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1 13 Write, read, and evaluate expressions in which letters stand for numbers. 13a Write expressions that record operations with numbers and with letters standing for numbers. Objective: Write an algebraic expression to represent unknown quantities. A variable is a symbol, usually a letter, used to represent a number. Algebraic expressions are combinations of variables, numbers, and at least one operation. Phrases plus, increased by, sum, total minus, decreased by, difference times, of, product divided by, divided evenly, divided among, quotient Operation Addition Subtraction Multiplication Division Examples: 1. The sum of 3 and a number is written as 3 + n because the operation that is associated with the word sum is addition. 2. The difference of a number and seven tenths is written as n 0.7 because the operation that is associated with the word difference is subtraction. 3. The product of 10 and a number is written 10n because the operation associated with the word product is multiplication. 4. Twelve dollars divided evenly among a number of friends is written by is associated with division. " because the phrase divided 1.) a number, n, increased by ) a number, n, minus 3.) 5.) the sum of a number, n, and 51 of the students, s 4.) 6.) the difference of a number, n, and nine tenths 18 prizes divided among friends, f 7.) the quotient of a number, n, and 5 8.) 3 times the rate, r 1

2 13 Write, read, and evaluate expressions in which letters stand for numbers. 13c Evaluate expressions at specific values of their variables. Objective: Evaluate an algebraic expression. A variable is a symbol, usually a letter, used to represent a number. Algebraic expressions are combinations of variables, numbers, and at least one operation. Multiplication in algebra can be shown as 8n or 8 n The variables in an algebraic expression can be replaced with any number. Once the variables have been replaced, you can evaluate, or find the value of, the algebraic expression. Example 1: Evaluate 25 + n if n = 7 Example 2: Evaluate 12x if x = n = Replace n with 7. 12x = 12(6) Replace x with 6. = 32 Add 25 and 7. = 72 Multiply 12 and 6. Example 3: Evaluate 5x 20 if x = 10 5x 20 = 5(10) 20 Replace x with 10. = Use order of operations. = 30 Subtract 20 from ) Evaluate g if g = 35 2.) Evaluate 16k if k = 3 3.) Evaluate 14n + 19 if n = 4.) Evaluate 30p if p = ) Evaluate 3x + 10 if x = 4 6.) Evaluate 18 2r if r = 4.3 2

3 12 Write and evaluate numerical expressions involving whole-number exponents. Objective: Read, write, and represent whole numbers using exponential notation. Exponent Base 3 4 = = 81 Common Factors 1.) Write 10 4 as a product of the same factor. 2.) Write 2 6 as a product of the same factor. 3.) Evaluate ) Evaluate ) Write in exponential form. 6.) Write in exponential form. 3

4 12 Write and evaluate numerical expressions involving whole-number exponents. 13c Perform arithmetic operations, including those involving whole-number exponents, in the conventional order when there are no parentheses to specify a particular order (Order of Operations). Objective: Evaluate numeric expressions using order of operations. Examples: original expression calculate 4 2 and calculate 16 3 and divide 25 by add 48 and subtract 3 from 72 1.) ) ) ) ) )

5 12 Write and evaluate numerical expressions involving whole-number exponents. 13c Evaluate expressions at specific values of their variables. Include expressions that arise from formulas used in real world problems. Perform arithmetic operations, including those involving whole-number exponents, in the conventional order when there are no parentheses to specify a particular order (Order of Operations). Objective: Evaluate an algebraic expression using one unknown and no more than 2 operations. 1.) Evaluate 6s 2 if s = 3 2.) Evaluate if x = 2 3.) Evaluate 35 2n if n = 8 4.) Evaluate if n = 6 5.) Evaluate. if k = 4 6.) Evaluate x + 1 if x = 12 5

