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1 Use with textbook pages Biomes and ecosystems Vocabulary abiotic adaptations behavioural biome biotic climatograph elevation latitude ocean currents physiological precipitation structural temperature terrestrial Use the terms in the vocabulary box to fill in the blanks. Use each term only once. 1. components are the living organisms in an environment, such as plants, animals, fungi, and bacteria. 2. components are the non-living parts of an environment, such as sunlight, soil, moisture, and temperature. 3. A includes large regions that have similar biotic components and abiotic components. 4. A biome is land-based. 5. and are two important abiotic factors that influence the characteristics of biomes and the distribution of biomes on Earth. 6. is the distance measured in degrees north or south from the equator. 7. is the height of a land mass above sea level. 8. are another abiotic factor that affects temperature and precipitation and therefore influences the characteristics of biomes. 9. A is a graph of climate data for a specific region and is generated from data usually obtained over 30 years from local weather observation stations. 10. are characteristics that enable organisms to better survive and reproduce. 11. A adaptation is a physical feature of an organism s body having a specific function that contributes to the survival of the organism. A adaptation is a physical or chemical event that occurs within the body of an organism that enables survival. A adaptation refers to what an organism does to survive in the unique conditions of its environment.

2 Use with textbook pages Climatographs Which world biomes are represented by the data in the following climatographs?

3 Use with textbook pages Biomes Circle the letter of the best answer. 7. A biome is best represented by a: A. river B. city C. latitude D. desert 8. Which of the following is an abiotic component of an environment? A. algae B. sunlight C. fungi D. plants 9. Which of the following is a biotic component of an ecosystem? A. moisture B. sand C. bacteria D. temperature 10. Which of the following is a characteristic of the boreal forest biome? A. below freezing half the year B. long, hot summers C. polar land masses D. lots of precipitation

4 11. Which world biome is represented by a climatograph that illustrates an average precipitation of 300 cm in the month of January? A. grassland B. tropical rainforest C. permanent ice D. temperate deciduous forest 12. Which world biome is represented by a climatograph that illustrates an average temperature of 25ºC in the month of July? A. boreal forest B. tropical rainforest C. permanent ice D. tundra 13. Rank tundra, boreal forest, permanent ice, temperate rainforest, and tropical rainforest in ascending order according to each of the following abiotic factors: a) latitude starting at the equator b) average annual temperature c) average annual precipitation Answer key a) tropical rainforest, temperate rainforest, boreal forest, tundra, permanent ice (5 Points) b) permanent ice, tundra, boreal forest, temperate rainforest, tropical rainforest (5 Points) c) tundra, permanent ice, boreal forest, temperate rainforest, tropical rainforest (5 Points) 14. a) Define the following terms: latitude and elevation. b) Explain how increasing latitude and increasing elevation have similar effects on precipitation and temperature. c) Draw two diagrams illustrating the effects of elevation and latitude on biome distributions. Include the following five biomes: permanent ice, boreal forest, tundra, tropical rainforest, and temperate rainforest.

5 Answer key a) Latitude: the distance measured in degrees north or south from the equator. Elevation: the height of a land mass above sea level. (2 Points) b) The amount of precipitation decreases with increasing latitude and increasing elevation. The equator receives the greatest amount of rainfall due to the sun heating moist air, which rises, cools, and falls back down as rain. At the polar region, there is little precipitation because clouds do not form readily. Elevation has a similar effect on precipitation. Temperature decreases with increased latitude and increased elevation. The sun s rays are less intense the farther they are from the equator because they are spread over a larger surface area, which causes the temperature to lower. As elevation increases, the atmosphere gets thinner. Thin atmosphere retains less heat, and therefore the temperature decreases. (2 Points) c) (10 Points) 15. Why is a tropical rainforest vulnerable to human activities? Answer key A tropical rainforest has infertile soil and will not support many years of agriculture after clearcutting. After the rainforest has been cleared for farming, it is difficult for the forest to regrow and re-establish itself on that land. A tropical rainforest has the greatest biodiversity of all the biomes. The abundance of one particular species is rare, and therefore makes the species more vulnerable to extinction. 16. Why is it possible to pass through several biomes as you drive up a mountain? Answer key Elevation influences both precipitation and temperature. These two factors vary considerably from a mountain s base to its peak. Variations in precipitation and temperature at different elevations on a mountain determine the distinct characteristics of its plant and animal communities. The variation in precipitation and temperature on a mountain will produce several different biomes. For example, the base of the mountain may resemble a tropical rainforest because of warm temperature and an abundance of rainfall. The peak of the mountain, however, may be like a tundra biome because temperature drops as

6 elevation increases. Halfway up the mountain, you may pass through a temperate deciduous forest and a boreal forest before reaching the peak. 17. Complete the following table: Biome Climate and Conditions Plants Animals Tundra Boreal Forest Temperate Deciduous Forest Temperate Rainforest Grassland Tropical Rainforest Desert Permanent Ice

7 Answer key Biome Climate and Conditions Plants Animals Tundra - poor soil quality - permafrost - flat terrain, poor drainage - very low temperature for most of the year (summer: 3C to 12C; winter -20C to -30C) - low precipitation (less than 25 cm annually) - mosses - lichens - no trees - short grasses - arctic crocus Boreal Forest Temperate Deciduous Forest Temperate Rainforest Grassland Tropical Rainforest - harsh climate - temperature is below freezing half the year - precipitation is 30 cm to 85 cm annually - soil is very wet - precipitation is 75 cm to 180 cm annually - temperature ranges from - 30C to 30C - seasonal changes between summer and winter are very large - fertile soil - precipitation is more than 200 cm annually - temperature ranges from 5C to 25C - found along coastlines - rich, fertile soil - temperate grassland: precipitation is 25 cm to 100 cm annually; temperature ranges from -10C to 30C - tropical grassland: precipitation is 50 cm to 130 cm annually; temperature ranges from 20C to 30C - precipitation is more than 250 cm annually - temperature ranges from 20C to 25C year- round - coniferous trees (black spruce, white spruce, balsam fir, cedar, pine) - shade-loving plants (mosses and ferns) - deciduous trees (maple, oak, and birch) - ferns - herbs - mosses - tall trees (spruce, Douglas fir) - mosses - lichens - ferns - fungi - grasses - trees are scarce - tall trees form dense canopies - vines - orchids - caribou - lemmings - arctic foxes - hares - squirrels - chipmunks - snowshoe hares - deer - wolves - moose - seed-eating and insect-eating birds - squirrels - rabbits - skunks - cougars - deer - wolves - bears - chipmunks - insects - birds - tropical grassland: antelopes, giraffes, zebras, lions, cheetahs, leopards - temperate grassland: kangaroos, horses, wolves, coyotes, rabbits, gophers, snakes - parrots - sloths - jaguars - snakes - poor soil quality Desert - precipitation is less than 25 - cacti - toads cm annually - plants that need to - scorpions - temperature ranges from conserve water - lizards 7C to 38C - jackrabbits - hot days and cold nights - pocket mice - coyotes Permanent - precipitation is less than 50 - lichens - penguins

8 Ice cm annually - temperature ranges from - 30C to 9C - mosses - polar bears - walruses - seals - arctic foxes

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