B AB) Synthesis reactions are also known as reactions. When this occurs two or more reactants (usually elements) join to form a. A + B AB, where A and

More information

Answers and Solutions to Text Problems

Answers and Solutions to Text Problems Chapter 6 Answers and Solutions 6 Answers and Solutions to Text Problems 6.1 A chemical change occurs when the atoms of the initial substances rearrange to form new substances. Chemical change is indicated

More information

Chemical Reactions and Equations

Chemical Reactions and Equations Chemical Reactions and Equations Thousands of chemical reactions take place in nature, in industrial processes, and in laboratories. They are described by Chemical Equations. There are two sides to a chemical

More information

Experiment 9 - Double Displacement Reactions

Experiment 9 - Double Displacement Reactions Experiment 9 - Double Displacement Reactions A double displacement reaction involves two ionic compounds that are dissolved in water. In a double displacement reaction, it appears as though the ions are

More information

Chemical Equations. Chemical Equations. Chemical reactions describe processes involving chemical change

Chemical Equations. Chemical Equations. Chemical reactions describe processes involving chemical change Chemical Reactions Chemical Equations Chemical reactions describe processes involving chemical change The chemical change involves rearranging matter Converting one or more pure substances into new pure

More information

Chapter 7: Chemical Equations. Name: Date: Period:

Chapter 7: Chemical Equations. Name: Date: Period: Chapter 7: Chemical Equations Name: Date: Period: 7-1 What is a chemical reaction? Read pages 232-237 a) Explain what a chemical reaction is. b) Distinguish between evidence that suggests a chemical reaction

More information

Unit 8: Chemical Reactions and Equations

Unit 8: Chemical Reactions and Equations 1 Chemical Reactions Unit 8: Chemical Reactions and Equations What are chemical reactions and how do they occur? How are chemical reactions classified? How are products of chemical reactions predicted?

More information

Writing, Balancing and Predicting Products of Chemical Reactions.

Writing, Balancing and Predicting Products of Chemical Reactions. Writing, Balancing and Predicting Products of Chemical Reactions. A chemical equation is a concise shorthand expression which represents the relative amount of reactants and products involved in a chemical

More information

Chemical Reactions & Balancing Chemical Equations

Chemical Reactions & Balancing Chemical Equations Chemical Reactions & Balancing Chemical Equations Chemical Reactions A chemical reaction occurs when one or more materials turn into something different A balanced chemical equation describes what happens

More information

Name Class Date. Step 3: Write the equation using formulas for the elements and compounds in the word equation. Al CuCl 2 : AlCl 3 Cu

Name Class Date. Step 3: Write the equation using formulas for the elements and compounds in the word equation. Al CuCl 2 : AlCl 3 Cu Skills Worksheet Math Skills Balancing Chemical Equations After you study each sample problem and solution, work out the practice problems on a separate sheet of paper. Write your answers in the spaces

More information

Problem Set #10 - Answers

Problem Set #10 - Answers Problem Set #10 - Answers BIG IDEAS Fill in the blanks or circle the correct response in brackets. 1) When a reaction occurs, the stuff you start with is called the _reactants_ and the stuff you end up

More information

Chemistry Themed. Types of Reactions

Chemistry Themed. Types of Reactions Chemistry Themed Types of Reactions 1 2 Chemistry in the Community-2015-2016 Types of Reactions Date In-Class Assignment Homework T 10/20 TEST on Reactivity of Metals and Redox None W 10/21 Late Start

More information

Stoichiometry Review

Stoichiometry Review Stoichiometry Review There are 20 problems in this review set. Answers, including problem set-up, can be found in the second half of this document. 1. N 2 (g) + 3H 2 (g) --------> 2NH 3 (g) a. nitrogen

More information

Experiment 5. Chemical Reactions A + X AX AX A + X A + BX AX + B AZ + BX AX + BZ

Experiment 5. Chemical Reactions A + X AX AX A + X A + BX AX + B AZ + BX AX + BZ Experiment 5 Chemical Reactions OBJECTIVES 1. To observe the various criteria that are used to indicate that a chemical reaction has occurred. 2. To convert word equations into balanced inorganic chemical

