Sébastien Bouquain. Thèse en co-tutelle dirigée par: Nick Arndt, LGCA Grenoble Guy Libourel, CRPG Nancy Steve Foley, Mainz

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Sébastien Bouquain. Thèse en co-tutelle dirigée par: Nick Arndt, LGCA Grenoble Guy Libourel, CRPG Nancy Steve Foley, Mainz"

Transcription

1 Sébastien Bouquain Thèse en co-tutelle dirigée par: Nick Arndt, LGCA Grenoble Guy Libourel, CRPG Nancy Steve Foley, Mainz Collaborateurs: François Faure, CRPG Nancy Eric Hellebrand, DGG Hawaï

2 The talk (1) Introduction (2) Scientific goals (3) Presentation of the rocks : komatiites and lunar basalts (4) Methods (5) Discussion (6) Conclusions and future research

3 Introduction ultramafic volcanic rocks [MgO>18%] spinifex-textured rocks mainly Archean (also Proterozoic and Cretaceous) mainly extrusive rocks (lava flows)

4 Introduction >> well-preserved minerals in fresh rocks! Rocks from the lunar crust (mare basalts) >> crystallization sequence and pyroxene morphology comparable Tholeiitic in komatiites basalts, (pyroxenites, and lunar basalts dunites) >> anhydrous reference komatiite Lunar basalt

5 Introduction Texture characterized by large, skeletal or dendritic, platy, bladed or acicular grains of olivine or pyroxene olivine olivine pyroxene pyroxene

6 Scientific goals To use pyroxene compositions to gain a better understanding of the chemical and physical processes that occurred during komatiite genesis the thermal and compositional state of the Earth s mantle in the Archean models of crystallization of komatiite flows models of early Earth s mantle dynamics

7 Scientific goals Two models tryorigin to explain the formation of komatiites: The of komatiite magma: (1) hot and dry source (plume) Dry <??? > Wet (2)relatively cold and wet source (subduction zone) Two models try to explain the formation of komatiites: >> origin of spinifex texture (1)hot and dry source (plume) >> augite composition in Barberton komatiites (South Africa)

8 Presentation of the rocks : komatiites and lunar basalts Alexo, Abitibi Greenstone Belt, Canada

9 Presentation of the rocks : komatiites and lunar basalts Komatiite flow and komatiitic basalt flow from Alexo M668 Ax105 Ax106 Ax104 Ax101 Ax102 Ax103

10 Presentation of the rocks : komatiites and lunar basalts Komatiite flow and komatiitic basalt flow from Alexo pyroxenes in volumes between platy olivines

11 Presentation of the rocks : komatiites and lunar basalts pyroxene needles zoned crystals: pigeonite core and augite rim pig aug skeletal crystals

12 Presentation of the rocks : komatiites and lunar basalts Lunar Mare Basalts : Apollo 12 pigeonite basalt Apollo 15 pigeonite basalt >>> To interpret pyroxene textures and compositions pigeonite core augite rim

13 Methods 1) Analytical approach Detailed study of the mineralogy and geochemistry of pyroxene in komatiites and in lunar mare basalts Use of SIMS (ion microprobe), electron microprobe, SEM >> Mainz (Institute of Petrology & Max Planck Institute) >> Nancy (CRPG) 2) Experimental work Attempts to reproduce the spinifex texture, using pyroxene field composition Studies on simplified materials representing the parental magma of komatiites (Ca-Mg-Al-Si system) >> Nancy (CRPG)

14 Analytical study augite pigeonite augite augite pigeonite augite

15 Analytical study Alexo komatiite - Barberton komatiite

16 Analytical study Barberton augites: Barberton komatiites have high small remnants preserved in largely CaO/Al altered grains 2 O 3 all (but one) analyzed pyroxenes were in olivine cumulates from poorly preserved metamorphic rocks The unusual compositions of Barberton augites is due to the high CaO/Al 2 O 3 of Barberton komatiites. >>> water is not necessary to form Barberton pyroxenes Clinopyroxene crystallizes at higher temperatures in compositions with high CaO/Al 2 O 3 than in compositions with low CaO/Al 2 O 3. Augite that crystallizes a high temperature from liquids with high CaO/Al 2 O 3 has high Mg#.

17 Komatiites Analytical study Lunar basalts PM normalized Sm 0,9 8 0,8 Rare Earth Elements profiles reflect 0,7 crystallization 4 Mg # Mg # Yb La 0,6 0,5 Mg# PM normalized Sm Yb La ,8 0,6 0,4 0,2 0 Mg# ppm B x10 Li Be x100 0,9 Mg # 8 Mg # 0,8 0,7 0,6 0,5 Mg# ppm Be x100 4 Li B x ,8 0,6 0,4 0,2 0 Mg# Be and Li profiles reflect alteration in komatiites Be and Li profiles indicate geochemical behavior like REE

18 Analytical study Equilibrium experiments (Arndt 1976) Early crystallization of cpx in natural komatiites Late crystallization of cpx under equilibrium conditions spinifex komatiites

19 Phase diagram Analytical study

20 Analytical study Early crystallization of pigeonite in komatiites: what are the solutions? olivine Alteration? Pyroxene accumulation? (Campbell & Arndt 1982) (Ca diffusion) Si Ca Wrong phase relations? Chemical boundary layer? (Faure & Schiano 2005) Water? (Parman et al. 1997)

