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2 Glencoe Science Copyright by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Permission is granted to reproduce the material contained herein on the condition that such materials be reproduced only for classroom use; be provided to students, teachers, and families without charge; and be used solely in conjunction with the Glencoe Biology program. Any other reproduction, for sale or other use, is expressly prohibited. Send all inquiries to: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 8787 Orion Place Columbus, OH ISBN-13: ISBN-10: Printed in the United States of America

3 Table of Contents To the Student vii Dinah Zike s Foldables viii Chapter 1 The Study of Life 1.1 Introduction to Biology The Nature of Science Methods of Science Chapter 2 Principles of Ecology 2.1 Organisms and Their Relationships Flow of Energy in an Ecosystem Cycling of Matter Chapter 3 Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems 3.1 Community Ecology Terrestrial Biomes Aquatic Ecosystems Chapter 4 Population Ecology 4.1 Population Dynamics Human Population Chapter 5 Biodiversity and Conservation 5.1 Biodiversity Threats to Biodiversity Conserving Biodiversity Chapter 6 Chemistry in Biology 6.1 Atoms, Elements, and Compounds Chemical Reactions Water and Solutions The Building Blocks of Life Chapter 7 Cellular Structure and Function 7.1 Cell Discovery and Theory The Plasma Membrane Structures and Organelles Cellular Transport Chapter 8 Cellular Energy 8.1 How Organisms Obtain Energy Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction 9.1 Cellular Growth Mitosis and Cytokinesis Cell Cycle Regulation iii

4 iv Chapter 10 Sexual Reproduction and Genetics 10.1 Meiosis Mendelian Genetics Gene Linkage and Polyploidy Chapter 11 Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity 11.1 Basic Patterns of Human Inheritance Complex Patterns of Inheritance Chromosomes and Human Heredity Chapter 12 Molecular Genetics 12.1 DNA: The Genetic Material Replication of DNA DNA, RNA, and Protein Gene Regulation and Mutations Chapter 13 Genetics and Biotechnology 13.1 Applied Genetics DNA Technology The Human Genome Chapter 14 The History of Life 14.1 Fossil Evidence of Change The Origin of Life Chapter 15 Evolution 15.1 Darwin s Theory of Natural Selection Evidence of Evolution Shaping Evolutionary Theory Chapter 16 Primate Evolution 16.1 Primates Hominoids to Hominins Human Ancestry Chapter 17 Organizing Life s Diversity 17.1 The History of Classification Modern Classification Domains and Kingdoms Chapter 18 Bacteria and Viruses 18.1 Bacteria Viruses and Prions Chapter 19 Protists 19.1 Introduction to Protists Protozoans Animal-like Protists Algae Plantlike Protists Funguslike Protists Chapter 20 Fungi 20.1 Introduction to Fungi Diversity of Fungi Ecology of Fungi

5 Chapter 21 Introduction to Plants 21.1 Plant Evolution and Adaptations Nonvascular Plants Seedless Vascular Plants Vascular Seed Plants Chapter 22 Plant Structure and Function 22.1 Plant Cells and Tissues Roots, Stems, and Leaves Plant Hormones and Responses Chapter 23 Reproduction in Plants 23.1 Introduction to Plant Reproduction Flowers Flowering Plants Chapter 24 Introduction to Animals 24.1 Animal Characteristics Animal Body Plans Sponges and Cnidarians Chapter 25 Worms and Mollusks 25.1 Flatworms Roundworms and Rotifers Mollusks Segmented Worms Chapter 26 Arthropods 26.1 Arthropod Characteristics Arthropod Diversity Insects and Their Relatives Chapter 27 Echinoderms and Invertebrate Chordates 27.1 Echinoderm Characteristics Invertebrate Chordates Chapter 28 Fishes and Amphibians 28.1 Fishes Diversity of Today s Fishes Amphibians Chapter 29 Reptiles and Birds 29.1 Reptiles Birds Chapter 30 Mammals 30.1 Mammalian Characteristics Diversity of Mammals Chapter 31 Animal Behavior 31.1 Basic Behaviors Ecological Behaviors v

6 Chapter 32 Integumentary, Skeletal, and Muscular Systems 32.1 The Integumentary System The Skeletal System The Muscular System Chapter 33 Nervous System 33.1 Structure of the Nervous System Organization of the Nervous System The Senses Effects of Drugs Chapter 34 Circulatory, Respiratory, and Excretory Systems 34.1 Circulatory System Respiratory System Excretory System Chapter 35 Digestive and Endocrine Systems 35.1 The Digestive System Nutrition The Endocrine System Chapter 36 Human Reproduction and Development 36.1 Reproductive Systems Human Development Before Birth Birth, Growth, and Aging Chapter 37 Immune System 37.1 Infectious Diseases The Immune System Noninfectious Disorders vi