More information

Chapter 8 - Chemical Equations and Reactions

Chapter 8 - Chemical Equations and Reactions Chapter 8 - Chemical Equations and Reactions 8-1 Describing Chemical Reactions I. Introduction A. Reactants 1. Original substances entering into a chemical rxn B. Products 1. The resulting substances from

More information

Moles. Balanced chemical equations Molar ratios Mass Composition Empirical and Molecular Mass Predicting Quantities Equations

Moles. Balanced chemical equations Molar ratios Mass Composition Empirical and Molecular Mass Predicting Quantities Equations Moles Balanced chemical equations Molar ratios Mass Composition Empirical and Molecular Mass Predicting Quantities Equations Micro World atoms & molecules Macro World grams Atomic mass is the mass of an

More information

Unit 10A Stoichiometry Notes

Unit 10A Stoichiometry Notes Unit 10A Stoichiometry Notes Stoichiometry is a big word for a process that chemist s use to calculate amounts in reactions. It makes use of the coefficient ratio set up by balanced reaction equations

More information

Chapter 5 Chemical Reactions and Equations

Chapter 5 Chemical Reactions and Equations Chapter 5 Chemical Reactions and Equations 5.1 (a) single-displacement reaction; (b) anhydrous; (c) molecular equation; (d) decomposition reaction; (e) balanced equation; (f) reactant; (g) spectator ion;

More information

13 Chemical Reactions

13 Chemical Reactions www.ck12.org 275 CHAPTER 13 Chemical Reactions CHAPTER OUTLINE 13.1 CHEMICAL REACTIONS AND EQUATIONS 13.2 BALANCING CHEMICAL EQUATIONS 13.3 TYPES OF REACTIONS CHAPTER 13. CHEMICAL REACTIONS 276 www.ck12.org

More information

Net Ionic Equations Making Sense of Chemical Reactions

Net Ionic Equations Making Sense of Chemical Reactions 14 Making Sense of Chemical Reactions OBJECTIVE Students will be able to write net ionic equations from balanced molecular equations. LEVEL Chemistry NATIONAL STANDARDS UCP.1, UCP.2, B.3 T E A C H E R

More information

NET IONIC REACTIONS in AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS AB + CD AD + CB

NET IONIC REACTIONS in AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS AB + CD AD + CB NET IONIC REACTIONS in AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS Double replacements are among the most common of the simple chemical reactions. Consider the hypothetical reaction: AB + CD AD + CB where AB exists as A + and B

More information

AP Chem Unit 1 Assignment 3 Chemical Equations

AP Chem Unit 1 Assignment 3 Chemical Equations Symbols used in chemical equations: Symbol Meaning + used to separate one reactant or product from another used to separate the reactants from the products - it is pronounced "yields" or "produces" when

More information

Inorganic Chemistry Writing (Net Ionic) Equations for Various Reactions

Inorganic Chemistry Writing (Net Ionic) Equations for Various Reactions -1- Inorganic Chemistry Writing (Net Ionic) Equations for Various Reactions On the AP examination you will encounter a question in which you will be required to write net ionic equations for various reactions.

More information

Experiment 5: Studying Chemical Reactions

Experiment 5: Studying Chemical Reactions 1 Experiment 5: Studying Chemical Reactions When a chemical reaction occurs, substances called reactants are transformed into different substances called products that may have different appearances and

More information

Chapter 4 An Introduction to Chemical Reactions. An Introduction to Chemistry by Mark Bishop

Chapter 4 An Introduction to Chemical Reactions. An Introduction to Chemistry by Mark Bishop Chapter 4 An Introduction to Chemical Reactions An Introduction to Chemistry by Mark Bishop Chapter Map Chemical Reaction A chemical change or chemical reaction is a process in which one or more pure substances

More information

Write chemical equations for the following reactions: Reactants Products Unbalanced. Water H 2 O. and