6 18 Solve real world and mathematical problems by writing and solving equations of the form x + p = q and px = q for cases in which p, q, and x are all nonnegative rational numbers. Objective: Determine the unknown in a linear equation (addition & subtraction). Addition equations: Subtract the same number from each side of the equation so that the two sides remain equal. Subtraction equation: Add the same number to each side of the equation so that the two sides remain equal. Example 1: Example 2: m + 3 = 10 original equation m 7 = 5 original equation 3 3 subtract 3 from each side add 7 to each side m + 0 = 7 solution m + 0 = 12 solution m = 7 simplify m = 12 simplify 1.) 2.) k + 5 = 18 g 9 = 14 3.) x = ) g 3.5 = ) y = 24 6.) n 2.75 =

7 18 Solve real world and mathematical problems by writing and solving equations of the form x + p = q and px = q for cases in which p, q, and x are all nonnegative rational numbers. Objective: Write and solve linear equations (addition & subtraction). Example: Last week, Brett ran 18 more miles than Luke. If Brett ran 27 miles, how many miles did Luke run? Step 1: Write the equation Let m = miles that Luke ran. Luke s miles + difference between Brett s miles and Luke s miles = Brett s miles m + 18 = 27 Step 2: Solve the equation. m + 18 = 27 Equation Subtract 18 from both sides. m + 0 = 9 Solution m = 9 Simplify \$ 1.) Write an equation and solve: 2.) Write an equation and solve: The sum of 6 and a number, n, is 15. Find the number. The difference between a number, x, and 4 is 9. Find the number. 3.) Write an equation and solve: Last week, Beth ran 14 more miles than Jennifer. If Beth ran twenty miles, how many miles did Jennifer run? 4.) Write an equation and solve: Mark paid \$11.50 for a pizza. He now has \$ How much money did he have before buying the pizza? 5.) Write an equation and solve: Katie is 5 years older than Jack. If Katie is 16, how old is Jack? 6.) Write an equation and solve: A number, n, decreased by 17 is 25. Find the number. 7

8 18 Solve real world and mathematical problems by writing and solving equations of the form x + p = q and px = q for cases in which p, q, and x are all nonnegative rational numbers. Objective: Determine the unknown in a linear equation (multiplication & division). Addition equations: Subtract the same number from each side of the equation so that the two sides remain equal. Subtraction equation: Add the same number to each side of the equation so that the two sides remain equal. Example 1: Example 2: 5m = 15 original equation = 7 original equation 5m = 15 4 = 7 4 multiply both sides by divide both sides by 3 1 = 28 solution 1m = 3 solution m = 28 simplify m = 3 simplify 1.) 2.) 7x = 63 8 = 7 3.) 5m = ) 6 = ) 12n = ) 15 =

9 18 Solve real world and mathematical problems by writing and solving equations of the form x + p = q and px = q for cases in which p, q, and x are all nonnegative rational numbers. Objective: Write and solve linear equations (multiplication & division). Example: Mario and two of his friends ordered a large pizza. They decided to divide the bill evenly. If each person paid \$6.75, what was the total bill? Step 1: Write the equation Let b = the total bill "#\$%"## = "#\$%&"#\$""#h"#\$%& Reason the problem with the correct "#\$%"#\$%&""#\$%" operation. = 6.75 Replace items with variables & values. Step 2: Solve the equation. = 6.75 Equation 3 1.) Write an equation and solve: The product of 8 and a number, n, is 40. Find the number. = Multiply both sides by 3. 1 b = Solution b = Simplify 2.) Write an equation and solve: A number, n, divided by 12 is 5. Find the number. 3.) Write an equation and solve: One-half of a number is 16. What is the number? 4.) Write an equation and solve: Mark s dad is 3 times older than Mark. If Mark s dad is 42, how old is Mark? 5.) Write an equation and solve: Sarah spent \$15 on three fancy pens. How much did each pen cost? 6.) Write an equation and solve: Kathryn and 7 friends went out to eat. They decided to divide the bill evenly. Each person paid \$8.72. What was the total bill? 9