7 To the Student Reading Essentials for Biology takes the stress out of reading, learning, and understanding biology. This book covers important concepts in biology, offers ideas for how to learn the information, and helps you review what you have learned. Understanding biology concepts will help you improve your criticalthinking skills, solve problems effectively, and make useful decisions. The chapters of Reading Essentials for Biology include the following elements. Before You Read sparks your interest in what you will learn and relates it to your world. The Main Idea and What You ll Learn statements help focus on the most important concepts in the section. Read to Learn describes important biology concepts with words and graphics. Next to the text you can find a variety of study tips and ideas for organizing and learning information: Study Coach and Mark the Text offer tips for getting the main ideas out of the text. Foldables Study Organizers help you divide the information into smaller, easier-to-remember concepts. Reading Checks ask questions about key concepts. The questions are placed so you know whether you understand the material. Think It Over elements help you consider the material in-depth, giving you an opportunity to use your critical-thinking skills. Picture This questions relate to the illustrations used with the text. The questions will help get you actively involved in illustrating the important concepts. Applying Math reinforces the connection between math and science. vii

8 Dinah Zike s Foldables TM A Foldable is a 3-D, interactive graphic organizer. By using Foldables, you can quickly organize and retain information. Every chapter in Reading Essentials for Biology includes a Foldable that can be used to organize important ideas in the chapter. Later, the Foldable can be used as a study guide for main ideas and key points in the chapter. Foldables can also be used for a more in-depth investigation of the key terms, concepts, or ideas presented in the chapter. The Foldables for this book can be created using notebook paper or plain sheets of paper. Some will require scissors to cut the tabs. The Foldables created for this book can be stored in a plastic bag, a box, or sheet protectors in a three-ring binder. By keeping your Foldables organized, you will have a ready study tool. You will also be creating a portfolio of your work. Your teacher might ask you to make the Foldables found on the Start-Up Activities pages in the Student Edition, in addition to the Foldables you will make for Reading Essentials for Biology. As you become familiar with Foldables, you might see other opportunities to use Foldables to create additional study tools. Keep together all the Foldables you make for a chapter. Use them as you review the chapter and study for assessments. viii

9 1 The Study of Life section 1 Introduction to Biology Before You Read What does it mean to be alive? On the lines below, list characteristics that you think living things have. Then read the section to learn what you have in common with other living things. All living things share the characteristics of life. What You ll Learn the definition of biology possible benefits from studying biology characteristics of living things Read to Learn The Science of Life Biology is the science of life. In biology, you will learn the origins and history of life and once-living things. You will also learn structures, functions, and interactions of living things. What do biologists do? Biologists make discoveries and look for explanations by performing laboratory and field studies. Some biologists study animals in their natural environment. For example, Jane Goodall s observations helped scientists know how best to protect chimpanzees. Other biologists research diseases to develop new medicines. Many biologists work to develop new technology. Technology is the application of scientific knowledge to solve human needs and to extend human capabilities. For example, Dr. Charles Drew developed methods to separate blood plasma for transfusions. His research led to blood banks. Some biologists study genetic engineering of plants. They try to develop plants that can grow in poor soils and resist insects and disease. Environmental biologists try to protect animals and plants from extinction by developing ways to protect them. Make Flash Cards Make a flash card for each key term in this section. Write the term on one side of the card. Write the definition on the other side. Use the flash cards to review what you have learned. Summarize Information Make an eight-tab Foldable from a sheet of paper. Label the tabs with the question heads in this section. As you read, summarize the answers under the tabs. What do biologists do? Reading Essentials Chapter 1 The Study of Life 1

