Contents. List of Contributors. 1 Emerging themes in plant pathogen interactions 1 NICHOLAS J. TALBOT. 2 Tobacco mosaic virus 27 JOHN PETER CARR

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Contents. List of Contributors. 1 Emerging themes in plant pathogen interactions 1 NICHOLAS J. TALBOT. 2 Tobacco mosaic virus 27 JOHN PETER CARR"

Transcription

1 Contents List of Contributors Preface x xii 1 Emerging themes in plant pathogen interactions 1 NICHOLAS J. TALBOT 1.1 Introduction Breaching the host cuticle MAP kinase signalling during infection-related development by fungi Invading host tissue Subverting host metabolism and defence Effector proteins deployed by pathogenic bacteria Host mimicry Perception of pathogens Recognition in gene-for-gene interactions and the guard hypothesis Genome-level analysis of pathogens Fungal and oomycete phytopathogen genomics The future 18 References 19 2 Tobacco mosaic virus 27 JOHN PETER CARR 2.1 Introduction Tobacco mosaic virus: virion and genome structure Genome structure and the taxonomy of TMV and related viruses The TMV virion Virion assembly Proteins encoded by the TMV genome Untranslated and regulatory RNA sequences within the TMV genome The establishment of TMV infection TMV replication and the synthesis of subgenomic mrnas The process of replication and subgenomic RNA synthesis The composition of the TMV replicase complex and its location in the infected cell Movement of TMV within the host Cell-to-cell movement of tobamoviruses Plasmodesmata and the viral movement protein Interactions of the TMV MP with host cell ultrastructure Interactions of the TMV MP with host proteins Are other virus-encoded proteins involved in cell-to-cell movement? 43

2 vi CONTENTS Systemic movement of tobamoviruses Virus movement and the phloem The movement protein The coat protein and systemic movement The replicase proteins, virus replication, and systemic movement The role of the host in the systemic movement of tobamoviruses Host reactions to TMV The susceptible host Chlorosis and vein clearing in systemically infected plants Mosaic symptoms in systemically infected plants: an effect of localized RNA silencing? Resistance to tobamoviruses The N resistance gene Resistance genes that are elicited by the tobamoviral CP Genes for resistance to tobamoviruses in tomato Genetically engineered resistance to tobamoviruses Future directions for TMV research: making an old foe into a new friend? 54 Acknowledgments 55 References 55 3 Infection with potyviruses 68 MINNA-LIISA RAJAMÄKI, TUULA MÄKI-VALKAMA, KRISTIINA MÄKINEN and JARI P.T. VALKONEN 3.1 Infection cycle (general summary) Architecture of virions Entry of virions into the cell, disassembly and assembly Translation and polyprotein processing Translation initiation Polyprotein processing RNA synthesis and viral genome replication Virus movement Intracellular movement Cell-to-cell movement Vascular movement Induction of symptoms Transmission Transmission by aphids Seed transmission Mechanical transmission Variability and evolution 82 Acknowledgments 84 References 85 4 The Ralstonia solanacearum plant interaction 92 CHRISTIAN BOUCHER and STÉPHANE GENIN 4.1 The pathogen A major plant pathogen with an unusually wide host range Taxonomical status of the species and infraspecific classification 92

3 CONTENTS vii R. solanacearum, a vascular pathogen that promotes xylem vessel occlusion Epidemiology and environmental survival Molecular studies of pathogenicity determinants Exopolysaccharide I Protein secretion systems Plant cell wall degrading enzymes and proteins secreted through the General Secretory Pathway The Type III secretion system (TTSS) Motility and attachment to host cell surfaces Swimming motility Type IV pili Regulation of pathogenicity PhcA, a global regulator controlling phenotypic conversion An atypical cell-sensing system A multicomponent network regulating virulence functions hrp gene activation in response to plant cell contact Genome-wide identification of candidate genes potentially involved in pathogenicity 105 Acknowledgment 106 References The Pseudomonas syringae bean system 113 SUSAN S. HIRANO and CHRISTEN D. UPPER 5.1 Introduction The system Population sizes of Pss on populations of leaf habitats Population processes: searching for causes of variability in pathogen population sizes Immigration and multiplication Emigration and death The four processes working together Enter the environment Enter the host Pss population sizes and the likelihood of disease development How does Pss cause brown spot lesions? Growth chamber assays Field experiments Germinating bean seeds Leaves Brown spot disease Growth chamber assays revisited Reconciliation Summary 132 References Fungal pathogenesis in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea 138 CHAOYANG XUE, LEI LI, KYEYONG SEONG and JIN-RONG XU 6.1 Introduction Life cycle of Magnaporthe grisea 138