21 Analytical study The tips of the spinifex crystals grow in liquid with high Si/Mg which stabilizes pigeonite

22 Analytical study Phase diagram cold hot

23 Analytical study (1) Diffusion coefficients Latypov (2006): cm 2 /s for H 2 O-saturated melts LaTourrette et al. (1996): 10-7 cm 2 /s for anhydrous liquids Our estimate : cm 2 /s (2) A small amount of water ( wt%) is necessary Water in melt inclusions (McDonough & Danyushevsky 1995; Shimizu et al. 2001) Degassing kinetics (Moune et al. 2007) (3) Moderate thermal gradient is sufficient >>> Soret differentiation allows pigeonite to crystallize from a liquid that would have normally crystallized augite

24 Experimental investigation 15 we used a vertical high-temperature, gas-mixing furnace inert atmosphere is maintained by a flow of Ar presence of a variable thermal gradient in the furnace, depending of the exact location of the graphite crucible C cm 35 Hot point 45 Thermal gradient

25 Experimental investigation We performed two series of experiments: Isothermal crystallization experiments Dynamic crystallization experiments pigeonite tridymite diopside

26 Experimental investigation Liquidus boundaries / Pyroxene composition field Starting composition

27 Experimental investigation Typical procedure of cooling Temperature + T T start T liquidus 1386 C Cooling in the thermal gradient C/h T quench 2h 3h Time

28 Experimental investigation Example of a typical run

29 Experimental investigation forsterite Crystals of pyroxene are zoned: pigeonite core is surrounded by a diopside rim Zoned pyroxene Pyroxene needles crystallized parallel to one another and downwards in the capsule pig di Natural komatiite

30 Experimental investigation High cooling rate experiments pigeonite diopside Pigeonite crystallizes in the thermal gradient even at high cooling rates (100 C/h)

31 Experimental investigation (1) We were able to crystallize zoned crystals of pyroxene that perfectly mimic those in komatiites. (2) Pyroxene crystals growth is constrained by the thermal gradient. (3) Pigeonite formed at high cooling rates (100 C/h) >>> what about olivine?

32 Experimental investigation Forsterite crystallization: (1) various morphologies Hopper forsterite Plate forsterite Forsterite morphologies reflects: (1) the effect of the thermal gradient (2) the cooling rate 10 C/h

33 Experimental investigation Forsterite crystallization: (1) various morphologies (2) metastable Low superheating High superheating Forsterite No forsterite

34 Experimental investigation

35 Conclusions (1) Zoned pyroxene crystallizes in natural komatiites and in lunar basalts. (2) For a given composition of komatiitic liquid, the type of pyroxene and the crystallization sequence depends on the conditions of crystallization. (3) Constrained growth in a thermal gradient causes pigeonite to crystallize earlier than at equilibrium conditions. Soret differentiation is an efficient mechanism in pyroxene spinifextextured lavas. (4) There is no evidence for the presence of a significant amount of water in komatiites. Most komatiites are dry and hot

36 Future research (1) To better understand the cooling mechanisms of komatiite flows to have better contraints on Soret effect (2) To better understand the crystallization of pigeonite: Experiments with olivine at the liquidus and pigeonite as the second mineral Introduction of tracers such as Cr or REE, in order to follow the crystallization of pigeonite

37 Thank you

38 Model of a komatiite flow Solidification of the crust and growth of skeletal olivine crystals Settling of olivine phenocrysts to form cumulate layer

Igneous Geochemistry. What is magma? What is polymerization? Average compositions (% by weight) and liquidus temperatures of different magmas

Igneous Geochemistry. What is magma? What is polymerization? Average compositions (% by weight) and liquidus temperatures of different magmas 1 Igneous Geochemistry What is magma phases, compositions, properties Major igneous processes Making magma how and where Major-element variations Classification using a whole-rock analysis Fractional crystallization

More information

Igneous Rocks. Geology 200 Geology for Environmental Scientists

Igneous Rocks. Geology 200 Geology for Environmental Scientists Igneous Rocks Geology 200 Geology for Environmental Scientists Magma Compositions Ultramafic - composition of mantle Mafic - composition of basalt, e.g. oceanic crust. 900-1200 o C, 50% SiO 2 Intermediate

More information

Rock Cycle. Metamorphism, Metamorphic Rocks, Hydrothermal Rocks. Metamorphism. Equilibrium. Interrelationships between:

Rock Cycle. Metamorphism, Metamorphic Rocks, Hydrothermal Rocks. Metamorphism. Equilibrium. Interrelationships between: Rock Cycle Equilibrium Interrelationships between: igneous rocks sediment sedimentary rocks metamorphic rocks weathering and erosion Metamorphism, Metamorphic Rocks, Hydrothermal Rocks Metamorphism solid

More information

Earth s Interior: Structure, Composition, and Temperature

Earth s Interior: Structure, Composition, and Temperature Course Outline Introduction: Course Objectives, Outline, Geology Basics Earth s Interior: Composition and Plate Tectonic Impact Plate Tectonics and Continental Drift: Theory, Data, Mechanisms Tectonic

More information

Lecture 18 - Mantle Melting. Monday, 28 th, March, Mantle Melting and Origin of Basaltic Magma

Lecture 18 - Mantle Melting. Monday, 28 th, March, Mantle Melting and Origin of Basaltic Magma Lecture 18 - Mantle Melting Monday, 28 th, March, 2005 Mantle Melting and Origin of Basaltic Magma 1 Two principal types of basalt in the ocean basins Tholeiitic Basalt and Alkaline Basalt Table 10-1 Common

More information

Igneous Rock Study Guide

Igneous Rock Study Guide Class: Date: Igneous Rock Study Guide Modified True/False Indicate whether the sentence or statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the sentence or statement true.