10 Picture This 1. Highlight each characteristic of life in the table as you read about it in the section. Use the descriptions in the table to review what you have learned. Characteristic of Life The Characteristics of Life From many observations, biologists concluded that all living things have certain characteristics. The characteristics of life are listed in the table below. An organism is anything that has or once had all these characteristics. Description Made of one or more cells Displays organization Grows and develops Reproduces Responds to stimuli Requires energy The cell is the basic unit of life. Some organisms have one cell only. Others have many cells. The organization of a biological system begins with atoms and molecules. Each organized structure in an organism has a specific function. For example, an anteater s snout is long because it functions as a container for the long tongue. Growth results in an increase in mass. Development results in different abilities. For example, a tadpole grows larger and develops into an adult frog. Organisms reproduce and pass on traits to the next generation. Reproduction must occur for a species to continue to exist. Reactions to stimuli from inside and outside the body are called responses. For example, a cheetah responds to the need for food by chasing a gazelle. The gazelle responds by running away. Energy is needed for life processes. Many organisms get energy by taking in food. Other organisms make their own food. Maintains homeostasis Adaptations evolve over time 2. Sequence the levels of organization, from least complex to most complex. Homeostasis is the process that keeps conditions inside the bodies of all organisms stable. For example, humans perspire when hot to lower body temperature. Adaptations are inherited changes that occur over time and help the species survive. What determines a cell s structure? Cells are the basic units of structure and function in all living things. Some organisms, such as bacteria, are unicellular they have just one cell. Humans and plants are multicellular they have many cells. The structure of a cell is related to its function. For example, each cell in a tree s roots has a structure that enables it to take in water from soil. How are living things organized? Living things display organization. This means they are arranged in an orderly way. Each cell is made up of atoms and molecules. Tissues are groups of specialized cells that work together. Tissues are organized into organs, which perform functions such as digestion. Organ systems work together to support an organism. 2 Chapter 1 The Study of Life Reading Essentials

11 How does development differ from growth? Growth adds mass to an organism. Many organisms form new cells and new structures as they grow. Development is the process of natural changes that take place during the life of an organism. For example, after baby birds hatch they cannot fly for a few weeks. As they grow, they develop structures that give them the ability to fly. Why is reproduction important to a species? Reproduction is the production of offspring. If a species is to continue to exist, some members of the species must reproduce. A species is a group of organisms that can breed with one another and produce fertile offspring. Without reproduction, a species will become extinct. Why is the ability to respond to stimuli critical? An organism s external environment includes all things that surround it, such as air, water, soil, rocks, and other organisms. An organism s internal environment includes all things inside it. A stimulus (plural, stimuli) is anything that is part of either environment that causes some reaction by the organism. The reaction to a stimulus is a response. For example, a houseplant responds to the sunlight coming through a window by growing toward it. The ability to respond to stimuli is important for survival. How do organisms obtain energy? Living things need energy to fuel their life functions. Living things get their energy from food. Most plants and some unicellular organisms use light energy from the Sun to make their own food. Organisms that cannot make their own food get energy by consuming other organisms. Why must an organism maintain homeostasis? Homeostasis (hoh mee oh STAY sus) is the regulation of an organism s internal conditions to maintain life. If anything upsets an organism s normal state, processes to restore the normal state begin. If homeostasis is not restored, the organism might die. How do adaptations benefit a species? An adaptation is any inherited characteristic that results from changes to a species over time. Adaptations make the members of a species better able to survive and, therefore, better able to pass their genes to their offspring. 3. Apply Give an example of an internal stimulus for a rabbit. Describe an appropriate response to the stimulus. 4. Summarize the importance of homeostasis. biologygmh.com Chapter 1 The Study of Life 3

12 1 The Study of Life section 2 The Nature of Science Science is the process based on inquiry that seeks to develop explanations. What You ll Learn characteristics of science how to distinguish science from pseudoscience the importance of the metric system and SI Before You Read When you see a headline such as Alien Baby Found in Campsite, how do you know whether to believe it? Write your thoughts on the lines below. Then read the section to learn how to tell the difference between science and pseudoscience. Restate the Main Point Highlight the main point in each paragraph. Then restate each main point in your own words. 1. Identify the key requirement for an explanation of a natural phenomenon to become a theory. Read to Learn What is science? Science is a body of knowledge based on the study of nature and its physical setting. The purpose of science is scientific inquiry the development of explanations. Scientific inquiry is a creative process as well as a process involving observation and experimentation. How are scientific theories developed? A theory is an explanation of a natural phenomenon supported by many observations and experiments over time. A scientific explanation combines what is already known about something with many observations and experiments. An explanation becomes a theory only when investigations produce enough evidence to support the idea. For example, the theory of evolution is based on many observations and investigations and has a lot of supporting evidence. A pseudoscience (soo doh SI uhnts) is an area of study that tries to imitate science. Astrology, horoscopes, and psychic reading are pseudosciences. They are not supported by science-based evidence. 4 Chapter 1 The Study of Life Reading Essentials