4 viii CONTENTS 6.3 Conidium attachment and germination Attachment Germination Appressorium morphogenesis Surface recognition and appressorium initiation Appressorium maturation The role of camp signaling in surface recognition and appressorium initiation PMK1 regulates appressorium formation and maturation Hydrophobin MPG1 and surface recognition Other factors affecting appressorium formation Other mutants defective in appressorium morphogenesis Penetration Penetration peg Forces of penetration Turgor generation Other genes involved in appressorial penetration Infectious growth and lesion formation Infectious hyphae Phytotoxins produced by M. grisea Avirulence genes Nutritional requirements and metabolic activities during infectious growth Other mutants defective in infectious growth and lesion formation Genes specifically or highly expressed during infectious growth Conidiation Genomics studies Future perspectives 159 References The Ustilago maydis maize interaction 166 MARIA D. GARCIA-PEDRAJAS, STEVEN J. KLOSTERMAN, DAVID L. ANDREWS and SCOTT E. GOLD 7.1 Introduction Teliospore germination and meiosis Mating and dikaryon formation Penetration Infection structures in U. maydis Can haploid strains penetrate plant cells? Regulation of appressorium formation and plant penetration Potential role of lytic enzymes in penetration Colonization of maize tissue Proliferation of hyphae Interspecies signaling and colonization-specific fungal gene expression The biotrophic interface Gall formation and teliosporogenesis Developmental stages during gall formation and teliosporogenesis Genetic regulation of gall formation and teliosporogenesis Completion of sexual cycle in vitro Role of phytohormones in gall formation 191

5 CONTENTS ix 7.7 Survival Genetic diversity in U. maydis Host resistance Conclusions 194 Acknowledgements 195 References Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei, an obligate pathogen of barley 202 MAIKE BOTH and PIETRO D. SPANU 8.1 Introduction Life cycle an overview Conidia and germination Surface perception and early events following contact with the surface Signal transduction during early development of B. graminis f. sp. hordei camp and PKA MAP kinases PKC G-proteins Penetration The haustorium Vegetative growth and sporulation Outlook 216 References The Phytophthora infestans potato interaction 219 PIETER VAN WEST and VIVIANNE G.A.A. VLEESHOUWERS 9.1 Introduction History of late blight Economic and social impact of Phytophthora plant pathogens Phytophthora infestans and its taxonomic position The disease cycle of Phytophthora infestans Molecular and cellular events during the disease cycle of P. infestans Release of zoospores from sporangia Encystment, germination, and appressoria formation Mating In planta gene expression The plant response Compatible interactions Incompatible interactions Race-specific resistance and the hypersensitive response Avirulence genes Resistance genes Non-host resistance Partial resistance Durable resistance Future perspectives 235 Acknowledgements 236 References 236 Index 243

PARASITISM AND DISEASE DEVELOPMENT

PARASITISM AND DISEASE DEVELOPMENT Principle of Plant Protection 0606101 PARASITISM AND DISEASE DEVELOPMENT Lecture 3 Pathogen and Pathogenicity Pathogen: a disease causing agent. Pathogenicity: ability for an organism to interfere with

More information

Molecular Plant Pathology

Molecular Plant Pathology Molecular Plant Pathology Chapter 1 Plant disease http://134.208.24.95/kclin 上課檔案 & 作業範例 密碼為 :3643 ( 稻熱病 ) ( 稻紋枯病 ) ( 稻白葉枯病 ) ( 小麥銹病 ) ( 小麥黃萎病 ) ( 大麥白粉病 ) ( 玉米葉枯病 ) ( 馬鈴薯晚疫病 ) ( 馬鈴薯軟腐病 ) What is a disease?

More information

GENETICS OF BACTERIA AND VIRUSES

GENETICS OF BACTERIA AND VIRUSES GENETICS OF BACTERIA AND VIRUSES 1 Genes of bacteria are found in bacterial chromosomes Usually a single type of chromosome May have more than one copy of that chromosome Number of copies depends on the

More information

(ii) They are smaller than bacteria, and this can pass through bacteriological filter.

(ii) They are smaller than bacteria, and this can pass through bacteriological filter. Viruses Definition: Obligate intracellular parasite composed of: Nucleic acid - either DNA or RNA & Protein coat. Characteristics of viruses Viruses are the most primitive cellular and non-cytoplasmic

More information

Covered topics, Distance Learning course Plant pathology and entomology M1-M4

Covered topics, Distance Learning course Plant pathology and entomology M1-M4 Covered topics, Distance Learning course Plant pathology and entomology M1-M4 V1.0 Dr. Jan-Kees Goud, Wageningen University & Research The four main modules treat with the main groups of plant pathogens

More information

What is Plant Pathology?

What is Plant Pathology? What is Plant Pathology?... the study of plant diseases WSU Hortsense: R. Byther... conditions in which a plant varies in some way from a healthy plant in development, structure or function Why are Plant

More information

Parasite Organisms that live on or in another organism

Parasite Organisms that live on or in another organism Parasitism and Plant Disease Important Dfiii Definitions: Pathogen a disease causing agent Pathogenicity Ability for an organism to interfere with one or more essential functions of another organism causing

More information

Human Genome Complexity, Viruses & Genetic Variability

Human Genome Complexity, Viruses & Genetic Variability Human Genome Complexity, Viruses & Genetic Variability (Learning Objectives) Learn the types of DNA sequences present in the Human Genome other than genes coding for functional proteins. Review what you

More information

FACULTY OF MEDICAL SCIENCE

FACULTY OF MEDICAL SCIENCE Doctor of Philosophy Program in Microbiology FACULTY OF MEDICAL SCIENCE Naresuan University 171 Doctor of Philosophy Program in Microbiology The time is critical now for graduate education and research

More information

Overview of Viruses. Dr. Angela M. Shaw Assistant Professor of Food Science and Human Nutrition Food Safety Extension and Outreach Specialist

