Aufbau principle Electron affinity Electron orbitals (s, p, d, and f) Electron configuration Electron-dot structure Hund s rule Ion Polyatomic Ion

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1 Aufbau principle states that each electron occupies the lowest energy orbital available. Electron affinity energy released when an electron is added to an atom to form an ion. Electron orbitals the different energy levels filled by electrons within an atom (s, p, d, and f). Electron configuration The arrangement of electrons in an atom, which is prescribed by three rules the Aufbau principle, the Pauli exclusion principle, and Hund s rule. Electron-dot structure Consists of an element s symbol, representing the atomic nucleus and inner-level electrons; that is surrounded by dots, representing the atom s valence electrons. Hund s rule states that single electrons with the same spin must occupy each equal-energy orbital before additional electrons with opposite spins can occupy the same orbitals (electrons fill empty orbitals before they pair up). Ion negatively or positively charged atom (monatomic). Polyatomic Ion negatively or positively charged group of atoms. Ionic bond bond in which one or more electrons are given by one atom to another. Lewis dot structure atomic symbol with dots showing valence electrons. Metallic bond bond in which the valence electrons are shared among all the atoms in the metal. Molecular geometry the 3D shape of a covalent molecule as determined by shared and unshared electrons. Octet rule elements other than transition metals tend to react so that each atom has eight electrons in its outer (valence) shell; i.e. orbitals are full. Oxidation number the positive or negative charge of a monatomic ion (for monatomic ions it is the charge on the ion). Pauli exclusion principle states that a maximum of two electrons can occupy a single atomic orbital but only if the electrons have opposite spins. Polar covalent bond a type of bond that forms when electrons are not shared equally due to differences in electronegativity (in a 3D non-symmetrical molecule, the unequal sharing does NOT cancel out, so that there is partial positive area and a partial negative area). Non-polar covalent bond a type of bond that forms when electrons are not shared equally due to differences in electronegativity (in a 3D symmetrical molecule the unequal sharing cancels out and the molecule is non-polar). VSEPR (Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion) Theory which is based on an arrangement that minimizes the repulsion of shared and unshared pairs of electrons around the central atom (unshared electron pairs of atoms in covalent molecules repel each other).

2 Aufbau principle Electron affinity

3 Electron orbitals Electron configuration

4 Electron-dot structure Hund s rule

5 Ion Polyatomic Ion

6 Ionic bond Lewis dot structure

7 Metallic bond Molecular geometry

8 Octet rule Oxidation number

9 Pauli Exclusion Principle Polar covalent bond

10 Non-polar covalent bond VSEPR (Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion) Theory

11 Definition: states that each electron occupies the lowest energy orbital available.

12 Definition: energy released when an electron is added to an atom to form an ion.

13 Definition: the different energy levels filled by electrons within an atom (s, p, d, and f).

14 Definition: The arrangement of electrons in an atom, which is prescribed by three rules the Aufbau principle, the Pauli exclusion principle, and Hund s rule.

15 Definition: Consists of an element s symbol, representing the atomic nucleus and innerlevel electrons; that is surrounded by dots, representing the atom s valence electrons.

16 Definition: states that single electrons with the same spin must occupy each equal-energy orbital before additional electrons with opposite spins can occupy the same orbitals (electrons fill empty orbitals before they pair up).

17 Definition: negatively or positively charged atom (monatomic).

18 Definition: negatively or positively charged group of atoms.

19 Definition: bond in which one or more electrons are given by one atom to another.

20 Definition: atomic symbol with dots showing valence electrons.

21 Definition: bond in which the valence electrons are shared among all the atoms in the metal.

22 Definition: the 3D shape of a covalent molecule as determined by shared and unshared electrons.

23 Definition: elements other than transition metals tend to react so that each atom has eight electrons in its outer (valence) shell; i.e. orbitals are full.

24 Definition: the positive or negative charge of a monatomic ion (for monatomic ions it is the charge on the ion).

25 Definition: states that a maximum of two electrons can occupy a single atomic orbital but only if the electrons have opposite spins.

26 Definition: a type of bond that forms when electrons are not shared equally due to differences in electronegativity (in a 3D nonsymmetrical molecule, the unequal sharing does NOT cancel out, so that there is partial positive area and a partial negative area).

27 Definition: a type of bond that forms when electrons are not shared equally due to differences in electronegativity (in a 3D symmetrical molecule the unequal sharing cancels out and the molecule is non-polar).

28 Definition: which is based on an arrangement that minimizes the repulsion of shared and unshared pairs of electrons around the central atom (unshared electron pairs of atoms in covalent molecules repel each other).

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