Grade 8 Science Curriculum Document: Third Nine Weeks, Unit 7 (12 days) Unit 7-Sun, Earth, Moon Systems

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1 Grade 8 Science Curriculum Document: Third Nine Weeks, Unit 7 (12 days) Unit 7-Sun, Earth, Moon Systems Enduring Understandings: The moon's orbit around the earth once in about 28 days changes what part of the moon is lighted by the sun and how much of that part can be seen from the earth. This causes the phases of the moon. The number of hours of daylight and the intensity of the sunlight both vary in a predictable pattern that depends on how far north or south of the equator a location is. This variation explains why temperatures vary over the course of the year and at different locations. Because the earth turns daily on an axis that is tilted relative to the plane of the earth's yearly orbit around the sun, sunlight falls more intensely on different parts of the earth during the year. The difference in intensity of sunlight and the resulting warming of the earth's surface produces the seasonal variations in temperature. The relative positions and the movements of the Earth, Sun and Moon create patterns observed in phases, tides and seasons. (B) Demonstrate and predict the sequence of events in the lunar cycle; (R) understanding and evaluating The moon does not produce its own light. We see the moon because it reflects sunlight back towards Earth. The moon itself does not change but its position relative to the Sun and Earth does change. NOTE: Focus on the lunar cycle during 2 opposite moon phases. Teach location relative to the Sun. The lunar cycle is approximately 29.5 days. There are four major phases of the lunar cycle that 8 th grade will focus on: new moon, 1 st quarter, full moon and 3 rd quarter. Pre-AP extension: There are four other minor phases of the lunar cycle: waxing crescent, waxing gibbous, waning crescent, and waning gibbous. Possible misconceptions: The moon does not produce light. TEKS/SEs with specifications Instructional Strategies Resources Academic Vocabulary Assessment Lunar cycle Lesson 1-2: Lunar Cycle Instructional Focus: Lunar Cycle Phases of the Moon R4 pp. 171 Moon Phases Starter, cut and paste What Causes Moon Phases Lab, scienceclass link use with Lunar Board, simulation board Moon Phases, PPT & notes The Lunar Cycle PH-8 pp Earth, Sun, Moon Warm-Ups Engage: Moon Phase/timed test Explore: Moon Phases Starter cut don t paste Explain: Moon Phases PowerPoint & notes Elaborate: Model the Phases of the moon/moon circle book Evaluate: Complete cut and paste in correct order Draw, label, and write to explain the phases of the moon from 2 opposite sides of the Earth s orbit around the Sun. New moon 1 st Quarter Full moon 3 rd Quarter (Last Quarter) Waxing Waning Crescent Gibbous How do the movement of the Earth and moon cause phases of the moon? What position must the Earth, Sun, and moon be to see a full moon, new moon, and quarter moon from Earth? What are the limitations of the model? Phases of the Moon R4 pp. 169 Bolded TEKS assessed on STAAR Page 1 of 5 Grade Eight Unit 7 Revised June 2015

2 The gravitational pull of the causes the oceans on the Earth to. (B) Demonstrate and predict the sequence of events in the lunar cycle; (R) understanding and evaluating 6.11 (B) understand that gravity is the force that governs the motion of our solar system (S) - understanding Lesson 3-5: Lunar Cycle Instructional Focus: The Moon s Gravity Pulls on the Earth Engage: Explore: Moon Phases Stations Dice game Lunar boards Explain: Moon Phases PPt Review Elaborate: Oreo Moon Phases Evaluate: Quiz Draw, label, and write to explain the effect of the moon s gravity on the Earth. Include the words: force and gravity in your writing. Sequence the phases of the moon in relation to the Earth and Sun Gravity Force New moon 1 st Quarter Full moon 3 rd Quarter (Last Quarter) Waxing Waning Crescent Gibbous How does the force of the moon s gravity affect the Earth? Bolded TEKS assessed on STAAR Page 2 of 5 Grade Eight Unit 7 Revised June 2015

3 Tide (C) relate the position of the Moon and Sun to their effect on ocean tides. (S) - applying Tides are caused by the difference in the force of gravity of the Earth, moon, and Sun. When the Earth, moon and Sun are aligned, the combined gravitational force will result in a high tide called a spring tide. Likewise, when the Earth, moon and Sun are at a right angle, they produce a lower than normal tide called a neap tide. s/tides/tides03_gravity.html Lesson 6-8: Tides Instructional Focus: Tides Introduce the term tides Link: United Streaming A Spin Around The Solar System Moon Dance Segment 5 on Tides (stop after 3 minutes) Link for students: Tides from Valdosta Education (Click on Tides then Tidal Bulges ) Moon s Gravitational Pull on Earth: Making Models Timing the Tides Lab, science-class.net a descriptive lab to model the effect of the Moon on Earth s oceans Use Tide tables from Texas Gulf Coast for students to identify patterns Link for tables: state=texas ) Link: Spring and Neap Tides click Tides then Spring and Neap Tides Spring Tide Neap Tide High Tide Low Tide **look for something to better demo tides. (Stemscopes) How do the movements of the moon and the position of the Earth and moon affect tides? How can the force of gravity affect tides? What type of evidence do scientists use to predict tides for every day next month? Why is it important for surfers to know about tides and the lunar cycle? Site is good for teacher background, too complex for students. Background information needed for teaching causes of tides. Engage: Find the pattern TX Gulf Coast Modeling the Tides balloon Explore: Timing the tides lab Explain: Tides PPT TPS: discuss how the moon causes a bulge on Earth. Write to explain how the tides are created using How Are Tides Created? ( #10) Work in groups or with a partner to identify patterns in tide tables for a city in Texas. Write to distinguish between high tide and low tide and include effects of the moon s gravitational pull on the amount of water. TPS: What phase is the moon in during a spring tide/neap tide? Draw diagrams of neap and spring tides and label the phase of the moon that would occur at each. Bolded TEKS assessed on STAAR Page 3 of 5 Grade Eight Unit 7 Revised June 2015