Overview of Viruses. Dr. Angela M. Shaw Assistant Professor of Food Science and Human Nutrition Food Safety Extension and Outreach Specialist Overview of Viruses Dr. Angela M. Shaw Assistant Professor of Food Science and Human Nutrition Food Safety Extension and Outreach Specialist Viruses Dmitri Iwanowski - 1892 Experiments with tobacco plants

More information

Replication of viruses An overview

Replication of viruses An overview Lec. 2 أ.د.فائزة عبذ اهلل مخلص Replication of viruses An overview Aim: Study the general steps in viral replication cycles. Objectives: 1. Viral growth curve 2. Stepwise description of specific events

More information

VIRUSES - General Principles; Focus on Bacterial viruses

VIRUSES - General Principles; Focus on Bacterial viruses VIRUSES - General Principles; Focus on Bacterial viruses Non-living obligate intracellular parasites OR the simplest living things there are (depends upon your definition of life ) Viruses They ALWAYS

More information

Final Report Utilizing phylloplanins for the control of fungal and oomycete pathogens in organic potato farming

Final Report Utilizing phylloplanins for the control of fungal and oomycete pathogens in organic potato farming Final Report Utilizing phylloplanins for the control of fungal and oomycete pathogens in organic potato farming Principal Investigator Amy Charkowski, Dept. Plant Pathology, Univ. Wisconsin-Madison Summary

More information

Chapter 10: Genetics of Viruses

Chapter 10: Genetics of Viruses Chapter 10: Genetics of Viruses Student Learning Objectives Upon completion of this chapter you should be able to: 1. Understand the structure and genomic composition of viruses. 2. Distinguish between

More information

Microbiology in the MLS Master. Justine Collier March 2013

Microbiology in the MLS Master. Justine Collier March 2013 Microbiology in the MLS Master Justine Collier March 2013 Job perspectives as a microbiologist! In public agencies: -! Research (universities, institutes, hospitals!) -! Teaching ( schools, HES, universities!)

More information

BASIC TERMINOLOGY AND DEFINITIONS IN PLANT PATHOLOGY

BASIC TERMINOLOGY AND DEFINITIONS IN PLANT PATHOLOGY BASIC TERMINOLOGY AND DEFINITIONS IN PLANT PATHOLOGY For the accurate identification and diagnosis of plant disease and plant problems a foundational knowledge of terms and definitions is essential for

More information

Milestones of bacterial genetic research:

Milestones of bacterial genetic research: Milestones of bacterial genetic research: 1944 Avery's pneumococcal transformation experiment shows that DNA is the hereditary material 1946 Lederberg & Tatum describes bacterial conjugation using biochemical

More information

Viral Replication. I. Steps in Viral Replication. Scott M. Hammer

Viral Replication. I. Steps in Viral Replication. Scott M. Hammer Scott M. Hammer Viral Replication I. Steps in Viral Replication A. Attachment. This is the first step in viral replication. Surface proteins of the virus interact with specific receptors on the target

More information

Transfection-Transfer of non-viral genetic material into eukaryotic cells. Infection/ Transduction- Transfer of viral genetic material into cells.

Transfection-Transfer of non-viral genetic material into eukaryotic cells. Infection/ Transduction- Transfer of viral genetic material into cells. Transfection Key words: Transient transfection, Stable transfection, transfection methods, vector, plasmid, origin of replication, reporter gene/ protein, cloning site, promoter and enhancer, signal peptide,

More information

Recognizing, Understanding and Controlling Virus Diseases of Hostas

Recognizing, Understanding and Controlling Virus Diseases of Hostas Recognizing, Understanding and Controlling Virus Diseases of Hostas Ben E. Lockhart, Professor Department of Plant Pathology University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN Part I: Understandinv Viruses A.brief

More information

Recombinant DNA technology (genetic engineering) involves combining genes from different sources into new cells that can express the genes.

Recombinant DNA technology (genetic engineering) involves combining genes from different sources into new cells that can express the genes. Recombinant DNA technology (genetic engineering) involves combining genes from different sources into new cells that can express the genes. Recombinant DNA technology has had-and will havemany important

More information

M. grisea penetration

M. grisea penetration Warfare between Plants and their Attacking Pathogens Presentation Outline Warfare between Plants and their Attacking Pathogens Disease Cycle Events during the infection process Inoculation comes into contact

More information

Covered Conference Sessions

Covered Conference Sessions Covered Conference Sessions Membrane Transporters Annual 2016 Liverpool Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers Annual 2016 Liverpool Nutrition Immunity: Metals at the Host-Pathogen Interface Annual 2016 Liverpool Small

More information

WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT?

WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT? CHAPTER 12 THE STRUCTURE AND INFECTION CYCLE OF VIRUSES Eye of Science / Science Photo Library WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT? More than 80% of infectious diseases are caused by viruses. As a health professional,

More information

Introduction to Plant Diseases

Introduction to Plant Diseases EXTENSION Know how. Know now. EC1273 Introduction to Plant Diseases Amy D. Timmerman, Associate Extension Educator Kevin A. Korus, Assistant Extension Educator Environment Disease Host Pathogen Extension

More information

Introduction to Plant Pathology

Introduction to Plant Pathology Introduction to Plant Pathology What is a plant disease? A plant disease is any abnormal condition that alters the appearance or function of a plant. It is a physiological process that affects some or

More information

Plant diseases and what we can do about them

Plant diseases and what we can do about them Plant diseases and what we can do about them Matt Dickinson Importance Causes (Viruses, Bacteria, Fungi / Oomycetes) How to diagnose the cause Control PLANTS ARE COVERED IN BACTERIA AND FUNGI Fluorescent

More information

Pathogenesis. Pl. Path. 111 (Cr. Hrs. 3+1) P.N. Sharma Department of Plant Pathology, CSK HPKV, Palampur (H.P.)