10 19 Write an inequality of the form x > c or x < c to represent a constraint or condition in a real-world or mathematical problem. Recognize that inequalities of the form x > c or x < c have infinitely many solutions; represent solutions of such inequalities on number line diagrams. Objective: Identify or graph solutions of inequalities on a number line. Examples: Graph each inequality on a number line. x < 1 The open circle means that the number is not included in the solution. m 6 The closed circle means that the number is included in the solution. y > 2 The solution is all numbers greater than negative two. 2 is not included in the solution. 1.) Write an inequality for the graph. 2.) Write an inequality for the graph. 3.) Graph the inequality. 4.) Graph the inequality. x 4 n > 3 10

11 19 Write an inequality of the form x > c or x < c to represent a constraint or condition in a real-world or mathematical problem. Recognize that inequalities of the form x > c or x < c have infinitely many solutions; represent solutions of such inequalities on number line diagrams. Objective: Write inequality statements for real-world problems. Words Examples: 1. The amount, a, is less than \$250. a < \$ The temperature, t, will be at least 70. t The price, p, is no more than \$35 p \$35 4. The distance, d, is greater than 3 miles. d > 3 miles Symbols m is less than 9. m < 9 r is than or equal to 5 r 5 y is greater than 7 y > -7 z is greater than or equal to 1 z 1 1.) The price of a game, p, is at least \$50 2.) The wind speed, w, is greater than 60 mph. 3.) The number, n, is no more than 4 days. 4.) The time allowed, t, is 2 hours or less. 5.) The number of entries, n, is less than ) The temperature, t, is below 0 11

12 14 Apply properties of operations to generate equivalent expressions. Objective: Use the distributive property to generate equivalent expressions. The distributive property of multiplication over addition states: The same is true for subtraction: a(b + c) = a b + a c or a(b + c) = ab + ac. a(b c) = a b a c or a(b c) = ab ac. Examples: 1. 3(x + 5) = 3 x Distribute 3 through the parentheses; Multiply 3 by x and multiply 3 by 5. = 3x + 15 Simplify 2. 4(m 9) = 4 m 4 9 Distribute 4 through the parentheses; Multiply 4 by m and multiply 4 by 9. = 4m Use the distributive property to write an equivalent expression. 2(n + 7) 2. Use the distributive property to write an equivalent expression. 8(p 1) 3. Use the distributive property to write an equivalent expression. 7(m + 5) 4. Use the distributive property to write an equivalent expression. 12(x 4) 5. Use the distributive property to write an equivalent expression. 11(k + 4) 6. Use the distributive property to write an equivalent expression. 6(z 9) 12

13 14 Apply properties of operations to generate equivalent expressions. Objective: Combine like terms. Definition Terms are separated by addition or subtraction. A coefficient is the number multiplied by a variable in a term. Illustration 2x + 5x + 3y 2x, 5x, and 3y are terms. 2x + 5x + 3y 2, 5, and 3 are coefficients. Like terms have exactly the same variable. 2x + 5x + 3y 2x and 5x are like terms. **Like terms can be combined by adding or subtracting their coefficients. Examples: 1. Combine like terms: a + a + a a a + a + a a = original problem 1a + 1a + 1a + 1a = When a coefficient is not visible, it is 1. ( )a = 3a Add/subtract coefficients of like terms and simplify. 2. Combine like terms: 5x + x 7y 5x + x 7y = original problem 5x + 1x 7y = When a coefficient is not visible, it is 1. (5 + 1)x 7y = 6x 7y Add coefficients of like terms (5x and 1x); 7y remains unchanged. 1.)Combine like terms: p + p + p + p + p 2.) Combine like terms: 5x + 2x 3.)Combine like terms: 7y y 4.) Combine like terms: 3r + 4r + 5s 5.)Combine like terms: 5m 2m + 4n 6.) Combine like terms: 6a 4a + 7b 13

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