13 How does science expand knowledge? Science is guided by research that results in a constant reevaluation of what is known. This reevaluation process leads to new knowledge. It also leads to new questions that require more research. What happens when scientists disagree? Scientists welcome debate. Disagreements among scientists often lead to further investigation. Science advances when new discoveries are added to the existing body of knowledge. For example, scientific research has dramatically increased our understanding of HIV. How do scientists deal with inconsistent data? When observations or data are not consistent with current understanding, scientists investigate the inconsistencies. For example, some early biologists suggested that bats had traits that were more similar to those of mammals than those of birds, as shown in the figure below. This idea led to further investigation. The new evidence confirmed that bats are more closely related to mammals than to birds. In pseudoscience, observations that are not consistent with beliefs are ignored. 2. Contrast the role of research in science and pseudoscience. How do scientists test claims? In science, all research follows standard procedures. Conclusions are based on evidence from carefully controlled investigations. Pseudoscientists make claims that cannot be tested. These claims are a mix of facts and opinions. How are scientific investigations evaluated? Scientific investigations undergo peer review. Peer review in science is a process in which the procedures used during an experiment and the results are evaluated by scientists who are in the same field or are doing similar research. Picture This 3. Compare Are the structures of a bat s wing more like a human arm or a bird s wing? Explain. Reading Essentials Chapter 1 The Study of Life 5

14 4. Apply What unit do scientists use to measure the weight of an organism? 5. Summarize Complete the following sentence: I need to be science literate in order to... What system of measurement do scientists use? Scientists use the metric system of measurement. The metric system uses units with divisions that are powers of ten. In 1960, a system of unit standards of the metric system was established. This system is called the International System of Units, or SI. In biology, the SI units you will use most often are meter (length), gram (mass), liter (volume), and second (time). Science in Everyday Life Science is not limited to the laboratory. It is all around you. Many popular television shows about crime are based on forensics the field that uses science to investigate crime. The media is filled with information on medical advances, new scientific discoveries, and new technologies. Why is science literacy important? To evaluate the vast amount of information available in print, online, and on television, you must be science literate. To be science literate, you need to combine a basic understanding of science and its process with reasoning and thinking skills. Many important issues today relate to biology. Drugs, alcohol, tobacco, AIDS, mental illness, cancer, heart disease, and eating disorders are all subjects for biological research. You and future generations will face environmental issues, such as global warming, pollution, use of fossil fuels, nuclear power, genetically modified foods, and preserving biodiversity. How do ethics apply to science? Many scientific inquiries involve ethics. Ethics are a set of moral principles or values. Ethical issues are involved in the study of cloning, genetic engineering, eugenics (yoo JEH niks), euthanasia (yoo thuh NAY zhuh), and cryonics (kri AH niks). Eugenics is improving a race or breed by controlling mating. Euthanasia is permitting death for reasons of mercy. Cryonics is freezing a dead organism with the hope of reviving it in the future. Scientists provide information about new discoveries and technology. As a scientifically literate adult, you will be able to participate in discussions about important issues. You will have the opportunity to support policies that reflect your values. 6 Chapter 1 The Study of Life biologygmh.com

15 1 The Study of Life section 3 Methods of Science Before You Read Suppose you want to identify a bird that visits the feeder in your yard. On the lines below, describe some methods you might use to identify the bird. Then read the section to learn the methods scientists use to gather information and answer questions. Biologists use specific methods when conducting research. What You ll Learn the difference between an observation and an inference how a control, an independent variable, and a dependent variable differ Read to Learn Ask a Question Scientific inquiry begins with observation. Observation is a direct method of gathering information in an orderly way. It often involves recording information. For example, if you want to identify a bird, you observe it. You note how it behaves and what it eats. You might draw or photograph it. Scientific inquiry involves asking questions and using information from reliable sources. By combining information from other sources with your observations of the bird, you could start making logical conclusions. This process is called making inferences, or inferring. For example, if you saw a photo of a bird that was similar to your bird, you might infer that your bird was related to the bird in the photo. Biologists work in many settings. They work in the field. They work in laboratories, universities, and museums. No matter where they work, all biologists use similar methods to gather information and to answer questions. These methods are an organized series of events called scientific methods. Throughout the process, biologists continue to observe and make inferences. Make an Outline Make an outline of the information you learn in this section. Start with the headings. Include the boldface terms. 1. Explain how inferences relate to observation. Reading Essentials Chapter 1 The Study of Life 7

