Macopin Middle School (West Milford Township Schools) Curriculum Document- M. Bozenmayer

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1 Unit Title: Space Science Target Course/Grade Level: Physical Science/8 th grade Timeline: 4.5 weeks STAGE 1 Desired Results Unit Summary: Students will investigate the reasons for phenomena in our solar system (Phases of the Moon, Seasons) as well as the physical layout of planets and the effects of gravity on the system. The goal of this unit is for students to develop a deeper understanding of what is in our solar system, how these objects move, and how this affects us on Earth. Primary Interdisciplinary Connections: Science, Technology, Math, Writing Established Goals (NJ CCCS, NGSS): MS-ESS1-3 Analyze and interpret data to determine scale properties of objects in the solar system. MS-ESS1-2 Develop and use a model to describe the role of gravity in the motions within galaxies and the solar system. MS- ESS1-1 Develop and use a model of the Earth-sun-moon system to describe the cyclic patterns of lunar phases, eclipses of the sun and moon, and seasons. MS-PS2-4 Construct and present arguments using evidence to support the claim that gravitational interactions are attractive and depend on the masses of interacting objects. Common Core: 6.RP.A.1 - Understand the concept of a ratio and use ratio language to describe a ratio relationship between two quantities. 7.RP.A.2 - Recognize and represent proportional relationships between quantities. MP.2 - Reason abstractly and quantitatively. RST Integrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text with a version of that information expressed visually (e.g., in a flowchart, diagram, model, graph, or table). SL Integrate multimedia and visual displays into presentations to clarify information, strengthen claims and evidence, and add interest. Key Term Vocabulary: Orbit Revolve Rotate Waxing Waning Crescent Gibbous Solar Lunar Gravity Model Eclipse Tide Math Vocabulary: Scale/Proportion/Ratio Diameter Ellipse Enduring Understanding(s): Students will understand that Scientists use models to study and explain things that are too large or too small to see easily. Motions of objects in our solar system can be observed, measured, and predicted. The force of gravity experienced by an object changes due to its position and mass. Essential Question(s): What makes up our solar system? How do other space objects compare to Earth? Why do moon phases, tides, eclipses and seasons repeat? How does gravity affect everything in our universe?

2 Essential Knowledge: Students will know The Sun is the center of our solar system. The planets, their moons, and asteroids all orbit the Sun. The solar system is very large, so we can use scale models to understand it better. Objects in the solar system move in predictable patterns. Gravity is an attractive force between two objects that can act even when the objects aren t touching. Essential Skills: Students will be able to Analyze and interpret data to determine similarities and differences between solar system objects. Create their own model to explain the sizes and distances in our solar system. Develop and use models to explain eclipses, seasons, moon phases, and tides. Explain how gravity affects objects in our solar system.

3 Learning Activities: Lesson 1: NASA- Teaching how scientists use models with article What makes up the solar system (1 class) Guiding Question: What makes up most of the solar system? MOON Lesson 2: The Moon Guiding questions: What effects does the moon have on Earth? Why do we see phases of the Moon and why do they repeat? Day 1: define moon vocabulary, build a personal moon calendar with student birthday, holidays using moon phase data Day 2: Moon Phases Lab (modeling motion and perspective with black/white balls on sticks) Appendix 1 Day 3: Intro APT, explain part 1 (Moon APT) Appendix 4, students begin work. *Possibly do Eclipses/Tides lesson before final work day on Moon APT* Day 4: Explain phases of the moon to a 4 th grader with a letter and diagram, peer review Lesson 3: Eclipses and Tides Modeling with basketball, mirrors. (1 class) SEASONS Lesson 4: Seasons Guiding Question: What would happen if the Earth did not move the way it does? Day 1: Seasons on Mars (literacy connection) (1-1.5 class periods) Day 2: Sun-Earth Survey 1, Seasons APT (R4S foldable Appendix 5) intro and brainstorm clues about seasons (biological, meteorological, social) Day 3: Temperature graphs/data crunch [evaluating data from various latitudes] *15 min R4S foldable worktime Day 4: Photoperiod graphs/data crunch [evaluating data from various latitudes] *15 min R4S foldable worktime Day 5: Sun-Earth survey Revisit quiz (students will grade their surveys and write feedback to participants) Day 6: Finish R4S foldable 1 Sun-Earth Survey: students will poll two people (one older, one younger) on three basic questions regarding the Sun-Earth system and cause of seasons. Appendix 2 Approximately 20 class periods (1 month) GRAVITY SCALE OF SS Lesson 5: Gravity Guiding Question: How does gravity affect the planets in our solar system and everything on them? Day 1-2: Gravity intro and Gravity Lab 2 parts 1 and 2 Days 3-4: Gravity and Orbits Literacy Connection (in computer lab) 2 Gravity Lab includes two sections where students analyze data to deduce that the strength of gravity (as shown by change in weight) is changed by position and mass of the interacting objects. Appendix 3 Lesson 6: Scale of the Solar System Guiding Question: How can we make the size of the solar system easier to understand? Day 1: Introduction to scale 3, revisit math vocabulary Day 2: Scale of Solar System APT intro Appendix 6 and math crunch (provide students with real data, they develop their scale.) Day 3: Poster 4 creation Day 4: Peer review and final editing Final Task: (1-2 days) Creating survey to determine effectiveness of their APT products for a 4 th grade audience. Appendix 7 3 Teacher models creating a scale using familiar objects, students practice by cooperatively developing scale using a globe Earth to determine size and location of Moon 4 Student choice regarding format to convey information: poster, brochure, letter, physical model, etc. *Lesson Bridge/Extension/Connection to next unit (Earth Science): Cosmic Calendar