Pathogenesis. Pl. Path. 111 (Cr. Hrs. 3+1) P.N. Sharma Department of Plant Pathology, CSK HPKV, Palampur (H.P.) Pathogenesis Pl. Path. 111 (Cr. Hrs. 3+1) P.N. Sharma Department of Plant Pathology, CSK HPKV, Palampur (H.P.) Pathogenesis & Parasitism Parasite : Parasitism Symbiosis, Mycorrhiza -- Beneficial Pathogen

More information

Opening Activity # 1: Opening Activity # 2: Latin Root Word #1: Latin Root Word #2: Review of Old Information: N/A New Information:

Opening Activity # 1: Opening Activity # 2: Latin Root Word #1: Latin Root Word #2: Review of Old Information: N/A New Information: Section: 1.4 Opening Activity # 1: Name: Opening Activity # 2: Latin Root Word #1: Latin Root Word #2: Review of Old Information: N/A New Information: Emerging Viruses: 1)West Nile Virus 2)HIV 3)Ebola

More information

MB3001 Medical Microbiology (5 credits; Teaching Period 2A) MB3006 Genetic Engineering and Molecular Biotechnology

MB3001 Medical Microbiology (5 credits; Teaching Period 2A) MB3006 Genetic Engineering and Molecular Biotechnology MICROBIOLOGY Spring Semester 2013/2014 academic year Timetables can be accessed at http://timetable.ucc.ie/1314/department.asp Click on Microbiology For information on building codes click on: http://timetable.ucc.ie/1314/buildingcodes.asp

More information

SENIOR FRESHMAN BIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY VIRUSES LECTURE 1. Professor T.J. Foster. Scope of the Course

SENIOR FRESHMAN BIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY VIRUSES LECTURE 1. Professor T.J. Foster. Scope of the Course SENIOR FRESHMAN BIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY VIRUSES LECTURE 1 Professor T.J. Foster Scope of the Course Introduction. Structure, Growth, Replication, Classification Bacteriophage T4 Herpes Viruses Influenza Viruses

More information

Plant Growth & Development. Growth Stages. Differences in the Developmental Mechanisms of Plants and Animals. Development

Plant Growth & Development. Growth Stages. Differences in the Developmental Mechanisms of Plants and Animals. Development Plant Growth & Development Plant body is unable to move. To survive and grow, plants must be able to alter its growth, development and physiology. Plants are able to produce complex, yet variable forms

More information

The world of non-coding RNA. Espen Enerly

The world of non-coding RNA. Espen Enerly The world of non-coding RNA Espen Enerly ncrna in general Different groups Small RNAs Outline mirnas and sirnas Speculations Common for all ncrna Per def.: never translated Not spurious transcripts Always/often

More information

Plant Biology Learning Framework

Plant Biology Learning Framework Plant Biology Learning Framework Topic Plant Structure and Function Plant Growth and Reproduction Organization of Matter and Energy Flow Information Processing/Signal Transduction Plants in Ecosystems

More information

GUIDELINES FOR THE REGISTRATION OF BIOLOGICAL PEST CONTROL AGENTS FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS

GUIDELINES FOR THE REGISTRATION OF BIOLOGICAL PEST CONTROL AGENTS FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS GUIDELINES FOR THE REGISTRATION OF BIOLOGICAL PEST CONTROL AGENTS FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS -ii- GUIDELINES ON THE REGISTRATION OF BIOLOGICAL PEST CONTROL AGENTS FOOD AND

More information

Plant virus Symptoms. P.N. Sharma Department of Plant Pathology, CSK HPKV, Palampur (H.P.)

Plant virus Symptoms. P.N. Sharma Department of Plant Pathology, CSK HPKV, Palampur (H.P.) Plant virus Symptoms P.N. Sharma Department of Plant Pathology, CSK HPKV, Palampur (H.P.) Plant virus symptoms Important for virus identification Used to name the disease Solely can not be used to characterize

More information

RNAi. Martin Latterich

RNAi. Martin Latterich RNAi Martin Latterich Contributors Abbreviations Preface i x ( xi xiii 1 Methods in RNA interference 1 Martin Latterich and Dalia Halawan i References 2 2 RNAi reagent design 3 Bernd Jagla and Nathalie

More information

Biotechnology and its Applications

Biotechnology and its Applications Chapter-12 Biotechnology and its Applications Very Short Answers Questions: 1. Give different types of cry genes and pests which are controlled by the proteins encoded by these genes? A: cryiac, cryiiab

More information

10/21/2010. Chapter 13. Ch. 13 Topics. Medical Importance of Viruses

10/21/2010. Chapter 13. Ch. 13 Topics. Medical Importance of Viruses Chapter 13 Viruses, Viroids, and Prions J. Meléndez Lectures prepared by Christine L. Case Ch. 13 Topics Structure Multiplication Cultivation and replication of bacteriophages and animal viruses Non-viral