Write chemical equations for the following reactions: Reactants Products Unbalanced. Water H 2 O. and Chemical Equations 17.2 Chemical symbols provide us with a shorth method of writing the name of an element. Chemical formulas do the same for compounds. But what about chemical reactions? To write out,

More information

Chapter 3. Stoichiometry: Ratios of Combination. Insert picture from First page of chapter. Copyright McGraw-Hill 2009 1

Chapter 3. Stoichiometry: Ratios of Combination. Insert picture from First page of chapter. Copyright McGraw-Hill 2009 1 Chapter 3 Insert picture from First page of chapter Stoichiometry: Ratios of Combination Copyright McGraw-Hill 2009 1 3.1 Molecular and Formula Masses Molecular mass - (molecular weight) The mass in amu

More information

BALANCING CHEMICAL EQUATIONS

BALANCING CHEMICAL EQUATIONS BALANCING CHEMICAL EQUATIONS The Conservation of Matter states that matter can neither be created nor destroyed, it just changes form. If this is the case then we must account for all of the atoms in a

More information

Reactions in Aqueous Solutions

Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Chem 101 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Lectures 15 and 16 Predicting Whether a Reaction Will Occur Forces that drive a reaction Formation of a solid Formation of water Transfer of electrons Formation

More information

Balancing Chemical Equations

Balancing Chemical Equations Balancing Chemical Equations Aluminum reacts with copper(ii) chloride, CuCl 2, to form copper metal and aluminum chloride, AlCl 3 1. Identify the reactants and products. Aluminum and copper(ii) chloride

More information

Ionic and Covalent Bonds

Ionic and Covalent Bonds Chapter 6 Inorganic and Organic Compounds: Names and Formulas 6.1 Octet Rule and Ions Octet Rule An octet is 8 valence electrons is associated with the stability of the noble gases does not occur with

More information

Moles. Moles. Moles. Moles. Balancing Eqns. Balancing. Balancing Eqns. Symbols Yields or Produces. Like a recipe:

Moles. Moles. Moles. Moles. Balancing Eqns. Balancing. Balancing Eqns. Symbols Yields or Produces. Like a recipe: Like a recipe: Balancing Eqns Reactants Products 2H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 2H 2 O(l) coefficients subscripts Balancing Eqns Balancing Symbols (s) (l) (aq) (g) or Yields or Produces solid liquid (pure liquid)

More information

Experiment 17-Chemical Reactions Lab

Experiment 17-Chemical Reactions Lab Since the Middle Ages, when ancient physicians attempted to find a magical substance that would cure all diseases, humans have been fascinated with chemical reactions. In order to effectively describe

More information

CHAPTER 5: MOLECULES AND COMPOUNDS

CHAPTER 5: MOLECULES AND COMPOUNDS CHAPTER 5: MOLECULES AND COMPOUNDS Problems: 1-6, 9-13, 16, 20, 31-40, 43-64, 65 (a,b,c,e), 66(a-d,f), 69(a-d,f), 70(a-e), 71-78, 81-82, 87-96 A compound will display the same properties (e.g. melting

More information

CHM-101-A Exam 2 Version 1 October 10, 2006

CHM-101-A Exam 2 Version 1 October 10, 2006 CHM-101-A Exam 2 Version 1 1. Which of the following statements is incorrect? A. SF 4 has ¼ as many sulfur atoms as fluorine atoms. B. Ca(NO 3 ) 2 has six times as many oxygen atoms as calcium ions. C.