4 Authentic Performance Task: Students will establish space pen pals with 4 th graders in district. 8 th grade students will send a note to introduce themselves, explain that they will be sending some information about the Sun, Earth and planets. 8 th graders will encourage 4 th graders to send any questions they have about space [connects to our first day activity about good science questions.] 8 th grade students will create and send educational products to explain: moon phases, seasons, and the scale of our solar system. Finally, 8 th graders will create a survey to determine how effective their teaching tools were in helping the 4 th graders understand the three concepts. Goal: Role: Audience: Situation: Product: Success: Your goal is to share all your space science knowledge with a fourth grader in West Milford. You are the teacher, creating posters and other educational products to explain the phases of the Moon, the reasons for the seasons, and the scale of our solar system. The target audience is a fourth grader from your elementary school. They are just starting to learn about these things in space. (If you did not attend a WM elementary school, you can choose to send the products you create to your 4 th grade teacher- if you provide the name to your current science teacher- or to a randomly assigned student from WM.) This challenge involves building the knowledge and vocabulary of a fourth grader, helping them to understand our solar system better. You will be creating four items to send to your Space Pen Pal: A. An explanation of why we see phases of the Moon B. An explanation of why we have seasons on Earth C. A model of the solar system, based on an everyday object, to help the 4 th grader understand its size and distances. (You have a choice in how you want to present this model- it could be a video, a poster, or even a physical model using everyday objects as props.) D. A survey for your fourth grader with questions you create to determine how well you did in explaining the three topics. A successful result will be geared to a 4 th grade audience, with important vocabulary defined, has handwriting or text that is legible, is interesting and engaging to view or read, and is completed on time. Rubrics will be provided for the individual project pieces for your guidance. Resources: "Combining Simulations and Text to Support Scientific Explanations: Gravity and Orbits." Amplify Science. Lawrence Hall of Science, n.d. Web. 28 July < Combining_Simulations_and_Text_to_Support_Scientific_Explanations-Gravity_and_Orbits.pdf "Teaching How Scientists Use Models with "What Makes Up Most of the Solar System"" NASA Wavelength Digital Library. NASA, n.d. Web. 28 July < "Teaching Roundtable Discussions with "Seasons on Mars"" NASA Wavelength Digital Library. NASA, n.d. Web. 28 July < "The Real Reasons for Seasons Sun-Earth Connections." LHS GEMS, The Real Reasons for Seasons. Lawrence Hall of Science, n.d. Web. 28 July < *Moon calendar, Moon Phases Lab, Moon APT, Eclipses/Tides Modeling Activity, Sun-Earth survey, Seasons data crunch activities, Reasons for Seasons (R4S) foldable project, Gravity Lab, Scale of Solar System into activity and Scale APT all modified/developed by M. Bozenmayer and A. Alexander, 8 th grade science teachers at Macopin Middle School, West Milford, NJ.

5 Appendix 1: Moon Phases Lab Macopin Middle School (West Milford Township Schools)

6 Appendix 2: Sun-Earth Survey (from GEMS The Real Reason for the Seasons )

7 Appendix 3: Gravity Lab Macopin Middle School (West Milford Township Schools)

8 Appendix 3 (continued) Macopin Middle School (West Milford Township Schools)

9 Appendix 4: Moon APT Macopin Middle School (West Milford Township Schools)

10 Appendix 5: Reasons for the Seasons (R4S) APT

11 Appendix 6: Scale of the Solar System APT

12 Appendix 7: Final Survey Macopin Middle School (West Milford Township Schools)

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