More information

Igneous rocks: : Rock that forms when hot molten rock (magma or lava) cools and

Igneous rocks: : Rock that forms when hot molten rock (magma or lava) cools and Igneous rocks: : Rock that forms when hot molten rock (magma or lava) cools and freezes solid. Can be intrusive (formed deep in the earth) or extrusive (formed at the surface of the earth). Magma: : Molten

More information

Most mafic magmas come from the upper mantle and lower crust. This handout will address five questions:

Most mafic magmas come from the upper mantle and lower crust. This handout will address five questions: Geology 101 Origin of Magma From our discussions of the structure of the interior of the Earth, it is clear that the upper parts of the Earth (crust and mantle) are mostly solid because s-waves penetrate

More information

COMPOSITION OF THE EARTH S MANTLE

COMPOSITION OF THE EARTH S MANTLE COMPOSITION OF THE EARTH S MANTLE The Earth s mantle is a layer with a thickness of 2,900 km or 1800 miles (46% of the Earth s average radius of 6371 km or 3,960 miles) and extends from the outer core

More information

Origin of Basaltic Magma

Origin of Basaltic Magma Origin of Basaltic Magma Reading: Winter, Chapter 10 Seismic evidence Basalts are generated in the mantle Result from partial melting of mantle material Most other magmas can evolve from basalt primary

More information

Earth Materials: Intro to rocks & Igneous rocks. The three major categories of rocks Fig 3.1 Understanding Earth

Earth Materials: Intro to rocks & Igneous rocks. The three major categories of rocks Fig 3.1 Understanding Earth Earth Materials: 1 The three major categories of rocks Fig 3.1 Understanding Earth 2 Intro to rocks & Igneous rocks Three main categories of rocks: Igneous Sedimentary Metamorphic The most common minerals

More information

Polybaric fractionation of primary magmas: important concept championed by O Hara

Polybaric fractionation of primary magmas: important concept championed by O Hara Basalts and related mafic volcanics Basalt: Simple petrographic description: Fine-grained to porphyritic volcanic rock composed predominantly of subequal amounts of plagioclase and clinopyroxene (augite).

More information

Classification of Igneous Rocks

Classification of Igneous Rocks Classification of Igneous Rocks Classification I: texture Classification II: field relations Classification III: chemical compositions Classification IV: textural-mineralogical Classification I: texture

More information

The Rare Earth Elements (REE)

The Rare Earth Elements (REE) Lecture 16 Rare Earth Elements and Spider Diagrams Monday, March 21st, 2005 The Rare Earth Elements (REE) 1 Contrasts and similarities in the D values: All are incompatible Also Note: HREE are less incompatible

More information

Physical properties of magmas (density (ρ), viscosity (η), thermal conductivity (κ): (control flow rates, cooling rates, eruption rates etc.

Physical properties of magmas (density (ρ), viscosity (η), thermal conductivity (κ): (control flow rates, cooling rates, eruption rates etc. Physical properties of magmas (density (ρ), viscosity (η), thermal conductivity (κ): (control flow rates, cooling rates, eruption rates etc.) 1. Density ρ = M / V (g cm -3 ) Controls magma buoyancy, crystal

More information

O.Jagoutz. We know from ~ 20.000 borehole measurements that the Earth continuously emits ~ 44TW

O.Jagoutz. We know from ~ 20.000 borehole measurements that the Earth continuously emits ~ 44TW Lecture Notes 12.001 Metamorphic rocks O.Jagoutz Metamorphism Metamorphism describes the changes a rock undergoes with changing P, T and composition (X). For simplistic reasons we will focus here in the

More information

Hello. Here are the instructions to complete your second blizzard bag lesson: 1. Read the nonfiction text on the rock cycle

Hello. Here are the instructions to complete your second blizzard bag lesson: 1. Read the nonfiction text on the rock cycle Hello Here are the instructions to complete your second blizzard bag lesson: 1. Read the nonfiction text on the rock cycle 2. Watch the two videos listed here (just click on the link): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jpge74vltdc

More information

Metamorphic Rocks Practice Questions and Answers Revised October 2007

Metamorphic Rocks Practice Questions and Answers Revised October 2007 Metamorphic Rocks Practice Questions and Answers Revised October 2007 1. Metamorphism is a that involves no melt phase. 2. The protolith of a metamorphic rock is the (a) sibling (b) brother (c) parent

More information

Lecture 5. elements (Figure 1). In addition, there are many ways of classifying trace elements.

Lecture 5. elements (Figure 1). In addition, there are many ways of classifying trace elements. Lecture 5 Nomenclature for Trace Element Classification We have already grouped elements into two classes, major elements and trace elements (Figure 1). In addition, there are many ways of classifying

More information

Formation of Solar System and Abundances of Elements

Formation of Solar System and Abundances of Elements Formation of Solar System and Abundances of Elements Composition of Earth cannot be understood in isolation Sun and meteorites are closely linked Solar system formed in Milky Way galaxy @ Big Bang 15 Ma

More information

SAMPLE CHAPTERS UNESCO EOLSS THE MANTLE AND ITS PRODUCTS. Keith Bell Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

SAMPLE CHAPTERS UNESCO EOLSS THE MANTLE AND ITS PRODUCTS. Keith Bell Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada THE MANTLE AND ITS PRODUCTS Keith Bell Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada Keywords: asthenosphere, basalts, core, D layer, decompression melting, geothermal gradient, layered earth, lithosphere,

More information

METAMORPHIC ROCKS. Smith and Pun, Chapter 6 WHERE DO METAMORPHIC ROCKS OCCUR? 1. Widely exposed in actively forming mountain ranges