More information

GHW#9. Louisiana Tech University, Chemistry 100. POGIL Exercise on Chapter 4. Quantities of Reactants and Products: Equations, Patterns and Balancing

GHW#9. Louisiana Tech University, Chemistry 100. POGIL Exercise on Chapter 4. Quantities of Reactants and Products: Equations, Patterns and Balancing GHW#9. Louisiana Tech University, Chemistry 100. POGIL Exercise on Chapter 4. Quantities of Reactants and Products: Equations, Patterns and Balancing Why? In chemistry, chemical equations represent changes

More information

Steps for balancing a chemical equation

Steps for balancing a chemical equation The Chemical Equation: A Chemical Recipe Dr. Gergens - SD Mesa College A. Learn the meaning of these arrows. B. The chemical equation is the shorthand notation for a chemical reaction. A chemical equation

More information

Chemical Reactions Vocabulary

Chemical Reactions Vocabulary Chemical Reactions Vocabulary Chemical Reaction Chemical Equation Process in which the physical and chemical properties of the original substances change as a new substance with different physical and

More information

CHEMICAL REACTIONS. When sodium bicarbonate, e.g. baking soda, is combined with an acid, a gas is produced

CHEMICAL REACTIONS. When sodium bicarbonate, e.g. baking soda, is combined with an acid, a gas is produced CHEMICAL REACTIONS OBJECTIVES 1. To study reactions between ions in aqueous solutions 2. To observe exothermic and endothermic reactions 3. To study oxidation-reduction reactions 4. To practice balancing

More information

Chapter 4 Notes - Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Chemistry

Chapter 4 Notes - Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Chemistry AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 4 Notes - Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Chemistry 4.1 Water, the Common Solvent A. Structure of water 1. Oxygen's electronegativity is high (3.5) and hydrogen's

More information

SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, "Chemistry 11", McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001

SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, Chemistry 11, McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001 SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, "Chemistry 11", McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001 1. A small pin contains 0.0178 mol of iron. How many atoms of iron are in the pin? 2. A sample

More information

Chapter 6: Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations. AB A + B. CaCO3 CaO + CO2 A + B C. AB + C AC + B (or AB + C CB + A)

Chapter 6: Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations. AB A + B. CaCO3 CaO + CO2 A + B C. AB + C AC + B (or AB + C CB + A) 78 Chapter 6: Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations. It is convenient to classify chemical reactions into one of several general types. Some of the more common, important, reactions are shown below.

More information

Chemistry B11 Chapter 4 Chemical reactions

Chemistry B11 Chapter 4 Chemical reactions Chemistry B11 Chapter 4 Chemical reactions Chemical reactions are classified into five groups: A + B AB Synthesis reactions (Combination) H + O H O AB A + B Decomposition reactions (Analysis) NaCl Na +Cl

More information

CHEMICAL REACTIONS. Chemistry 51 Chapter 6

CHEMICAL REACTIONS. Chemistry 51 Chapter 6 CHEMICAL REACTIONS A chemical reaction is a rearrangement of atoms in which some of the original bonds are broken and new bonds are formed to give different chemical structures. In a chemical reaction,

More information

Chemical Reactions in Water Ron Robertson

Chemical Reactions in Water Ron Robertson Chemical Reactions in Water Ron Robertson r2 f:\files\courses\1110-20\2010 possible slides for web\waterchemtrans.doc Properties of Compounds in Water Electrolytes and nonelectrolytes Water soluble compounds

More information

Chemical Reactions in Water

Chemical Reactions in Water Chemical Reactions in Water Ron Robertson r2 f:\files\courses\1110-20\2010 possible slides for web\waterchemtrans.doc Acids, Bases and Salts Acids dissolve in water to give H + ions. These ions attach

More information

Chapter 16: Tests for ions and gases

Chapter 16: Tests for ions and gases The position of hydrogen in the reactivity series Hydrogen, although not a metal, is included in the reactivity series because it, like metals, can be displaced from aqueous solution, only this time the

More information

Chapter 11. Electrochemistry Oxidation and Reduction Reactions. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

Chapter 11. Electrochemistry Oxidation and Reduction Reactions. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Chapter 11 Electrochemistry Oxidation and Reduction Reactions An oxidation and reduction reaction occurs in both aqueous solutions and in reactions where substances are burned

More information

EXPERIMENT 5: CHEMICAL REACTIONS AND EQUATIONS

EXPERIMENT 5: CHEMICAL REACTIONS AND EQUATIONS PURPOSE EXPERIMENT 5: CHEMICAL REACTIONS AND EQUATIONS To perform and observe simple chemical reactions. To identify the products of chemical reactions and write balanced equations for those reactions.