More information

Roles of Plant Tissue Culture in Plant Genetic Engineering

Roles of Plant Tissue Culture in Plant Genetic Engineering Roles of Plant Tissue Culture in Plant Genetic Engineering What are Transgenic Plants? Plants that contain a source gene inserted from a species outside of the target plant species. The gene may 1) have

More information

7.013 Spring 2005 Problem Set 7 FRIDAY May 6th, 2005

7.013 Spring 2005 Problem Set 7 FRIDAY May 6th, 2005 MI Department of Biology 7.013: Introductory Biology - Spring 2005 Instructors: Professor Hazel Sive, Professor yler Jacks, Dr. Claudette Gardel Question 1 7.013 Spring 2005 Problem Set 7 RIDAY May 6th,

More information

AP Biology Learning Objective Cards

AP Biology Learning Objective Cards 1.1 The student is able to convert a data set from a table of numbers that reflect a change in the genetic makeup of a population over time and to apply mathematical methods and conceptual understandings

More information

7- Master s Degree in Public Health and Public Health Sciences (Majoring Microbiology)

7- Master s Degree in Public Health and Public Health Sciences (Majoring Microbiology) 7- Master s Degree in Public Health and Public Health Sciences (Majoring Microbiology) Students should fulfill a total of 38 credit hours: 1- Basic requirements: 10 credit hours. 150701, 150702, 150703,

More information

Course Curriculum for Master Degree in Medical Laboratory Sciences/Clinical Microbiology, Immunology and Serology

Course Curriculum for Master Degree in Medical Laboratory Sciences/Clinical Microbiology, Immunology and Serology Course Curriculum for Master Degree in Medical Laboratory Sciences/Clinical Microbiology, Immunology and Serology The Master Degree in Medical Laboratory Sciences / Clinical Microbiology, Immunology or

More information

Cell Communication & Regulation of the Cell Cycle

Cell Communication & Regulation of the Cell Cycle Cell Communication & Regulation of the Cell Cycle 1 Why do cells need to respond to signals? 1. Need to respond to a changing environment Adaptation or a cellular response is critical for survival Glucose

More information

Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology

Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology Edited by David M. Sylvia JefFry J. Fuhrmann Peter G. Hartel David A. Zuberer Technische Universitat Darmstadt FACHBEREICH 10 BIOLOGIE B i b I : o t h e

More information

Fungi and plants practice

Fungi and plants practice Name: Period: Date: Fungi and plants practice Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Indicate your answer choice with an UPPER CASE letter in the

More information

Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences Institute of Botany

Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences Institute of Botany Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences Institute of Botany SEROLOGYCAL AND MOLECULAR DETECTION OF MELON (Cucumis melo L.) INFECTING VIRUSES IN AZERBAIJAN NARGİZ SULTANOVA FAKHRADDİN Introduction Virus

More information

Biology Performance Level Descriptors

Biology Performance Level Descriptors Limited A student performing at the Limited Level demonstrates a minimal command of Ohio s Learning Standards for Biology. A student at this level has an emerging ability to describe genetic patterns of

More information

Antibiotic susceptibility

Antibiotic susceptibility Antibiotic susceptibility Antibiotic: natural chemicals produced by bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, plants or animals, and either inhibits or kills other microbes and/or cells Chemotherapeutic agent: A

More information

Statutory Order on the approval of production using genetically modified plants and animals

Statutory Order on the approval of production using genetically modified plants and animals Statutory Order no 829, 3 October 2002 This is an unofficial translation of - please note that only the Danish version has legal validity. Statutory Order on the approval of production using genetically

More information

Viruses. Viral components: Capsid. Chapter 10: Viruses. Viral components: Nucleic Acid. Viral components: Envelope

Viruses. Viral components: Capsid. Chapter 10: Viruses. Viral components: Nucleic Acid. Viral components: Envelope Viruses Chapter 10: Viruses Lecture Exam #3 Wednesday, November 22 nd (This lecture WILL be on Exam #3) Dr. Amy Rogers Office Hours: MW 9-10 AM Too small to see with a light microscope Visible with electron

More information

Regulatory Measures for Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease (MLND) Management in Kenya

Regulatory Measures for Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease (MLND) Management in Kenya Regulatory Measures for Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease (MLND) Management in Kenya James Onsando (PhD) Managing Director Kenya Plant Health Inspectorate Service (KEPHIS) www.kephis.org Operations at KEPHIS

More information

Virus Replication. I- Viral Growth Curve

Virus Replication. I- Viral Growth Curve Virus Replication The viral replication cycle is described in two different ways. The first approach is a growth curve, which shows the amount of virus produced at different times after infection. The

More information

HAROLD CAMPING i ii iii iv v vi vii viii ix x xi xii 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52

More information

Plant Pathology. Introduction

Plant Pathology. Introduction Plant Pathology Introduction Because of the reliance of humans on plants for food, fibres and other resources, understanding plant diseases and their control is of vital importance to our survival. Plant

More information

Engineering of Yellow Mosaic Virus Resistance (YMVR) in Blackgram. Project ID: 1 April 2000 to 31 August 2004. Project Duration:

Engineering of Yellow Mosaic Virus Resistance (YMVR) in Blackgram. Project ID: 1 April 2000 to 31 August 2004. Project Duration: Engineering of Yellow Mosaic Virus Resistance (YMVR) in Blackgram ID: Duration: Coordinator in Switzerland: PS1 1 April 2000 to 31 August 2004 Prof. Thomas Hohn University of Basel Botanisches Institut

More information

Chapter 6 - Virology. Structure. Size and morphology Capsid Envelope Complex Nucleic acid

Chapter 6 - Virology. Structure. Size and morphology Capsid Envelope Complex Nucleic acid Chapter 6 - Virology Topics Structure Classification Multiplication Cultivation and replication Nonviral infectious agent Teratogenic/Oncogenic - Viruses have a host range. That is, viruses infect specific

More information

Module Catalogue. for the Master Degree Programme. Microbiology (M.Sc.)