METAMORPHIC ROCKS. Smith and Pun, Chapter 6 WHERE DO METAMORPHIC ROCKS OCCUR? 1. Widely exposed in actively forming mountain ranges METAMORPHIC ROCKS Smith and Pun, Chapter 6 WHERE DO METAMORPHIC ROCKS OCCUR? Metamorphic rocks are: 1. Widely exposed in actively forming mountain ranges 2. Always found in eroded ancient mountain belts

More information

Rocks & Minerals. 10. Which rock type is most likely to be monomineralic? 1) rock salt 3) basalt 2) rhyolite 4) conglomerate

Rocks & Minerals. 10. Which rock type is most likely to be monomineralic? 1) rock salt 3) basalt 2) rhyolite 4) conglomerate 1. Of the Earth's more than 2,000 identified minerals, only a small number are commonly found in rocks. This fact indicates that most 1) minerals weather before they can be identified 2) minerals have

More information

Chemistry of the Mantle and Core

Chemistry of the Mantle and Core Chemistry of the Mantle and Core Geochemistry, University of Bristol Geochemical Reservoirs Bulk Silicate Earth Crust Depleted Mantle Bulk Earth Primitive Mantle Core Core 1 Mantle Seismic Profile of the

More information

Metamorphism and metamorphic rocks

Metamorphism and metamorphic rocks Metamorphism and metamorphic rocks Rocks created by heat, pressure and/or chemically reactive fluids Metamorphic rocks are produced from Igneous rocks Sedimentary rocks Other metamorphic rocks Metamorphism

More information

Cristallochimie du pyroxène dans les komatiites et basaltes lunaires

Cristallochimie du pyroxène dans les komatiites et basaltes lunaires Cristallochimie du pyroxène dans les komatiites et basaltes lunaires Sébastien Bouquain To cite this version: Sébastien Bouquain. Cristallochimie du pyroxène dans les komatiites et basaltes lunaires. Géologie

More information

Crust: low density rocks. Mantle: high density rocks. Core: very high density metal. core

Crust: low density rocks. Mantle: high density rocks. Core: very high density metal. core Crust: low density rocks Mantle: high density rocks Core: very high density metal core mechanical) layering mechanical layers lithosphere: rigid & strong asthenosphere: plastic & weak mesosphere: plastic

More information

Minerals and Rocks C) D)

Minerals and Rocks C) D) Minerals and Rocks Name 1. Base your answer to the following question on the map and cross section below. The shaded areas on the map represent regions of the United States that have evaporite rock layers

More information

SEDIMENTARY AND METAMORPHIC ROCKS

SEDIMENTARY AND METAMORPHIC ROCKS Date Period Name SEDIMENTARY AND METAMORPHIC ROCKS SECTION.1 Formation of Sedimentary Rocks In your textbook, read about the processes that form sedimentary rocks. Use each of the terms below to complete

More information

Atoms and Elements. Atoms: Learning Goals. Chapter 3. Atoms and Elements; Isotopes and Ions; Minerals and Rocks. Clicker 1. Chemistry Background?

Atoms and Elements. Atoms: Learning Goals. Chapter 3. Atoms and Elements; Isotopes and Ions; Minerals and Rocks. Clicker 1. Chemistry Background? Chapter 3 Atoms Atoms and Elements; Isotopes and Ions; Minerals and Rocks A Review of Chemistry: What geochemistry tells us Clicker 1 Chemistry Background? A. No HS or College Chemistry B. High School

More information

Unit 4: The Rock Cycle

Unit 4: The Rock Cycle Unit 4: The Rock Cycle Objective: E 3.1A Discriminate between igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks and describe the processes that change one kind of rock into another. E 3.1B Explain the relationship

More information

Unit 3 Lesson 3 Three Classes of Rock. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Unit 3 Lesson 3 Three Classes of Rock. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company A Rocky World How are rocks classified? A combination of one or more minerals or organic matter is called rock. Scientists divide rock into three classes: igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. Each class

More information

ES 104: Laboratory # 7 IGNEOUS ROCKS

ES 104: Laboratory # 7 IGNEOUS ROCKS ES 104: Laboratory # 7 IGNEOUS ROCKS Introduction Igneous rocks form from the cooling and crystallization of molten rock material. This can occur below the surface of the earth forming intrusive rocks

More information

Plate tectonics II: Earth s structure and plate boundaries

Plate tectonics II: Earth s structure and plate boundaries Plate tectonics II: Earth s structure and plate boundaries Important: This chapter follows mainly: Chap. 1 in Turcotte and Schubert Chap. 2 in Fowler. Earth structure: The main units Compositional: Crust

More information

Lab 9: Metamorphic Processes and Rock Identification

Lab 9: Metamorphic Processes and Rock Identification Name: Lab 9: Metamorphic Processes and Rock Identification Metamorphism is the change in the form of crustal rocks exposed to heat, pressure, hydrothermal fluids, or a combination of these agents in the

More information

EARTH SCIENCE CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK GRADES K 12 WCCUSD/UCMP EARTH AS A SYSTEM

EARTH SCIENCE CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK GRADES K 12 WCCUSD/UCMP EARTH AS A SYSTEM EARTH AS A SYSTEM K-2 3-5 6-8 How is the Earth part of a larger system? The Earth is part of a bigger system called the Solar System. The Earth is part of the Solar System. The Earth is part of the Solar