16 Picture This 2. Sequence After a researcher draws a conclusion, what does he or she do next, whether or not the hypothesis is supported? (Circle your answer.) a. draw another conclusion b. conduct another experiment c. compare results again Form a Hypothesis The figure below shows the sequence of events in scientific methods. Scientists use the information they gather from observation and other sources to form a hypothesis. A hypothesis (hi PAH thuh sus) is a testable explanation of a situation. When enough data from many investigations support a hypothesis, the scientific community accepts the explanation as valid. If the data do not support a hypothesis, the hypothesis is revised and investigated further. Sometimes scientists make unexpected discoveries. Serendipity is the occurrence of accidental or unexpected, but fortunate, results. For example, penicillin was discovered while a scientist was investigating something else. 3. Explain the purpose of an experiment. Collect the Data Scientists test a hypothesis through experiments. An experiment is an investigation done in a controlled setting that tests the hypothesis. 8 Chapter 1 The Study of Life Reading Essentials

17 What is the purpose of a control group? Experiments have an experimental group and a control group. The experimental group is the group exposed to the factor being tested. For example, suppose scientists wanted to test the effects of a vitamin supplement on energy level. The experimental group would receive the vitamin. The control group is the group used for comparison. This group would not receive the vitamin. How do scientists design an experiment? In a controlled experiment, scientists change only one factor at a time. The factor that is changed in an experiment is called the independent variable. It is the tested factor, and it might affect the outcome of the experiment. A dependent variable is something that results from or depends on changes to the independent variable. In our example, the vitamin is the independent variable and energy level is the dependent variable. A constant is something that remains fixed during an experiment, while the independent and dependent variables change. What two kinds of data do scientists collect? Information gained from observations is called data. Data in the form of numbers is called quantitative data. Quantitative data might measure time, temperature, length, mass, area, volume, density, or other factors. Qualitative data are descriptions of what the observer senses. Everyone senses things differently. As a result, qualitative data can vary from one observer to another. What are some other ways to investigate? Some biologists focus on observing and collecting data rather than doing controlled experiments. For example, some biologists specialize in finding new species. Others use computers to model the natural behavior of organisms. Analyze the Data After biologists collect data from experiments, they interpret the data and look for patterns. They compare their results to expected results to see if the data support their hypothesis. If not, they revise the hypothesis and retest. Even when the data support the hypothesis, the experiment must be repeated many more times. Consistent results from repeated trials give strength to the hypothesis as a valid explanation for the tested phenomenon. 4. Apply Suppose a biologist designed an experiment to study the effect of water pollution on the reproductive rate of salmon. What is the dependent variable in this experiment? 5. Classify The average high temperature here in March is 22 C. Is this information qualitative data or quantitative data? Reading Essentials Chapter 1 The Study of Life 9

18 Picture This 6. Predict what the mass of the anole will be at 21 days. Why do biologists use tables and graphs? Biologists often display data in tables and graphs to make patterns easier to detect. The data about the mass of an anole, a type of lizard, are listed in the table below. The data are plotted on the graph. Note the regular pattern in the graph. The mass increases over a three-day period and then levels off for three days. Then it increases again. 7. Explain the purpose of a safety symbol. Report Conclusions Scientists write a report of their experiments for peer review. Other scientists in the same field examine the methods, analysis, and conclusions in the report. If the reviewers agree that the report has value, then the report is published in a scientific journal. Student Scientific Inquiry As you study biology, you might have opportunities to do your own investigations. If so, develop a research plan based on the scientific methods described in this chapter. Ask meaningful questions. Form hypotheses. Collect data by conducting careful experiments. Analyze the data. Draw conclusions and report them. During biology labs, warning statements and safety symbols will alert you to possible hazards. A safety symbol is a logo designed to alert you about a specific danger. Refer to the safety symbols chart at the front of the textbook before beginning any field or lab activity. Learn where safety equipment is located in the classroom. You are responsible for performing your investigations safely at all times. 10 Chapter 1 The Study of Life biologygmh.com