More information

1. When the following equation is balanced, the coefficient of Al is. Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) 3 (s) + H 2 (g)

1. When the following equation is balanced, the coefficient of Al is. Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) 3 (s) + H 2 (g) 1. When the following equation is balanced, the coefficient of Al is. Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) (s) + H 2 (g) A) 1 B) 2 C) 4 D) 5 E) Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) (s) + H 2 (g) Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH)

More information

CHAPTER 4. AQUEOUS REACTION CHEMISTRY

CHAPTER 4. AQUEOUS REACTION CHEMISTRY CAPTER. AQUEOUS REACTION CEMISTRY solution - homogeneous mixture of or more substances; uniform distribution of particles and same properties throughout. A solution is composed of a solute dissolved in

More information

Reactions. Balancing Chemical Equations uses Law of conservation of mass: matter cannot be lost in any chemical reaction

Reactions. Balancing Chemical Equations uses Law of conservation of mass: matter cannot be lost in any chemical reaction Reactions Chapter 8 Combustion Decomposition Combination Chapter 9 Aqueous Reactions Exchange reactions (Metathesis) Formation of a precipitate Formation of a gas Formation of a week or nonelectrolyte

More information

Using the Periodic table: Main Group. Using the Periodic Table:Transition Group. Binary Compounds: Names, Formulae

Using the Periodic table: Main Group. Using the Periodic Table:Transition Group. Binary Compounds: Names, Formulae Using the Periodic table: Main Group Main Group Elements 1 Using the Periodic Table:Transition Group Transition Metals Form various cations by loss of electrons e.g. Fe 2+ / Fe 3+, Cu + / Cu 2+ Cr 2+ /

More information

1. Balance the following equation. What is the sum of the coefficients of the reactants and products?

1. Balance the following equation. What is the sum of the coefficients of the reactants and products? 1. Balance the following equation. What is the sum of the coefficients of the reactants and products? 1 Fe 2 O 3 (s) + _3 C(s) 2 Fe(s) + _3 CO(g) a) 5 b) 6 c) 7 d) 8 e) 9 2. Which of the following equations

More information

Chapter 7: Chemical Reactions

Chapter 7: Chemical Reactions Chapter 7 Page 1 Chapter 7: Chemical Reactions A chemical reaction: a process in which at least one new substance is formed as the result of a chemical change. A + B C + D Reactants Products Evidence that

More information

Calculations and Chemical Equations. Example: Hydrogen atomic weight = 1.008 amu Carbon atomic weight = 12.001 amu

Calculations and Chemical Equations. Example: Hydrogen atomic weight = 1.008 amu Carbon atomic weight = 12.001 amu Calculations and Chemical Equations Atomic mass: Mass of an atom of an element, expressed in atomic mass units Atomic mass unit (amu): 1.661 x 10-24 g Atomic weight: Average mass of all isotopes of a given

More information

Experiment 8 - Double Displacement Reactions

Experiment 8 - Double Displacement Reactions Experiment 8 - Double Displacement Reactions A double displacement reaction involves two ionic compounds that are dissolved in water. In a double displacement reaction, it appears as though the ions are

More information

Solution. Practice Exercise. Concept Exercise

Solution. Practice Exercise. Concept Exercise Example Exercise 8.1 Evidence for a Reaction Which of the following is experimental evidence for a chemical reaction? (a) Pouring vinegar on baking soda gives foamy bubbles. (b) Mixing two solutions produces

More information

What is a Chemical Reaction?