More information

Metamorphism and Metamorphic Rocks Earth, 10e Chapter 8

Metamorphism and Metamorphic Rocks Earth, 10e Chapter 8 Metamorphism and Metamorphic Rocks Earth, 10e Chapter 8 Metamorphism Transition of one rock into another by temperatures and/or pressures unlike those in which it formed Metamorphic rocks are produced

More information

BOWEN'S REACTION SERIES

BOWEN'S REACTION SERIES BOWEN'S REACTION SERIES Purpose John J. Thomas Frequently, people cannot visualize the mineral associations that form the sequences of igneous rocks that you find in the earth's crust and what happens

More information

Classifying Rocks. Background

Classifying Rocks. Background Classifying Rocks Background Rocks on Earth can be classified into three categories based on the way they were formed. Igneous rocks are formed through volcanic action. Sedimentary rocks are formed by

More information

Magmas and Igneous Rocks

Magmas and Igneous Rocks Page 1 of 14 EENS 1110 Tulane University Physical Geology Prof. Stephen A. Nelson Magmas and Igneous Rocks This page last updated on 03-Sep-2015 Magma and Igneous Rocks Igneous Rocks are formed by crystallization

More information

The Archean Eon (4000 ma ma)

The Archean Eon (4000 ma ma) The Archean Eon (4000 ma - 2500 ma) December November October September August July June May April March February January 0 Ma Phanerozoic 540 Ma Proterozoic 2500 Ma Archean 4000 Ma Hadean 4600 Ma C M

More information

7 th Grade Study Guide for Semester Test

7 th Grade Study Guide for Semester Test Name: KEY Date: Class: 7 th Grade Study Guide for Semester Test Scientific Method - Chapter 1 1. What are steps for scientific inquiry (scientific method)? 2. What are inferences based on? 1. Pose a QUESTION

More information

Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Rock Cycle Review 1 Lab Partners: Period: Rock Cycle Review Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Magma that cools below Earth

More information

Rocks: Materials of the Solid Earth

Rocks: Materials of the Solid Earth Rocks: Materials of the Solid Earth Presentation modified from: Instructor Resource Center on CD-ROM, Foundations of Earth Science, 4 th Edition, Lutgens/Tarbuck, Rock Cycle Shows the interrelationships

More information

Rocks. Rocks from lava form only under Earth s surface. Rocks on Earth change slowly over time. Many rocks form in layers.

Rocks. Rocks from lava form only under Earth s surface. Rocks on Earth change slowly over time. Many rocks form in layers. Before You Read Before you read the chapter, respond to these statements. 1. Write an A if you agree with the statement. 2. Write a D if you disagree with the statement. Before You Read Heat can melt rock.

More information

Plate Tectonics & Volcanoes

Plate Tectonics & Volcanoes Plate Tectonics & Volcanoes Beyond the typical story. David Lescinsky Univ. of Western Ontario The talk is available at www.uwo.ca/earth/outreach/volcano.pdf Plate tectonics are cool Press & Siever, 1999

More information

Metamorphism and Metamorphic Rocks Earth - Chapter Pearson Education, Inc.

Metamorphism and Metamorphic Rocks Earth - Chapter Pearson Education, Inc. Metamorphism and Metamorphic Rocks Earth - Chapter 8 Metamorphism Transition of one rock into another by temperatures and/or pressures unlike those in which it formed Metamorphic rocks are produced from:

More information

Liz LaRosa Images from Geology.com unless otherwise noted

Liz LaRosa Images from Geology.com unless otherwise noted Liz LaRosa http://www.middleschoolscience.com 2010 Images from Geology.com unless otherwise noted A rock is a naturally occurring solid mixture of one or more minerals, or organic matter Rocks are classified

More information

Heat Flow. The decay of short-lived radioactive elements (such as aluminum-26) generated heat energy in the early stages of the Earth s formation.

Heat Flow. The decay of short-lived radioactive elements (such as aluminum-26) generated heat energy in the early stages of the Earth s formation. Heat Flow Heat from Earth s Interior Earth s interior heat comes from a combination of the following factors: Original heat from the formation and gravitational compression of the Earth from the solar

More information

Lecture Outlines PowerPoint. Chapter 3 Earth Science 11e Tarbuck/Lutgens

Lecture Outlines PowerPoint. Chapter 3 Earth Science 11e Tarbuck/Lutgens Lecture Outlines PowerPoint Chapter 3 Earth Science 11e Tarbuck/Lutgens 2006 Pearson Prentice Hall This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors

More information

Metamorphism and Metamorphic Rocks Earth, 10e - Chapter 8 Hernan Santos University of Puerto Rico Mayagüez Campus

Metamorphism and Metamorphic Rocks Earth, 10e - Chapter 8 Hernan Santos University of Puerto Rico Mayagüez Campus Metamorphism and Metamorphic Rocks Earth, 10e - Chapter 8 Hernan Santos University of Puerto Rico Mayagüez Campus Metamorphism Transition of one rock into another by temperatures and/or pressures unlike

More information

Rocks and Rock-Forming Processes

Rocks and Rock-Forming Processes Rocks and Rock-Forming Processes 3.4 How are the rock classes related to one another? The Rock Cycle Smith & Pun, Chapter 3 Processes link types Plate tectonics is driving force If we look closely we see

More information

Metamorphism & Metamorphic Rocks

Metamorphism & Metamorphic Rocks 1 2 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 & Metamorphic Rocks Earth 9 th edition, Chapter 8 Geology 100 Key Concepts and the agents that drive it. Metamorphic textures... Metamorphic zones and metamorphic grade. and plate tectonics.

