Life cycle assessment of two baby b food packaging alternatives: glass jars vs. plastic pots

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1 Life cycle assessment of two baby b food packaging alternatives: glass jars vs. plastic pots LCA-based environmental claims according to ISO & -44

2 Outline Packaging & Environmental Sustainability at Nestlé Life cycle assessment of two baby food packaging alternatives: glass jars vs. plastic pots System, functional unit & hypotheses Life Cycle Impact Assessment results Uncertainty & Sensitivity Communication of environmental claim

3 Nestlé Environmental Sustainability Policy Packaging The Packaging of our products is critical to guarantee our high quality standards, d to prevent food waste and to inform consumers. We strive to: reduce weight and volume of materials; lead the development and use of materials from sustainably-managed renewable resources; support initiatives to recycle or recover energy from used packaging; use recycled materials.

4 Nestlé Environmental Sustainability Policy A holistic approach to packaging 1. Packaging in context of the packed product 2. Consider all packaging components Primary, secondary, transport packaging 3. Covering entire packaging life cycle With a comprehensive set of impact categories To avoid burden shifting between Packaging and product (product loss) Packaging components Life cycle stages Enviromental media

5 LCA decision support From internal decision making to communication of claims Packaging innovation & renovation process Systematic use of streamlined LCA-based decision support Life Cycle Assessment screening studies Not a base for claims or public communication Communication of claims (regardless of media) Full LCA studies according to ISO &14044 Data quality and representativity Uncertainty &sensitivity analysis Peer review Photochem oxid.

6 Outline Packaging & Environmental Sustainability at Nestlé Life cycle assessment of two baby food packaging alternatives: glass jars vs. plastic pots System, functional unit & hypotheses Life cycle Impact Assessment results Uncertainty & Sensitivity Communication of environmental claim

7 LCA of baby food Packaging systems & scenarios Glass Jar components Plastic Pot components Steel PT Cap PT = Press and Twist (Electrolytical tin plate, ETP) Cardboard Cluster (to group 2 jars, optional) Plastic (PP) Cap Cardboard Cluster (to group 2 pots) (Inside) Lidding film (PET-SiOx-OPA-PP Lid) Paper Label 2 pieces of PP label White glass Jar Cardboard Tray (to group 3 clusters or 6 non-clustered jars) Plastic (PP) Pot Cardboard Tray (to group X clusters*) Cardboard Hood (covering the Tray) * The number "X" of clusters per tray varies according to size and market Retorting Aseptic form-fill-seal Markets: Germany, France & Spain Pack-sizes: 130g, 200g, 250g

8 LCA of baby food Functional unit and system boundary Functional unit: delivery of one child meal to retailer In grey: processes out of boundary because identical in both packaging types resources su uch as Resource es, also inclu uding Energy and other land use, water, etc Food containers production Materials Infrastructure Forming Container Assembly Filling and Sealing Processes Sterilisation Packaging Processes Distribution Transports Usage End of life Transports Recycling processes (including Heat Recovery) Disposal

9 LCA of baby food Scenarios Germany German scenarios Baseline (green): 678 km Expected (blue + green): 1246 km Optimised plastic (red): 630 km Nomexy Epinal Weiding

10 LCA of baby food Recovery scenarios by packaging component Germany Glass Steel PP Cardboard (clusters) 86% enters recycling path 100% recycled 86.0% is not sorted for 0% landfilled 0.0% 14% valorisation 100% incinerated 14.0% 84% enters recycling path 100% recycled 83.6% is not sorted for 0% landfilled 0.0% 16% valorisation 100% incinerated 16.4% 75% enters recycling recovery path 25% is not sorted for valorisation 90% enters recycling recovery path 10% is not sorted for valorisation FEVE 2005 Europen % energy valorised 74.9% 0% material recycled 0.0% DSD % landfilled 0.0% 100% incinerated 25.1% 8% energy valorised 72% 7.2% 92% material recycled 82.8% Europen % landfilled 0.0% 100% incinerated 10.0% Sensitivity study on recycling rate for PP (Germany 40%) 1) 1) 2) 1) Europen ) 1) BM Umwelt, DE ) Assumed

11 LCA of baby food Life Cycle Impact Assessment ISO Overall impact on 15 indicators IMPACT Main indicators Primary Energy, Global Warming, Respiratory Inorganics, Terrestrial Acidification/Nutrification Detailed analysis for each main indicator Main impact contributors Alternative impact assessment method check (CML 2) Sensitivity & uncertainty analysis

12 IMPACT Mid-point Results Germany Small but significant difference favoring plastic pot system Human health Ecosystem quality Key mid-points Climate change Resources Photochem oxid.

13 LCA of baby food Contribution analysis done for key mid-points Dominating contributions Packaging materials & end of life Distribution Filling process Primary energy Respiratory inorganics

14 LCA of baby food Uncertainty study confirms significance of differences

15 LCA of baby food Sensitivity study does not affect conclusions CO 2 emissions Test Glass jars Plastic pots Steam consumption on Nestlé production site: +/- 30% +/-4% +/-3% Half packaging g collection rate +3% +1% Distribution distances Half gross thermal and electric efficiency of the incinerators Importance of the production process for the EVOH layer: x3 Recyclability of PP-EVOH-PP multi-layer plastic cup (DE: 40%, ES: 11%) ("optimised" scenarios) +0.1% +2% % - -1% to -5%

16 LCA of baby food Summary Reviewers confirm conclusions (4 External experts) Results are robust (uncertainty & sensitivity) Conclusions are valid 10 to 50% advantage for plastic for optimised distribution scenario Up to 25% advantage for plastic for initial distribution scenario Study is suitable for public disclosure Plastic advantage due to: Production and end of life of packaging Reduced packaging weight leading to reduced impacts of transport Replacement of retorting ti process with aseptic form-fill-seal fill l Results published in International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment Additional peer review by editorial committee

17 Communication of environmental claim On-pack

18 Communication of environmental claim Internet:

19 Communication of environmental claim Link to scientific publication S. Humbert et al. Life cycle assessment of two baby food packaging alternatives: glass jars vs. plastic pots, International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment Volume 14, Number 2 / March, r572188/?p=68b7b3fdb2ae4e88ad040a 9f9c1ef96d&pi=0

20 LCA of baby food Conclusions Environmental improvements achieved Considering packed product Considering all packaging components Covering packaging life cycle Analysing a comprehensive set of indicators Without burden shifting between Packaging and product Packaging components Life cycle stages Environmental media Analysis & communication of claim respecting methodology & requirements of ISO & 14044

21 Questions?

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