What is a Chemical Reaction? Lab 8 Name What is a Chemical Reaction? Macroscopic Indications and Symbolic Representations Pre-Lab Assignment This written pre-lab is worth 25% (5 POINTS) of your lab report grade and must be turned

More information

6. A Six-Bottle Study of Ionic Compounds

6. A Six-Bottle Study of Ionic Compounds 6. A Six-Bottle Study of Ionic Compounds What you will accomplish in this experiment In last week s experiment, you observed a chemical change: a chemical reaction that resulted in a change in the composition,

More information

Experiment 1 Chemical Reactions and Net Ionic Equations

Experiment 1 Chemical Reactions and Net Ionic Equations Experiment 1 Chemical Reactions and Net Ionic Equations I. Objective: To predict the products of some displacement reactions and write net ionic equations. II. Chemical Principles: A. Reaction Types. Chemical

More information

Chapter 4: Reactions in Aqueous Solution (Sections )

Chapter 4: Reactions in Aqueous Solution (Sections ) Chapter 4: Reactions in Aqueous Solution (Sections 4.1-4.12) Chapter Goals Be able to: Classify substances as electrolytes or nonelectrolytes. Write molecular, ionic, and net ionic equations for precipitation,

More information

Metals tend to form positively charged ions (cations) and nonmetals tend to form negatively charged atoms (anions).

Metals tend to form positively charged ions (cations) and nonmetals tend to form negatively charged atoms (anions). Ions are atoms with a charge Cations= positive ions Anions = negative ions Metals tend to form positively charged ions (cations) and nonmetals tend to form negatively charged atoms (anions). When a metal

More information

Monday, October 15th. Today: Chapter Frequency: BB Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 6, Section 1 1

Monday, October 15th. Today: Chapter Frequency: BB Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 6, Section 1 1 Today: Chapter 6.1-6.4 Monday, October 15th Frequency: BB 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 6, Section 1 1 Chemical Change- Section 6.1 A chemical change occurs when a substance is converted into one

More information

WRITING CHEMICAL FORMULA

WRITING CHEMICAL FORMULA WRITING CHEMICAL FORMULA For ionic compounds, the chemical formula must be worked out. You will no longer have the list of ions in the exam (like at GCSE). Instead you must learn some and work out others.

More information

Name Class Date. Chapter: Chemical Equations and Reactions

Name Class Date. Chapter: Chemical Equations and Reactions Assessment Chapter Test A Chapter: Chemical Equations and Reactions In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or best answers each question. 1. You

More information

Summer Assignment Coversheet

Summer Assignment Coversheet Summer Assignment Coversheet Course: A.P. Chemistry Teachers Names: Mary Engels Assignment Title: Summer Assignment A Review Assignment Summary/Purpose: To review the Rules for Solubility, Oxidation Numbers,

More information

Chemical Reactions. Chemical Reaction. Chemical Reaction (continued) Reactants yield Products Or Reactants Products. Chemical Reactions 2014.

Chemical Reactions. Chemical Reaction. Chemical Reaction (continued) Reactants yield Products Or Reactants Products. Chemical Reactions 2014. Chemical Reactions D. Knauss RRHS Chemical Reaction When one or more substances change into one or more new substances with different chemical and physical properties. Chemical Reaction (continued) Reactants

More information

Physical Changes and Chemical Reactions

Physical Changes and Chemical Reactions Physical Changes and Chemical Reactions Gezahegn Chaka, Ph.D., and Sudha Madhugiri, Ph.D., Collin College Department of Chemistry Objectives Introduction To observe physical and chemical changes. To identify

More information

MOLE CONVERSION PROBLEMS. 2. How many moles are present in 34 grams of Cu(OH) 2? [0.35 moles]

MOLE CONVERSION PROBLEMS. 2. How many moles are present in 34 grams of Cu(OH) 2? [0.35 moles] MOLE CONVERSION PROBLEMS 1. What is the molar mass of MgO? [40.31 g/mol] 2. How many moles are present in 34 grams of Cu(OH) 2? [0.35 moles] 3. How many moles are present in 2.5 x 10 23 molecules of CH

More information

Elements, Compounds, subscript, superscript, coefficient Periodic Table o Periods, groups, etc. o Metals o Non-metals o Metalloids

Elements, Compounds, subscript, superscript, coefficient Periodic Table o Periods, groups, etc. o Metals o Non-metals o Metalloids Chemistry Elements, Compounds, subscript, superscript, coefficient Periodic Table o Periods, groups, etc. o Metals o Non-metals o Metalloids The patterns are related to the chemical properties of the element.