More information

Differentiation 2: mantle, crust OUTLINE

Differentiation 2: mantle, crust OUTLINE Differentiation 2: mantle, crust Reading this week: White Ch 12 OUTLINE Today 1. Core last lecture, now the rest: 2. Mantle, crust 1 QoD? Compositional caveat Arguments like W=core, Hf=silicates requires

More information

Crystallization and energy relations between states of matter

Crystallization and energy relations between states of matter Crystallization and energy relations between states of matter This text is meant as background information about how undercooling happens, and how the latent heat of crystallization has to be released

More information

2. You are given an Actions sheet to fill in as you travel around the rock cycle

2. You are given an Actions sheet to fill in as you travel around the rock cycle The Rock Cycle game 1. You start the game at any one of the 6 action stations. 2. You are given an Actions sheet to fill in as you travel around the rock cycle 3. Each action station has an actions instruction

More information

Test #3 WRITTEN RESPONSE QUESTIONS. TEST #3: Rocks and The Rock Cycle PART B: WRITTEN RESPONSE

Test #3 WRITTEN RESPONSE QUESTIONS. TEST #3: Rocks and The Rock Cycle PART B: WRITTEN RESPONSE Test #3 WRITTEN RESPONSE QUESTIONS PART B: WRITTEN RESPONSE 2006 Value: 30 marks Suggested Time: 40 minutes TEST #3: Rocks and The Rock Cycle 2007R* 4 2006R* 1, 2 2005R* 1, 12 2004 1, 2, 3 2003 2, 3, 4

More information

Metamorphism and Metamorphic Rocks

Metamorphism and Metamorphic Rocks Metamorphism and Metamorphic Rocks REMEMBER.. Metamorphic rocks NEVER melt If a rock melts it s an IGNEOUS rock! Factors Controlling Characteristics Composition of parent rock (protolith) Heat Pressure

More information

1. Choose a mineral colour that you like. Record the name of a mineral of this colour and its chemical name in Table 1. My chosen colour is:

1. Choose a mineral colour that you like. Record the name of a mineral of this colour and its chemical name in Table 1. My chosen colour is: Geology Trail Stages 4-5 Student Activity Sheets Minerals are the building blocks of rocks and are made up of elements. They come in many different forms with some forming crystals with distinctive shapes.

More information

Metamorphic rocks are rocks changed from one form to another by intense heat, intense pressure, and/or the action of hot fluids.

Metamorphic rocks are rocks changed from one form to another by intense heat, intense pressure, and/or the action of hot fluids. Metamorphic Rocks, Processes, and Resources Metamorphic rocks are rocks changed from one form to another by intense heat, intense pressure, and/or the action of hot fluids. Protolith or parent rock is

More information

lithosphere granite basalt

lithosphere granite basalt The Earth s s Crust The Earth s s Crust The earth s crust is the outside layer of the earth. It is thickest at the continents at about 40 Km (up to 70 Km) deep. It is thinnest under the oceans at about

More information

metamorphism and metamorphic rocks

metamorphism and metamorphic rocks metamorphism and metamorphic rocks the rock cycle metamorphism high enough temperature & pressure to change rocks "but not high enough to melt rocks " " changes to rocks occur in the solid-state hot, reactive

More information

Assessment Schedule 2013 Earth and Space Science: Demonstrate understanding of the causes of extreme Earth events in New Zealand (91191)

Assessment Schedule 2013 Earth and Space Science: Demonstrate understanding of the causes of extreme Earth events in New Zealand (91191) NCEA Level 2 Earth and Space Science (91191) 2013 page 1 of 6 Assessment Schedule 2013 Earth and Space Science: Demonstrate understanding of the causes of extreme Earth events in New Zealand (91191) Evidence

More information

World Beneath Our Feet

World Beneath Our Feet World Beneath Our Feet Lesson Plan 2: Rock Identification Learning Objective Time required Learning Outcomes Materials (provided) Materials (Teacher supplied) background Suggested Procedure Students will

More information

Name Date Class. This section describes the characteristics and uses of igneous rocks.

Name Date Class. This section describes the characteristics and uses of igneous rocks. Rocks Name Date Class Rocks Guided Reading and Study Igneous Rocks This section describes the characteristics and uses of igneous rocks. Use Target Reading Skills As you read about igneous rocks, fill

More information

Earth s Interior CHAPTER 12

Earth s Interior CHAPTER 12 Earth s Interior CHAPTER 12 Studying Rocks from Earth s Interior Geologists can t sample rocks very far below Earth s surface. Deep mines may be 3 km deep. Some oil wells reach depths of 8 km. No well

More information

TYPES OF ROCKS & THE ROCK CYCLE

TYPES OF ROCKS & THE ROCK CYCLE Visit http://www.learner.org/interactives/rockcycle/index.html to complete the following questions and activities. TYPES OF ROCKS: 1. Click on TYPES OF ROCKS. Read the information on the webpage and answer

More information

Metamorphic Rocks Transformation at Work

Metamorphic Rocks Transformation at Work Learning Series: Basic Rockhound Knowledge Metamorphic Rocks Transformation at Work Metamorphic rocks are one of the three types of rock classifications, the other two being igneous and sedimentary. Rocks

More information

Planetary Interiors. Clues to the innerds. Density 3/20/2013. Density. Structure. Mantle intermediate density, fluid layer

Planetary Interiors. Clues to the innerds. Density 3/20/2013. Density. Structure. Mantle intermediate density, fluid layer Planetary Interiors Structure Terrestrial (icy satellites) Core, Mantle, Crust Giants Core, Mantle, gas layer Mantle intermediate density, fluid layer Clues to the innerds Mass Radius Density Rotation

