Principles of Ecology

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1 Principles of Ecology Before You Read Use the What I Know column to list the things you know about ecology. Then list the questions you have about ecology in the What I Want to Find Out column. K W L What I Know What I Want to Find Out What I Learned Science Journal Organisms such as birds get what they need to survive from their environment. Hypothesize why is it important for birds to be able to fly long distances. Principles of Ecology 11

2 Principles of Ecology Section 2.1 Organisms and Their Relationships Skim Section 1 of the chapter. Write two questions that come to mind from the headings and illustration captions. New abiotic factor Use the vocabulary words in the left margin to complete the graphic organizer below. List the biological levels from largest to smallest. Levels of Organization biological community biome biosphere biotic factor commensalism ecology ecosystem habitat mutualism niche parasitism population predation symbiosis Compare the terms in the tables by defining them side by side. habitat niche abiotic factor biotic factor symbiosis commensalism mutualism parasitism predation 12 Principles of Ecology

3 Section 2.1 Organisms and Their Relationship (continued) Ecology Create a journal entry. Imagine that you are an ecologist. Choose one plant or animal in nature and write three relationships of that organism in its environment. Journal Entry Organism The Biosphere Levels of Organization Sequence the abiotic and biotic factors. Write abiotic or biotic in each square. 1. lack of rainfall 4. rivers dry up 2. dry soil 5. animals do not reproduce Identify each level of organization that is described. a group of organisms of all the same species interacting populations 6. the population of a species diminishes an individual living thing made of cells 3. certain plants die all the different populations in a community a large group of organisms that share the same climate and have similar types of communities Principles of Ecology 13

4 Section 2.1 Organisms and Their Relationships (continued) Ecosystem Interactions Model a community with several organisms. Show two organisms occupying the same niche. Below your sketch, explain why those two organisms cannot usually occupy the same niche for long. Community Interactions Rephrase mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism in your own words. Provide an example of each term SUMM ARIZE Bacteria live inside our bodies. Analyze helpful, neutral, and harmful things that bacteria do while living in our bodies. Incorporate the terms parasitism, mutualism, habitat, and niche in your discussion. 14 Principles of Ecology

5 Principles of Ecology Section 2.2 Flow of Energy in an Ecosystem Scan Section 2 of the chapter. Make a list of the ways in which organisms obtain energy. Review energy Use your book or dictionary to define energy. Then name the ultimate source of energy for Earth. New autotroph biomass carnivore decomposer detritivore food chain food web herbivore heterotroph omnivore trophic level Academic foundation Use your book or dictionary to fill in vocabulary terms in this paragraph about food chains. In a, matter and energy move from to to. A food chain is made of many steps; each organism in the food chain represents a step called a. An is a heterotroph that eats only plants, whereas a to the soil, air, and water by preys on other heterotrophs. An eats both plants and animals. Nutrients are returned. A model that shows all the possible feeding relationships at each trophic level is called a. If you were a scientist and you wanted to determine the weight of living matter at a certain trophic level, you would measure the. Define foundation to show its scientific meaning. Principles of Ecology 15

6 Section 2.2 Flow of Energy in an Ecosystem (continued) Energy in an Ecosystem Summarize three ways that organisms get energy, by completing the table. Type of Organism Other name(s) for this type Autotrophs consumers, herbivores, carnivores, scavengers, omnivores 1. no other name Food comes from Chemical reactions that occur The organisms that are eaten are turned into energy and molecules for the consumer s body. Examples Design your own three-step example of the flow of energy. Classify each of the following organisms as an autotroph or a heterotroph. Put an A in front of those that are autotrophs and an H in front of those that are autotrophs. 1. Alligator 5. Moss 9. Dandelion 2. Squirrel 6. Siberian tiger 10. Rabbit 3. Maple tree 7. Daffodil 11. Tomato 4. Whale 8. Rhinoceros 12. Cockroach 16 Principles of Ecology

7 Section 2.2 Flow of Energy in an Ecosystem (continued) Models of Energy Flow Contrast a food chain with a food web. State three things that an ecological pyramid shows that food webs and food chains do not show. Create a food web and name the organisms you include. Indicate each organism s trophic level. SUMM ARIZE Analyze the place in the food chain in which you participate. Use the vocabulary terms from this section that apply to you. Principles of Ecology 17

8 Principles of Ecology Section 2.3 Cycling of Matter Scan the titles, boldfaced words, pictures, figures, and captions in Section 3. Write two facts you discovered about animals as you scanned the section Review cycle Use your book or dictionary to define cycle. Then give an example of a cycle. New biogeochemical cycle denitrification matter nitrogen fixation Use your book or dictionary to define each vocabulary term. nutrient 18 Principles of Ecology

9 Section 2.3 Cycling of Matter (continued) Cycles in the Biosphere Create minimodels for each cycle of matter in nature. Use words or pictures to sketch a simple example for each type of cycle to show the movement of matter. A. The Water Cycle B. The Carbon Cycle C. The Nitrogen Cycle D. The Phosphorus Cycle (short-term and long-term) Principles of Ecology 19

10 Section 2.3 Cycling of Matter (continued) Describe each of the cycles in nature. Identify where each cycle is found, how organisms use them, and what key words relate to them. Where found Water Carbon/ oxygen Nitrogen Phosphorus How used Key words in the cycle SUMM ARIZE Analyze current farming practices that are designed to make the best use of energy flow in ecosystems and cycles of matter. 20 Principles of Ecology

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