19 2 Principles of Ecology section 1 Organisms and Their Relationships Before You Read On the lines below, list the organisms that you have encountered today. You share the same environment with these organisms. In this section you will learn how many organisms exist in the same environment. Biotic and abiotic factors work together in an ecosystem. What You ll Learn the differences between biotic and abiotic factors the levels of biological organization the difference between an organism s habitat and its niche Read to Learn Ecology Each living organism depends on nonliving factors for survival in its environment. Each living organism also depends on other living organisms in its environment. Green plants are a food source and can be a place where other organisms live. The animals that eat plants provide food for other organisms. Organisms depend on each other in all types of environments deserts, tropical rain forests, and grassy meadows. Ecology is the study of the interactions between organisms and their environments. What do ecologists do? Scientists who study ecology are called ecologists. The German biologist Ernst Haeckel introduced the word ecology in Eventually, it became a separate field of study. Ecologists use various tools and methods to observe, experiment, and create models. Ecologists conduct tests to learn why and how organisms survive. For example, tests might help explain how some organisms survive in cold water. Ecologists also learn about the interactions between organisms by observing them in their environments. Sometimes observations are made over long periods of time. This process is called longitudinal analysis. Make an Outline Create an outline of this section. Use the headings to organize your outline. List details from what you have read to complete your outline. 1. List three ways ecologists study interactions between organisms. Reading Essentials Chapter 2 Principles of Ecology 11

20 Why do ecologists use models? Studying organisms in their environments is not always possible. Ecologists use models to represent a process or system in the environment. By using models, ecologists can control the number of variables. Scientists can measure the effect of each variable one at a time, on the model. 2. Define the biosphere. 3. Evaluate Describe the abiotic factors in the environment where you currently live. The Biosphere The biosphere (BI uh sfihr) is the portion of Earth that supports life. Ecologists study what takes place in the biosphere. The biosphere includes the air, water, and land where organisms can live, both above and below the ground. The biosphere supports a wide variety of organisms in a wide range of conditions. Climates, soils, plants, and animals differ in different parts of the world. Frozen polar regions, deserts, and rain forests contain organisms. The organisms are adapted to survive in the conditions of their environments. The factors in all environments can be divided into two groups living factors and nonliving factors. What are biotic factors? Biotic (bi AH tihk) factors are the living factors in an organism s environment. For example, the algae, frogs, and microscopic organisms in the stream are biotic factors for salmon in a stream. Other biotic factors live on the land bordering the stream. These include plants, insects, and small animals. Birds that feed on organisms in the stream are also part of the salmon s biotic factors. These factors interact directly or indirectly. The salmon depend on biotic factors for food, shelter, reproduction, and protection, and in turn can provide food for other organisms. What are abiotic factors? The nonliving factors in an organism s environment are called abiotic (ay bi AH tihk) factors. The abiotic factors for the salmon might be the temperature range of the water, the ph of the water, and the salt concentration of the water. For a plant, abiotic factors might include the amount of rainfall, the amount of sunlight, the type of soil, the range of air and soil temperatures, and the nutrients available in the soil. Organisms are adapted to the abiotic factors in their natural environment. If an organism moves to a different location with a different set of abiotic factors, the organism must adjust, or it will die. 12 Chapter 2 Principles of Ecology Reading Essentials

21 Levels of Organization The biosphere is too large to study all the relationships at one time. Scientists use smaller pieces, or levels of organization, for their studies. The numbers and interactions among organisms increase at higher levels of organization. The following are levels of organization from simplest to most complex: 1. organism 2. population 3. biological community 4. ecosystem 5. biome 6. biosphere The first four of these levels of organization are shown in the figure below. organism Picture This 4. Generalize How do the levels become more complex? population biological community ecosystem How do available resources affect a population? The lowest level of complexity that ecologists study is an individual organism. Individual organisms of the same species living in the same geographic location at the same time make up a population. A school of fish is a population. Individual organisms in the population must compete to survive. They compete for food, water, mates, and other resources. 5. Identify Which of the following is a population? (Circle your answer.) a. all rabbits living on Earth b. all white-tailed rabbits living in a meadow today c. all white-tailed rabbits that have ever lived in a meadow Reading Essentials Chapter 2 Principles of Ecology 13