More information

David A. Katz Chemist, Educator, Science Communicator, and Consultant Department of Chemistry, Pima Community College

David A. Katz Chemist, Educator, Science Communicator, and Consultant Department of Chemistry, Pima Community College WRITING CHEMICAL EQUATIONS 2004, 2002, 1989 by David A. Katz. All rights reserved. Permission for classroom used provided original copyright is included. David A. Katz Chemist, Educator, Science Communicator,

More information

CHAPTER 8 Chemical Equations and Reactions

CHAPTER 8 Chemical Equations and Reactions CHAPTER 8 Chemical Equations and Reactions SECTION 1 Describing Chemical Reactions OBJECTIVES 1. List three observations that suggest that a chemical reaction has taken place. 2. List three requirements

More information

Chapter 3 Stoichiometry: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations

Chapter 3 Stoichiometry: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations CHE11 Chapter Chapter Stoichiometry: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations 1. When the following equation is balanced, the coefficients are. NH (g) + O (g) NO (g) + H O (g) (a). 1, 1, 1, 1

More information

UNIT (4) CALCULATIONS AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS

UNIT (4) CALCULATIONS AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS UNIT (4) CALCULATIONS AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS 4.1 Formula Masses Recall that the decimal number written under the symbol of the element in the periodic table is the atomic mass of the element. 1 7 8 12

More information

HOMEWORK 4A. Definitions. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions. Questions

HOMEWORK 4A. Definitions. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions. Questions HOMEWORK 4A Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 1. Indicate whether a reaction will occur or not in each of following. Wtiring a balcnced equation is not necessary. (a) Magnesium metal is added to hydrochloric

More information

NET IONIC EQUATIONS. A balanced chemical equation can describe all chemical reactions, an example of such an equation is:

NET IONIC EQUATIONS. A balanced chemical equation can describe all chemical reactions, an example of such an equation is: NET IONIC EQUATIONS A balanced chemical equation can describe all chemical reactions, an example of such an equation is: NaCl + AgNO 3 AgCl + NaNO 3 In this case, the simple formulas of the various reactants

More information

Department of Chemical Engineering Review Sheet Chemical Reactions Prepared by Dr. Timothy D. Placek from various sources

Department of Chemical Engineering Review Sheet Chemical Reactions Prepared by Dr. Timothy D. Placek from various sources Department of Chemical Engineering Review Sheet Chemical Reactions Prepared by Dr. Timothy D. Placek from various sources Introduction This document is intended to help you review the basics of writing

More information

Q1. The chart shows the processes involved in the manufacture of nitric acid from ammonia.

Q1. The chart shows the processes involved in the manufacture of nitric acid from ammonia. Chemistry C2 Foundation and Higher Questions Q1. The chart shows the processes involved in the manufacture of nitric acid from ammonia. (a) Complete the word equation for the reaction that takes place

More information

stoichiometry = the numerical relationships between chemical amounts in a reaction.

stoichiometry = the numerical relationships between chemical amounts in a reaction. 1 REACTIONS AND YIELD ANSWERS stoichiometry = the numerical relationships between chemical amounts in a reaction. 2C 8 H 18 (l) + 25O 2 16CO 2 (g) + 18H 2 O(g) From the equation, 16 moles of CO 2 (a greenhouse

More information

FORMULA WRITNG. 17. Sodium Phosphate 18. Iron (III) Chloride. 19. Potassium Carbonate 20. Copper (I) Hypochlorite

FORMULA WRITNG. 17. Sodium Phosphate 18. Iron (III) Chloride. 19. Potassium Carbonate 20. Copper (I) Hypochlorite FORMULA WRITNG Problem Set 8.1 Name: Hour: Date: Three basic rules in writing formulas: 1. Positive ion first, negative ion second. 2. Total positive charges much equal total negative charge. 3. The parentheses

More information