More information

Chapter 4 Practice Test

Chapter 4 Practice Test Chapter 4 Practice Test Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The process in which water, wind, ice, and heat break down rock is

More information

Chapter 3 Rocks. The Rock Cycle

Chapter 3 Rocks. The Rock Cycle Chapter 3 Rocks Section 1 The Rock Cycle Key Concepts What is a rock? What are the three major types of rocks? How do igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks differ? What is the rock cycle? What powers

More information

Abundances of elements in solar system. Clue comes from Meteorites (p.15-21) and spectroscopic study on the Sun

Abundances of elements in solar system. Clue comes from Meteorites (p.15-21) and spectroscopic study on the Sun Abundances of elements in solar system Clue comes from Meteorites (p.15-21) and spectroscopic study on the Sun 1 Why Study Meteorites? State of early solar system Age of solar system Planetary formation

More information

Determination of the heat storage capacity of PCM and PCM objects as a function of temperature

Determination of the heat storage capacity of PCM and PCM objects as a function of temperature Determination of the heat storage capacity of PCM and PCM objects as a function of temperature E. Günther, S. Hiebler, H. Mehling ZAE Bayern, Walther-Meißner-Str. 6, 85748 Garching, Germany Outline Introduction

More information

Name Rock and Mineral Review E-Science Date Midterm Review Science Department

Name Rock and Mineral Review E-Science Date Midterm Review Science Department Name Rock and Mineral Review E-Science Date Midterm Review Science Department 1 Base your answer to the following question on the drawings of six sedimentary rocks labeled A through F. Most of the rocks

More information

MINERAL FORMULA CALCULATIONS. Sarah Lambart

MINERAL FORMULA CALCULATIONS. Sarah Lambart MINERAL FORMULA CALCULATIONS Sarah Lambart RECAP CHAP 7: NON-SILICATE MINERALS Part 1: Native element Part 2: Sulphides and related minerals Part 3 : Oxides, Hydrs and Halides Part 4: Carbonates, Sulphates

More information

Name: Rocks & Minerals 1 Mark Place, www.learnearthscience.com

Name: Rocks & Minerals 1 Mark Place, www.learnearthscience.com Name: Rocks & Minerals 1 KEY CONCEPT #1: What is a mineral? It is a, substance which has a What would be the opposite of this? KEY CONCEPT #2: What causes minerals to have different physical properties?

More information

The Layered Earth. Unit B Plate Tectonics. Unit D Shaping the Earth. Unit A The Solid Earth. Unit C Minerals and Rocks. Unit E Earthquakes

The Layered Earth. Unit B Plate Tectonics. Unit D Shaping the Earth. Unit A The Solid Earth. Unit C Minerals and Rocks. Unit E Earthquakes The Layered Earth: Content Overview The Layered Earth Unit A The Solid Earth Unit B Plate Tectonics Unit C Minerals and Rocks Unit D Shaping the Earth Unit E Earthquakes Unit F Volcanoes Unit G Geologic

More information

P1: Rock identification (I)

P1: Rock identification (I) P1: Rock identification (I) Examine the rocks specimens provided with the aid of these notes. All the rocks come from Ireland, as detailed on the attached map. Answer the short question on each specimen

More information

GEOL 5310 Advanced Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology Fall 09 Igneous Lab 2: Geochemical Plots of Igneous Rocks

GEOL 5310 Advanced Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology Fall 09 Igneous Lab 2: Geochemical Plots of Igneous Rocks GEOL 5310 Advanced Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology Fall 09 Igneous Lab 2: Geochemical Plots of Igneous Rocks Objective: In this lab, we will become familiar with geochemical databases associated with

More information

GEOLOGY 12 NOTES KEY CHAPTER 7 METAMORPHIC ROCKS. Major Concepts

GEOLOGY 12 NOTES KEY CHAPTER 7 METAMORPHIC ROCKS. Major Concepts GEOLOGY 12 NOTES KEY CHAPTER 7 METAMORPHIC ROCKS Major Concepts 1. Metamorphic rocks form when increases in heat and/or pressure change the physical and chemical conditions of an existing rock. a. Metamorphic

More information

Rocks and Plate Tectonics

Rocks and Plate Tectonics Name: Class: _ Date: _ Rocks and Plate Tectonics Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What is a naturally occurring, solid mass of mineral or

More information

Chapter Review USING KEY TERMS. extrusive igneous rock texture. and positions of the minerals the rock contains. arranged in plates or bands. is.

Chapter Review USING KEY TERMS. extrusive igneous rock texture. and positions of the minerals the rock contains. arranged in plates or bands. is. Skills Worksheet Chapter Review USING KEY TERMS 1. In your own words, write a definition for the term rock cycle. Complete each of the following sentences by choosing the correct term from the word bank.

More information

Section: The Rock Cycle

Section: The Rock Cycle Skills Worksheet Chapter 2 section 1 Inside the Restless Earth /29 Section: The Rock Cycle 1. A naturally occurring solid mixture of one or more minerals or organic matter is called a. an element. b. a

More information

CHAPTER 7: ROCKS AND MINERALS. Self-Reflection Survey: Section 7.1, p. 175 Answers will vary

CHAPTER 7: ROCKS AND MINERALS. Self-Reflection Survey: Section 7.1, p. 175 Answers will vary CHAPTER 7: ROCKS AND MINERALS Self-Reflection Survey: Section 7.1, p. 175 Answers will vary Checkpoint 7.1, p. 177 Examine the atomic models below and answer the question that follows. The filled black

More information

Petrography of wet and dry basalts from the Sumisu Caldera Volcano, Izu- Bonin Arc, Japan

Petrography of wet and dry basalts from the Sumisu Caldera Volcano, Izu- Bonin Arc, Japan Petrography of wet and dry basalts from the Sumisu Caldera Volcano, Izu- Bonin Arc, Japan Yoshihiko Tamura 1, Hiroshi Shukuno 1 and Richard S. Fiske 2 1 Research Program for Geochemical Evolution, Institute

More information

Directed Reading A. Section: The Rock Cycle. matter is called a. an element. b. a rock. c. a compound. d. an atom. THE VALUE OF ROCK. and.