Module Catalogue. for the Master Degree Programme. Microbiology (M.Sc.) Module Catalogue for the Master Degree Programme Microbiology (M.Sc.) Status: June 2012 Faculty of Biology and Pharmacy List of abbreviations cp L S E P EX SS WS hpw Mc credit point(s) Lecture Seminar

More information

No matter the weather conditions, there will be problematic diseases every year. Which disease may change from year to year.

No matter the weather conditions, there will be problematic diseases every year. Which disease may change from year to year. No matter the weather conditions, there will be problematic diseases every year. Which disease may change from year to year. This presentation provides background on plant diseases. 1 A plant disease is

More information

Kermodul : Angeborene Immunität Innate Immunity. Uwe Sonnewald Email usonne@biologie.uni-erlangen.de

Kermodul : Angeborene Immunität Innate Immunity. Uwe Sonnewald Email usonne@biologie.uni-erlangen.de BC Kermodul : Angeborene Immunität Innate Immunity Pathogens Invasion strategies Pathogen Host Interactions Basal Defence Uwe Sonnewald Email usonne@biologie.uni-erlangen.de 1 BC Immunity (mammalian) Innate

More information

Bioinformatics. Viruses, etc

Bioinformatics. Viruses, etc Bioinformatics, etc David Gilbert Bioinformatics Research Centre www.brc.dcs.gla.ac.uk Department of Computing Science, University of Glasgow Incorporating notes by Ali Al-Shahib, David Leader, and Wikipaedia

More information

What makes cells different from each other? How do cells respond to information from environment?

What makes cells different from each other? How do cells respond to information from environment? What makes cells different from each other? How do cells respond to information from environment? Regulation of: - Transcription - prokaryotes - eukaryotes - mrna splicing - mrna localisation and translation

More information

VIRUSES. Viruses are not classified in any kingdom yet because they are not really alive. They only show signs of life after they infect a host cell.

VIRUSES. Viruses are not classified in any kingdom yet because they are not really alive. They only show signs of life after they infect a host cell. VIRUSES Viruses are not classified in any kingdom yet because they are not really alive. They only show signs of life after they infect a host cell. Virus: lifeless particle that does not carry out any

More information

Plants Get Sick Too! An Introduction to Plant Diseases. Sarah D. Ellis Michael J. Boehm Department of Plant Pathology

Plants Get Sick Too! An Introduction to Plant Diseases. Sarah D. Ellis Michael J. Boehm Department of Plant Pathology FACT SHEET Agriculture and Natural Resources PP401.01 This is the first fact sheet in a series of nine designed to provide an overview of key concepts in plant pathology. Plant pathology is the study of

More information

VIRAL STRUCTURE. Nucleic acid: Either DNA or RNA Single-stranded or double-stranded Linear or circular Segmented or non-segmented

VIRAL STRUCTURE. Nucleic acid: Either DNA or RNA Single-stranded or double-stranded Linear or circular Segmented or non-segmented VIRUSES non-cellular, obligately intracellular parasites replicate not by division characteristic intracellular life cycle (eclipse period) infectious genetic information VIRAL STRUCTURE Nucleic acid:

More information

Structure and Function of DNA

Structure and Function of DNA Structure and Function of DNA DNA and RNA Structure DNA and RNA are nucleic acids. They consist of chemical units called nucleotides. The nucleotides are joined by a sugar-phosphate backbone. The four

More information

GENETIC ENGINEERING - PLASMIDS, EPISOMES

GENETIC ENGINEERING - PLASMIDS, EPISOMES GENETIC ENGINEERING - PLASMIDS, EPISOMES Genetic Engineering Genetic engineering is a laboratory technique used by scientists to change the DNA of living organisms. DNA is the blueprint for the individuality

More information

CHAPTER 6 GRIFFITH/HERSHEY/CHASE: DNA IS THE GENETIC MATERIAL IDENTIFICATION OF DNA DNA AND HEREDITY DNA CAN GENETICALLY TRANSFORM CELLS

CHAPTER 6 GRIFFITH/HERSHEY/CHASE: DNA IS THE GENETIC MATERIAL IDENTIFICATION OF DNA DNA AND HEREDITY DNA CAN GENETICALLY TRANSFORM CELLS CHAPTER 6 GRIFFITH/HERSHEY/CHASE: DNA IS THE GENETIC MATERIAL In 1928, Frederick Griffith was able to transform harmless bacteria into virulent pathogens with an extract that Oswald Avery proved, in 1944,

More information

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Module 2B Viruses Viruses are not complete living organisms. They are smaller and simpler in structure than even the simplest prokaryotic cells. However, because they have some characteristics of life,

More information

Genetic Engineering of Plants

Genetic Engineering of Plants Genetic Engineering of Plants Chem 210 3/22/00 What we ve learned so far... Genes can be cloned into vectors (such as plasmids). These vectors can be introduced into bacteria (such as E. coli). The foreign

