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1 E-Day Resource E-Day Topic Resource Page Grade 2 Topic Simple Machines Brief Overview/objective: To learn about the variety of simple machines and how they make our lives easier each day. We want to introduce the children to the concept of Newton s Laws of Motion, simple machines and work. This is an introduction not a college course so good, simple, thoughtful, experiential discussions and activities are the goal and the methods! After completing this Enrichment Day, the students will be able to: State Newton s 3 Laws of Motion Identify the six kinds of simple machines. Identify at least 10 simple machines in our every-day world and articulate how those machines make the work of motion easier. Resources in workroom: Simple Machine 3- ring binder (activities, information and more) This is a new topic, and there are few resources available at the moment. Most are found in this resource packet. Use the library (public or PCS) and the internet. As you find good resources and ideas, let us know. Ideas to get you started: Make up a song or chant to help remember Newton s Laws of Motion Divide into 3 groups each group can write, illustrate and demonstrate one of these laws for the rest of the class. Build a list of simple machines we would see in every day life so you re prepared to help the children identify/find them around the school. Bring in a variety of examples of simple machines from home. Have a posterboard labeled with the names of the six kinds of simple machines. Build a visual display for each kind of simple machine by 1. Looking through catalogs for examples of simple machines 2. Looking around the room/school for examples 3. Sorting items you ve brought from home Go on a scavenger hunt and find at least 3 of each kind of simple machine Play a Who Am I? game as a review of simple machines. Do experiments to demonstrate Newton s Laws of Motion Do experiments to demonstrate the function and value of simple machines Use Duplos, Tinkertoys, K Nex or other manipulatives to build simple or complex machines. PERIMETER SCHOOL E-DAY RESOURCE last updated

3 A machine is a tool used to make work easier. Simple machines are simple tools used to make work easier. Compound machines have two or more simple machines working together to make work easier. In science, work is defined as a force acting on an object to move it across a distance. Pushing, pulling, and lifting are common forms of work. Furniture movers do work when they move boxes. Gardeners do work when they pull weeds. Children do work when they go up and down on a see-saw. Machines make their work easier. The furniture movers use a ramp to slide boxes into a truck. The gardeners use a hand shovel to help break through the weeds. The children use a see-saw to go up and down. The ramp, the shovel, and the seesaw are simple machines. Inclined Plane A plane is a flat surface. For example, a smooth board is a plane. Now, if the plane is lying flat on the ground, it isn't likely to help you do work. However, when that plane is inclined, or slanted, it can help you move objects across distances. And, that's work! A common inclined plane is a ramp. Lifting a heavy box onto a loading dock is much easier if you slide the box up a ramp--a simple machine. Wedge Instead of using the smooth side of the inclined plane, you can also use the pointed edges to do other kinds of work. For example, you can use the edge to push things apart. Then, the inclined plane is a wedge. So, a wedge is actually a kind of inclined plane. An axeblade is a wedge. Think of the edge of the blade. It's the edge of a smooth slanted surface. That's a PERIMETER SCHOOL E-DAY RESOURCE [3 of 6] last updated

4 wedge! Screw Now, take an inclined plane and wrap it around a cylinder. Its sharp edge becomes another simple tool: the screw. Put a metal screw beside a ramp and it's kind of hard to see the similarities, but the screw is actually just another kind of inclined plane. How does the screw help you do work? Every turn of a metal screw helps you move a piece of metal through a wooden space. And, that's how we build things! Lever Try pulling a really stubborn weed out of the ground. You know, a deep, persistent weed that seems to have taken over your flowerbed. Using just your bare hands, it might be difficult or even painful. With a tool, like a hand shovel, however, you should win the battle. Any tool that pries something loose is a lever. A lever is an arm that "pivots" (or turns) against a "fulcrum" (or point). Think of the claw end of a hammer that you use to pry nails loose. It's a lever. It's a curved arm that rests against a point on a surface. As you rotate the curved arm, it pries the nail loose from the surface. And that's hard work! Wheel and Axle The rotation of the lever against a point pries objects loose. That rotation motion can also do other kinds of work. Another kind of lever, the wheel and axle, moves objects across distances. The wheel, the round end, turns the axle, the cylindrical post, causing movement. On a wagon, for example, the bucket rests on top of the axle. As the wheel rotates the axle, the wagon moves. Now, place your pet dog in the bucket, and you can easily move him around the yard. On a truck, for example, the cargo hold rests on top of several axles. As the wheels rotate the axles, the truck moves. Pulley Instead of an axle, the wheel could also rotate a rope or cord. This variation of the wheel and axle is the pulley. In a pulley, a cord wraps around a wheel. As the wheel rotates, the cord moves in either direction. Now, attach a hook to the cord, and you can use the wheel's rotation to raise and lower objects. On a flagpole, for example, a rope is attached to a pulley. On the rope, there are usually two hooks. The cord rotates around the pulley and lowers the hooks where you can attach the flag. Then, rotate the cord and the flag raises high on the pole. If two or more simple machines work together as one, they form a compound machine. Most of the machines we use today are compound machines, created by combining several simple machines. Can you think of creative ways to combine simple machines to make work easier? Think about it. PERIMETER SCHOOL E-DAY RESOURCE [4 of 6] last updated

5 MACHINES AT HOME AND AT SCHOOL LEVERS Not all long, skinny objects are levers. A lever is a simple machine so to be a lever it must use energy to move a load. Can you find three levers in your home or classroom? WHEELS Cars have wheels, of course! Four of them. Wrong! Cars have dozens and dozens of wheels. Remember that rollers, gears, and pulleys are all types of wheels. Find at least five different types of wheels in or on your car. INCLINED PLANES Find at least three things that screw. Which direction (clockwise or counterclockwise) do they turn to open or get longer? OBJECT DIRECTION PERIMETER SCHOOL E-DAY RESOURCE [5 of 6] last updated

6 Name: DAILY DOINGS WITH SIMPLE MACHINES How many times do you use simple machines during the day? Make an estimate and fill in the blank below. My Estimate I think I use simple machines times a day. Record of Simple Machine Use Write down the name of each object you use and what type of simple machine it is. Then put a checkmark next to the name of each simple machine every time you use it. You may attach another sheet of paper to this worksheet if needed. Add all your checkmarks up at the end of your day! Object Used Type of Simple Machine Times Used Total Example: Curtain Cord Pulley x x 2 Your Results Did you use simple machines more or less often than you estimated you would? PERIMETER SCHOOL E-DAY RESOURCE [6 of 6] last updated

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