Directed Reading A. Section: The Rock Cycle. matter is called a. an element. b. a rock. c. a compound. d. an atom. THE VALUE OF ROCK. and. Skills Worksheet Directed Reading A Section: The Rock Cycle 1. A naturally occurring solid mixture of one or more minerals or organic matter is called a. an element. b. a rock. c. a compound. d. an atom.

More information

Rock Cycle Roundabout

Rock Cycle Roundabout Rock Cycle Roundabout Overview: A board game designed to learn how to differentiate the three ways rocks can form. Ocean Literacy Principles: 1. The Earth has one big ocean with many features 2. The ocean

More information

EARTH SCIENCE 110 INTRODUCTION to GEOLOGY MINERALS & ROCKS LABORATORY

EARTH SCIENCE 110 INTRODUCTION to GEOLOGY MINERALS & ROCKS LABORATORY EARTH SCIENCE 110 INTRODUCTION to GEOLOGY DR. WOLTEMADE NAME: SECTION: MINERALS & ROCKS LABORATORY INTRODUCTION The identification of minerals and rocks is an integral part of understanding our physical

More information

Page 1. Name:

Page 1. Name: Name: 1) According to the Earth Science Reference Tables, which sedimentary rock would be formed by the compaction and cementation of particles 1.5 centimeters in diameter? A) shale B) conglomerate C)

More information

II. Earth Science (Geology) Section (9/18/2013)

II. Earth Science (Geology) Section (9/18/2013) EAPS 100 Planet Earth Lecture Topics Brief Outlines II. Earth Science (Geology) Section (9/18/2013) 1. Interior of the Earth Learning objectives: Understand the structure of the Earth s interior crust,

More information

Minerals in granite. The igneous rock granite is composed of many separate grains of several main minerals. Figure 2.1

Minerals in granite. The igneous rock granite is composed of many separate grains of several main minerals. Figure 2.1 Minerals in granite The igneous rock granite is composed of many separate grains of several main minerals Figure 2.1 What is a mineral? Naturally occurring solid Specific chemical composition Crystal structure

More information

Igneous Rocks Practice Exams and Answers Revised August 2007

Igneous Rocks Practice Exams and Answers Revised August 2007 Igneous Rocks Practice Exams and Answers Revised August 2007 1. Silicate liquids existing beneath the Earth's surface are called. 2. Silicate liquids that flow out at the Earth's surface or seabed are

More information

UNIT 7: Metamorphic Rocks

UNIT 7: Metamorphic Rocks UNIT 7: Metamorphic Rocks Chapter Summary Metamorphism is the transformation of one rock type into another. Metamorphic rocks form from preexisting rocks (either igneous, sedimentary, or other metamorphic

More information

Metamorphism. Igneous rocks Sedimentary rocks Other metamorphic rocks

Metamorphism. Igneous rocks Sedimentary rocks Other metamorphic rocks Metamorphic Rocks Metamorphism The transition of one rock into another by temperatures and/or pressures unlike those in which it formed Metamorphic rocks are produced from Igneous rocks Sedimentary rocks

More information

GEOL 2311 Midquarter Exam I Name Crystal Chemistry Score: / 100

GEOL 2311 Midquarter Exam I Name Crystal Chemistry Score: / 100 GEOL 2311 Midquarter Exam I Name Crystal Chemistry Score: / 100 1. Chose a subdiscipline of geology and describe how mineralogy plays a central role in that field. (2 pts) Looking for reasonable answers

More information

Igneous Rock Classification

Igneous Rock Classification Igneous Rock Classification Igneous rocks: very diverse in chemistry and texture, yet they have very gradational boundaries (Table 3-7). We must pick a rational basis for classifying them. The classification

More information

Igneous, Sedimentary, Metamorphic Rocks and The Rock Cycle

Igneous, Sedimentary, Metamorphic Rocks and The Rock Cycle Igneous, Sedimentary, Metamorphic Rocks and The Rock Cycle The earth is an ever-changing dynamic planet. As one investigates the various rock types making up the earth, it is clear that rocks vary in both

More information

Section 2 Types of Volcanoes

Section 2 Types of Volcanoes Section 2 Types of Volcanoes Key Concept Tectonic plate motions can result in volcanic activity at plate boundaries. What You Will Learn Nonexplosive eruptions of basaltic magma occur at divergent boundaries.

More information

SCIENCE 10 Unit 4: Earth Science Review

SCIENCE 10 Unit 4: Earth Science Review SCIENCE 10 Unit 4: Earth Science Review Use the following diagram to answer questions 1 and 2. 1. Which location has the youngest crust? A. A B. B C. C D. D 2. Which location is associated with subduction?

More information

Rocks: Materials of the Solid Earth

Rocks: Materials of the Solid Earth Chapter 3 Lecture Earth Science Fourteenth Edition Rocks: Materials of the Solid Earth Jennifer Mangan James Madison University What is the rock cycle and why is it important? The activity Deadline: 22

More information