More information

Review of Lecture 5: Disease cycle follow-up

Review of Lecture 5: Disease cycle follow-up Review of Lecture 5: Disease cycle diagrams: conventions of the diagrams were described a primary cycle(s) was defined (sexual or asexual) a secondary (repeating) cycle was defined (asexual) OVERWINTERING

More information

Biotechnology in Medicine and Agriculture

Biotechnology in Medicine and Agriculture Biotechnology in Medicine and Agriculture Bởi: OpenStaxCollege It is easy to see how biotechnology can be used for medicinal purposes. Knowledge of the genetic makeup of our species, the genetic basis

More information

Lecture 5. GENETICS OF PROKARYOTES

Lecture 5. GENETICS OF PROKARYOTES Lecture 5. GENETICS OF PROKARYOTES 1. Basic concepts 2. The prokaryotic genome 3. The pan-genome 4. Genetic interchange and recombination 4.1. Recombination 4.2. Transformation 4.3. Conjugation 4.4. Transduction

More information

Viruses, Archaea and Bacteria

Viruses, Archaea and Bacteria Viruses, Archaea and Bacteria Viruses and Viroids Features of Prokaryotes Bacterial Diversity Archaeal Diversity Viruses A virus is a noncellular infectious agent Ø Consists of a protein coat around a

More information

The Plant Cell, July 2011, American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

The Plant Cell, July 2011, American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved. The Plant Cell, July 2011, www.plantcell.org 2011 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved. Introduction to Phytohormones (TTPB6) Teaching Guide Overview Phytohormones are chemical messengers

More information

Diseases and Their Control

Diseases and Their Control Chapter 34 Diseases and Their Control In This Chapter Keywords Diseases After learning the information in this chapter, you will be able to: 1. List the causes of disease symptoms. 2. Describe how fungi,

More information

Bioinformatics: Network Analysis

Bioinformatics: Network Analysis Bioinformatics: Network Analysis Molecular Cell Biology: A Brief Review COMP 572 (BIOS 572 / BIOE 564) - Fall 2013 Luay Nakhleh, Rice University 1 The Tree of Life 2 Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cell Structure

More information

Course Descriptions. I. Professional Courses: MSEG 7216: Introduction to Infectious Diseases (Medical Students)

Course Descriptions. I. Professional Courses: MSEG 7216: Introduction to Infectious Diseases (Medical Students) Course Descriptions I. Professional Courses: MSEG 7216: Introduction to Infectious Diseases (Medical Students) This course is offered during the first semester of the second year of the MD Program. It

More information

Genetics Lecture Notes 7.03 2005. Lectures 1 2

Genetics Lecture Notes 7.03 2005. Lectures 1 2 Genetics Lecture Notes 7.03 2005 Lectures 1 2 Lecture 1 We will begin this course with the question: What is a gene? This question will take us four lectures to answer because there are actually several

More information

Page 1. Name: 1) The diagram below represents one possible immune response that can occur in the human body.

Page 1. Name: 1) The diagram below represents one possible immune response that can occur in the human body. Name: 8931-1 - Page 1 1) The diagram below represents one possible immune response that can occur in the human body. 5) One similarity between cell receptors and antibodies is that both A) are involved

More information

Site-Directed Nucleases and Cisgenesis Maria Fedorova, Ph.D.

Site-Directed Nucleases and Cisgenesis Maria Fedorova, Ph.D. Site-Directed Nucleases and Cisgenesis Maria Fedorova, Ph.D. Regulatory Strategy Lead Enabling Technologies DuPont-Pioneer, USA 1 New Plant Breeding Techniques 2007 New Techniques Working Group established

More information

Lecture 17 Viruses Bacteriophages life cycle Learning objectives: Characteristics of Virus

Lecture 17 Viruses Bacteriophages life cycle Learning objectives: Characteristics of Virus Lecture 17 Viruses Bacteriophages life cycle Learning objectives: The aim of this lecture is to introduce the basic facts about the virology and how virus multiplies on the host virus and understand their

More information

Genetics. Chapter 9. Chromosome. Genes Three categories. Flow of Genetics/Information The Central Dogma. DNA RNA Protein

Genetics. Chapter 9. Chromosome. Genes Three categories. Flow of Genetics/Information The Central Dogma. DNA RNA Protein Chapter 9 Topics - Genetics - Flow of Genetics/Information - Regulation - Mutation - Recombination gene transfer Genetics Genome - the sum total of genetic information in a organism Genotype - the A's,

More information

Cystic Fibrosis Webquest Sarah Follenweider, The English High School 2009 Summer Research Internship Program

Cystic Fibrosis Webquest Sarah Follenweider, The English High School 2009 Summer Research Internship Program Cystic Fibrosis Webquest Sarah Follenweider, The English High School 2009 Summer Research Internship Program Introduction: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited chronic disease that affects the lungs and

More information

Cucumber disease control. Parm Randhawa,, Ph.D. California Seed & Plant Lab

Cucumber disease control. Parm Randhawa,, Ph.D. California Seed & Plant Lab Cucumber disease control Parm Randhawa,, Ph.D. California Seed & Plant Lab Agenda Symptom recognition Where the disease come from Disease Management Check list European American Disease control is same

More information

KEY CONCEPT Organisms can be classified based on physical similarities. binomial nomenclature