4 Lesson 9: Sun-Earth-Moon What is the difference Instructional Focus: Movement of Earth and Moon Orbit between rotation, to produce day and night and the seasons Revolution revolution and orbit? Rotation What does one full Season rotation of the Earth Tilt represent? Northern Hemisphere Southern Hemisphere Equinox Solstice (A) Model and illustrate how the tilted Earth rotates on its axis, causing day and night, and revolves around the Sun causing changes in seasons (R) applying & creating The Earth s rotation takes approximately 24 hours to The Earth s revolution takes approximately days to An orbit is a regular, repeating path that one object in space takes around another one. Earth's orbit is not a perfect circle. Earth is slightly closer to the sun in early January (winter in the Northern Hemisphere) and farther away in July. Earth s orbit is more circular than other planets. The Earth rotates on its axis causing day and night. The Earth s rotation takes approximately 24 hours to One rotation is equal to a day. As Earth revolves around the Sun the length of day/night will change. Sun, Earth and Moon ppt. Link: Earth rotating # Earth, Sun Moon pictures Demo- Sun, Earth, and Moon movements. Use 3 people to demonstrate Sun, Earth, and Moon in movement- rotating, revolving and orbiting. (Use pictures to label students as Earth sun and moon ) Engage: Modeling Day and Night Explore: Set Up Seasons Foldable Explain: Seasons PPT Elaborate: Evaluate: Model day and night sun, Earth and Moon Draw, label and explain rotation and revolution. Analyze the term revolving door to explain how this is different from the scientific definition of the word revolving. What does one full revolution of the Earth around the Sun represent? What clothing is necessary for a trip to South America during your Winter Break? Why do the poles experience increased darkness 6 months out of the year? Explain why the North Hemisphere has winter when the Earth is actually 5.1 million km closer to the Sun than it is during the summer. Bolded TEKS assessed on STAAR Page 4 of 5 Grade Eight Unit 7 Revised June 2015

5 Seasons Hemisphere (A) Model and illustrate how the tilted Earth rotates on its axis, causing day and night, and revolves around the Sun causing changes in seasons (R) applying & creating Earth s axis is tilted approximately 23.5 degrees. The Earth is divided into a northern and southern hemisphere. Extreme changes in day/night are found in the Polar Regions with 6 months of very long days/short nights and 6 months of very long nights and short days. During autumn and spring, the Earth is neither tilted toward nor away from the Sun, resulting in the equal numbers of daylight and nighttime hours. The tilt of Earth s axi,s in combination with its revolution around the Sun create seasons. Land masses around equator do not experience seasonal changes. Seasons in the northern hemisphere are opposite the seasons in the southern hemisphere because of the tilt of the axis. Possible Misconceptions: reinforce why it is incorrect to assume that days are longer in the summer because of Daylight Savings Time. (8.2) Scientific Investigation and Reasoning. The student uses scientific inquiry methods during laboratory and field investigations. The student is (D) construct tables and graphs using repeated trials and means, to organize data and identify patterns; and Lesson 10-11: Sun Earth - Moon Instructional Focus: Tilt of Axis/Earth s Revolution Around the Sun Cause Changing of Seasons Warm-up to Science Region 4 (R4) pp.166- Tilt of Earth and Seasons Cued Reading (#5) Tilted Earth Lab, Science class link a lab to model the effects of the cyclical movement of the earth around the sun Engage: Explore: Seasons Foldable Explain: Season s PPT & Review Elaborate: Season s Lab Evaluate: Season s Foldable Act out rotation and revolution of the Earth around the Sun. Create a multi-flow map to summarize day/night/seasons (cause and effect) Analyze and demonstrate either orally or in writing why it is a misconception to think that the Earth is closer to the Sun in the summer and farther away in the winter. Seasons foldable Autumn/Fall Spring Summer Winter Tilt Lesson 12: Summative Assessment Evaluate: Summative Assessment Demonstrate an understanding of all concepts and skills covered in grade 8. Bolded TEKS assessed on STAAR Page 5 of 5 Grade Eight Unit 7 Revised June 2015

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