22 6. Draw Conclusions If a population is growing, what can you conclude about the amount of resources available to the organisms? What limits the size of a population? A population can keep growing as long as resources are available to its members. If a population grows too large, there will not be enough resources for all members of the population. The population will get smaller until it reaches a number that can be supported by the available resources. What is a biological community? A biological community is a group of populations that interact in the same geographic area at the same time. Organisms might or might not compete for available resources in a biological community. The plants and animals that live in a park are a biological community. Who defines the boundaries of an ecosystem? An ecosystem is a biological community and all the abiotic factors that affect it. Water temperature and available light are examples of abiotic factors. An ecosystem can be large or small. The ecologist defines the boundaries of the ecosystem. Boundaries can change or overlap each other. A biome is a large group of ecosystems that share the same climate and have similar types of biological communities. You will learn more about biomes in Chapter 3. All the biomes on Earth combine to form the biosphere. 7. Explain the difference between a habitat and a niche. Ecosystem Interactions Organisms increase their chances of survival by using available resources in different ways. Birds might use a tree for shelter, while insects use the tree s leaves for food. The tree is the habitat for the community of organisms that live there. A habitat is an area where an organism lives. An organism such as an insect might spend its entire life on one tree. Its habitat is that tree. A bird flies from tree to tree. Its habitat is the grove of trees. Organisms also have a niche. A niche (NIHCH) is the role an organism has in its environment. It is how the species meets its specific needs for food and shelter. It is how and where the species survives and reproduces. Community Interactions Organisms living in biological communities interact constantly. Ecosystems are shaped by these interactions and the abiotic factors. In a biological community, each organism depends on other organisms and competes with other organisms. 14 Chapter 2 Principles of Ecology Reading Essentials

23 When do organisms compete? Competition occurs when organisms need to use the same resource at the same time. Organisms compete for such resources as food, water, space, and light. When strong organisms compete with weak organisms, the strong organisms usually survive. During a drought, water might be scarce for many organisms. Strong organisms will use the available water. Weak organisms might die or move to another location. What is predation? The act of one organism consuming another organism for food is predation (prih DAY shun). Most organisms obtain their food by eating other organisms. If you have seen a cat stalk and capture a mouse, you have seen a predator catch its prey. The organism that pursues the cat is the predator. The organism that is pursued the mouse is the prey. Predators can be plants, animals, or insects. What is symbiosis? Some species survive because of relationships with other species. A relationship in which two organisms live together in close association is called symbiosis (sihm bee OH sus). The three kinds of symbiosis are mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism. Mutualism A relationship between two species that live together and benefit from each other is called mutualism (MYEW chuh wuh lih zum). A lichen (LI kun) is a mutualistic relationship between algae and fungi. The algae provide food for the fungi. The fungi provide a habitat for the algae. Food and shelter are the benefits of this relationship. Commensalism A relationship in which one organism is helped and the other organism is not harmed or helped is called commensalism (kuh MEN suh lih zum). For example, mosses sometimes grow on tree branches. This does not harm or help the tree, but the mosses benefit from a good habitat. Parasitism A relationship in which one organism benefits and another organism is harmed is called parasitism (PER us suh tih zum). When a tick lives on a dog, it is good for the tick but bad for the dog. The tick gets food and shelter, but the dog might get sick. The tick is the parasite and is helped by the relationship. The dog is the host. Usually the parasite does not kill the host, but it might harm or weaken it. If the host dies, the parasite will also die, unless it can find another host. 8. Classify List two more examples of predation that you have seen or of which you have learned. 9. Apply Clown fish live among sea anemones. The anemones provide protection for the clown fish. The clown fish eats food missed by the sea anemones. What term best describes this relationship? biologygmh.com Chapter 2 Principles of Ecology 15

24 2 Principles of Ecology section 2 Flow of Energy in an Ecosystem Autotrophs capture energy, making it available for all members of a food web. What You ll Learn the flow of energy through an ecosystem food chains, food webs, and pyramid models Before You Read If a pet had to survive without your care, how would its diet change? Write your ideas on the lines below. Read about how organisms get food and energy in their environment. Make Flash Cards Make a flash card for each question heading in this section. On the back of the flash card, write the answer to the question. Use the flash cards to review what you have learned. 1. Define What type of heterotroph consumes plants for energy? Read to Learn Energy in an Ecosystem One way to study the interactions within an ecosystem is to trace how energy flows through the system. All organisms are classified by the way they obtain energy. How do autotrophs obtain energy? All green plants and other organisms that produce their own food are the primary producers of food in an ecosystem. They are called autotrophs. An autotroph (AW tuh trohf) is an organism that captures energy from sunlight or inorganic substances to produce food. Autotrophs make energy available for all other organisms in the ecosystem. How do heterotrophs differ from autotrophs? A heterotroph (HE tuh roh trohf), also called a consumer, is an organism that obtains energy by consuming other organisms. A heterotroph that consumes only plants is an herbivore (HUR buh vor). Cows, rabbits, and grasshoppers are herbivores. Heterotrophs that prey on other heterotrophs are known as carnivores (KAR nuh vorz). Wolves and lions are carnivores. Omnivores (AHM nih vorz) eat both plants and animals. Bears, humans, and mockingbirds are examples of omnivores. 16 Chapter 2 Principles of Ecology Reading Essentials