KEY CONCEPT Organisms can be classified based on physical similarities. binomial nomenclature Section 17.1: The Linnaean System of Classification Unit 9 Study Guide KEY CONCEPT Organisms can be classified based on physical similarities. VOCABULARY taxonomy taxon binomial nomenclature genus MAIN

More information

Viruses. Early events. Overview. Virus Characteristics. Growth of Viruses. Viral Entry. Microbiology Chapters 16-18

Viruses. Early events. Overview. Virus Characteristics. Growth of Viruses. Viral Entry. Microbiology Chapters 16-18 Overview Viruses Microbiology Chapters 16-18 18 What is a virus? Genetic element within a protein coat that requires a host cell for replication, and has an extracellular phase (virion( virion). Virus

More information

Chapter 9. Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA

Chapter 9. Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA Chapter 9 Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA Q&A Interferons are species specific, so that interferons to be used in humans must be produced in human cells. Can you think

More information

AP Biology Syllabus 2012-2013

AP Biology Syllabus 2012-2013 n AP Biology, an emphasis is on students making connections between the big ideas within the AP Biology Curriculum Framework. he two main goals of AP Biology are to help students develop a conceptual framework

More information

USE OF TRANSGENIC ANIMALS IN THE MANUFACTURE OF BIOLOGICAL MEDICINAL PRODUCTS FOR HUMAN USE

USE OF TRANSGENIC ANIMALS IN THE MANUFACTURE OF BIOLOGICAL MEDICINAL PRODUCTS FOR HUMAN USE USE OF TRANSGENIC ANIMALS IN THE MANUFACTURE OF BIOLOGICAL MEDICINAL PRODUCTS FOR HUMAN USE Guideline Title Use Of Transgenic Animals In The Manufacture Of Biological Medicinal Products For Human Use Legislative

More information

Fig. 1.4 Theory of Spontaneous Generation

Fig. 1.4 Theory of Spontaneous Generation Early History of Microbiology: 1668 Francesco Redi disproves spontaneous generation 1676 Antony van Leeuwenhoek first observes microbes 1861 Louis Pasteur disproves spontaneous generation 1876 John Tyndall

More information

General kinds of plant diseases: What is a plant disease? 1. Low Temperature. Kinds of non-infectious diseases:

General kinds of plant diseases: What is a plant disease? 1. Low Temperature. Kinds of non-infectious diseases: What is a plant disease? Any problem with a plant that causes a reduction in yield or appearance. General kinds of plant diseases: 1. Non infectious: Can not be transmitted (or moved) from a disease plant

More information

Plasmid Isolation. Prepared by Latifa Aljebali Office: Building 5, 3 rd floor, 5T250

Plasmid Isolation. Prepared by Latifa Aljebali Office: Building 5, 3 rd floor, 5T250 Plasmid Isolation Prepared by Latifa Aljebali Office: Building 5, 3 rd floor, 5T250 Plasmid Plasmids are small, double strand, closed circular DNA molecules. Isolated from bacterial cells. Replicate independently

More information

I. Gene transfer and genetic engineering (Chapter 8) A. General concepts 1. Genetic information is contained in the nucleotide sequence of DNA

I. Gene transfer and genetic engineering (Chapter 8) A. General concepts 1. Genetic information is contained in the nucleotide sequence of DNA I. Gene transfer and genetic engineering (Chapter 8) A. General concepts 1. Genetic information is contained in the nucleotide sequence of DNA (sometimes RNA). Amino acids are specified by a triplet codon.

More information

11/19/2008. Gene analysis. Sequencing PCR. Northern-blot RT PCR. Western-blot Sequencing. in situ hybridization. Southern-blot

11/19/2008. Gene analysis. Sequencing PCR. Northern-blot RT PCR. Western-blot Sequencing. in situ hybridization. Southern-blot Recombinant technology Gene analysis Sequencing PCR RNA Northern-blot RT PCR Protein Western-blot Sequencing Southern-blot in situ hybridization in situ hybridization Function analysis Histochemical analysis

More information

How Do You Make A Transgenic Plant?

How Do You Make A Transgenic Plant? Home Page News Updates History of Plant Breeding What Are Transgenic Plants? How Do You Make A Transgenic Plant? Introduction to DNA Locating genes for plant traits Designing genes for insertion Transformation

More information

Cytokinins Regulators of Cell Division. Cytokinins: Other cytokinins are aminopurines. Zeatin = adenine derivative. Physiological roles of Cytokinins

Cytokinins Regulators of Cell Division. Cytokinins: Other cytokinins are aminopurines. Zeatin = adenine derivative. Physiological roles of Cytokinins Cytokinins Regulators of Cell Division 1. Discovery 2. Chemical structure 3. Physiological Roles 1913 Haberlandt demonstrates water soluble substance in vascular tissue stimulates cell division in potato

More information

Biology 2230 Microbiology Lecture Learning Objectives and Assessment Measures

Biology 2230 Microbiology Lecture Learning Objectives and Assessment Measures Biology 2230 Microbiology Lecture Learning Objectives and Assessment Measures A student who successfully completes the Lecture component of Biology 2230 (Microbiology) will have mastered the learning objectives

More information

Approaches to Infection Control

Approaches to Infection Control Approaches to Infection Control Considerations for PTAs in the Clinic Objectives Describe the basic characteristics of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. Discuss the locations, advantages, and disadvantages

More information