25 How do detritivores help an ecosystem? Detritivores (duh TRYD uh vorz) decompose organic materials in an ecosystem and return the nutrients to the soil, air, and water. The nutrients then become available for use by other organisms. Hyenas and vultures are detritivores. They feed on animals that have died. Fungi and bacteria are also detritivores. Detritivores play an important role in the biosphere. Without them, the biosphere would be littered with dead organisms. The nutrients in these dead organisms would not be available to other organisms. Detritivores make these nutrients available for use by other organisms. Models of Energy Flow Ecologists study feeding relationships to learn how energy flows in an ecosystem. Ecologists use food chains and food webs to describe the flow of energy. Each step in a food chain or food web is called a trophic (TROH fihk) level. Autotrophs are the first trophic level in all ecosystems. Heterotrophs make up the remaining levels. Organisms at the first trophic level produce their own food. Organisms at all other levels get energy from the trophic level before it. What is a food chain? A food chain is a simple model that shows how energy flows through an ecosystem. A typical grassland food chain is shown in the figure below. Each organism gets energy from the organism it eats. The flow of energy is always one way into the consumer. An organism uses part of the energy to build new cells and tissues. The remaining energy is released into the environment and is no longer available to these organisms. Plant Producer Herbivore Grasshopper Mouse Omnivore Carnivore Snake 2. Explain How do organisms in an ecosystem depend on detritivores? Picture This 3. Label Draw a circle around the autotroph. Draw a box around the heterotrophs. Reading Essentials Chapter 2 Principles of Ecology 17

26 4. Synthesize Why might an ecologist use a food chain for one study and a food web for another study? Picture This 5. Explain How is mass measured on the pyramid of biomass? What does a food web show? Feeding relationships are usually more complex than a single food chain model can show. Most organisms feed on more than one species. A food web is a model that shows all the possible feeding relationships in an ecosystem. Food webs give a more accurate picture of how energy flows in an ecosystem than food chains. What do ecologists model with an ecological pyramid? Ecologists also use ecological pyramids to model how energy flows through ecosystems. A pyramid model can be used to show energy flow in three different ways. Each level of the pyramid represents a trophic level. A pyramid of energy indicates the amount of energy available to each trophic level. Notice in the energy pyramid below that about 90 percent of the available energy is used by the organisms at each level. Some of the energy is used to build cells and tissues. Some is released into the environment as heat. Only about 10 percent is available to the next level of the pyramid. The biomass, or total mass of living matter at each trophic level, can also be modeled by an ecological pyramid. In a pyramid of biomass, each level shows the amount of biomass consumed by the level above it. A pyramid of numbers shows the number of organisms consumed at each trophic level in an ecosystem. The number decreases at each level because less energy is available to support organisms. 18 Chapter 2 Principles of Ecology biologygmh.com

27 2 Principles of Ecology section 3 Cycling of Matter Before You Read By looking at calendars, you can observe cycles, such as the cycle of the school year and summer vacation. On the lines below, write about cycles in your life. Read about the cycles in nature. Nutrients move through the biotic and abiotic parts of an ecosystem. What You ll Learn the importance of nutrients to living organisms the biogeochemical cycles of nutrients Read to Learn Cycles in the Biosphere The law of the conservation of mass states that matter is not created or destroyed. Instead, matter is cycled through the biosphere. Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass. Matter provides the nutrients needed for organisms to function. A nutrient is a chemical substance that an organism needs to perform life processes. An organism obtains nutrients from its environment. The bodies of all organisms are built from water and nutrients. Common nutrients include carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus. How do nutrients cycle through the biosphere? Nutrients cycle through the biosphere through organisms. Producers begin the cycle. In most ecosystems, plants obtain nutrients from air, water, and soil. Plants convert the nutrients into organic compounds that they use. Most capture energy from the Sun and convert it into carbohydrates. When a consumer eats a producer, the nutrients in the producer pass to the consumer. For example, the nutrients in green grass pass to the cow that eats the grass. The cycle continues until the last consumer dies. Detritivores return the nutrients to the cycle, and the process begins again. Identify Main Ideas Circle the names of the cycles described in this section. Underline the text that summarizes the steps in each cycle. Take Notes Make a five-tab Foldable, as shown below. As you read, take notes and organize what you learn about five cycles in the biosphere. Water Cycle Cycles in the Biosphere Oxygen Cycle Carbon Cycle Nitrogen Cycle Phosphorous Cycle Reading Essentials Chapter 2 Principles of Ecology 19

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