Biology 164 Laboratory PHYLOGENETIC SYSTEMATICS

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Biology 164 Laboratory PHYLOGENETIC SYSTEMATICS"

Transcription

1 Biology 164 Laboratory PHYLOGENETIC SYSTEMATICS Objectives 1. To become familiar with the cladistic approach to reconstruction of phylogenies. 2. To construct a character matrix and phylogeny for a group of very unusual organisms. 3. To interpret the evolutionary history of traits based on a phylogenetic reconstruction. PART I. INTRODUCTION The branch of biology known as systematics expressly deals with the evolutionary history or phylogeny of groups of organisms. Systematists seek to produce a classification or taxonomy, which reflects the evolutionary history of a particular group of organisms. For instance, two species that are classified in the same genus are considered to be more closely related (i.e., share a more recent common ancestor) than species in different genera within the same family. Such a system is said to be hierarchical. The following hierarchy of classification is used in biology: Kingdom/Domain Division or Phylum Class Order Family Genus How can systematists be sure their taxonomic classification reflects the true evolutionary pathway? We can t go back in a time machine to tell when various groups evolved. Instead, most systematists use general morphology to draw conclusions about ancestry. For instance, a leopard frog and a mink frog appear to be more similar to each other than either is to a toad. This observation is reflected in the fact that the two frogs are classified in the genus Rana and the toad in the genus Bufo. Unfortunately, measures of morphology can be subjective. Two systematists looking at the same organisms may make different judgements about the relative similarity of those organisms. In the past 25 years, a technique has been developed which provides a more objective way of assessing evolutionary relationships. The technique, called cladistics, was developed by the German biologist, Willi Hennig. Cladistics has transformed the way that systematic research is conducted. In short, cladistics is a method to reconstruct the probable evolutionary pathway of a group of organisms. The technique is designed to identify clades, groups of organisms that all share a common ancestor. Clades are usually depicted as branching diagrams called cladograms or evolutionary trees. Let s consider the simple cladogram below. Time is measured vertically in a cladogram. This cladogram tells us that the first event was the evolutionary split into two different lines, one leading to species A and one to the other branch of the tree. The next event was the splitting of B from the line that leads to C and D. The final and most recent event is the splitting of C and D into two separate species. You can distinguish three different clades in this cladogram: one clade that includes A,B,C & D because they all share a common ancestor, a second smaller clade that includes only B, C& D because they are on a separate branch of the cladogram from A and an even smaller clade including only C & D. A taxonomist might use this information to place C and D in the same genus, B in a different genus but in the same family as C & D and finally A in a different family but in the same order as B, C and D. Phylogenetic Systematics Page 1

2 How does one develop a cladogram? For a group of organisms, a systematist collects data on as many different characters or traits as possible. Number of toes, hair color, and the sequence of nucleotides in a particular gene are all characters that can be measured. The more characters, the better. The particular variations in each character are called character states. For the character number of wings in insects, there are three possible character states: two pairs of wings (the majority of insects), one pair of wings (houseflies and other dipterans) and no wings (springtails, silverfish and other wingless insects). A character state that is shared by two or more organisms may suggest that those organisms are closely related. However, not all shared characters are useful in developing a cladogram. We have to distinguish between two types of characters: primitive and derived. By primitive, we mean that the character in question is present in the most primitive member of the group. A derived character is one that has changed from the primitive condition. Shared primitive characteristics are useless in developing a cladogram; shared derived characters are all-important in piecing together the probable path of evolution.. Let s consider the evolutionary tree below to understand why primitive characters are uninformative and derived characters are useful. We will consider flower color for eight different species of poppies. Blue Yellow Yellow Purple Orange Orange Yellow Orange The actual pathway of evolution is shown in the tree. However, we can only see those organisms that exist at the present time, namely the eight branch points at the top of our diagram (remember time goes backwards from top to bottom of a cladogram). If we claim that the two species with red flowers (the primitive condition of the trait) are closely related we would be making a big mistake. Explain why this error occurs in the space provided below: There are two cases in this evolutionary tree where flowers share derived traits for flower color. Two plant species have yellow flowers and two species have orange flowers. It is much more likely that yellow flower colors evolved just once (remember as modern systematists we do not know what the ancestral flower color was as shown in the diagram) rather than twice. Cladists call this the principle of parsimony. It s more likely that a particular character state evolved once than twice; one should presume only one evolutionary event, not two, when possible. The shared possession of the same derived character state helps us build a case that the two yellow-flowered species shared a recent ancestor and thus constitute a clade. Sometimes, the same character state can evolve separately. In such cases, we say that the character state in question is an evolutionary convergence. On the other hand, sometimes a derived character state can revert back to the primitive condition. When this happens it is known as an evolutionary reversal. There are other derived characteristics in the example above: blue flowers, purple flowers. Are these traits useful in developing a cladogram? Explain your answer below: Phylogenetic Systematics Page 2

3 You can see that examining flower color gives us some information about the evolutionary relationships of these plants but does not permit us to reconstruct the entire cladogram. We need to examine many characters to develop a parsimonious cladogram (one that requires the minimum number of evolutionary changes). We achieve that end by finding shared derived features. How does one determine what the primitive state of a character is? One has to identify and justify an outgroup, a species or group of species that are closely related to the organisms you are classifying but not directly related. For instance, if you were doing a cladistic analysis of birds, you might choose a lizard as your outgroup. Therefore, for the character of skin covering, scales would be the primitive character state because they are present in your outgroup and feathers would be a derived character state. To show how one finds the best cladogram, we will do a simple example with only three species (plus an outgroup). For three species, there are only three possible pathways, shown in the three diagrams below. We have gathered some morphological data on three species of mythical mammals and the outgroup; these data are presented in the table below. Number of toes Eye color Tail Number of molars Outgroup 4 Brown Present 12 A 5 Blue Absent 10 B 4 Blue Present 12 C 5 Blue Absent 10 Now our task is to discover which of the three trees above is the most parsimonious, representing the most likely pathway of evolution. We determine the best tree by fitting the data in the table to each tree and calculating the number of evolutionary changes that are required. To facilitate our calculations, we will use the table below. The numbers in the table indicate the number of evolutionary changes that are required for each character in each tree. Tree 1 Tree 2 Tree 3 Number of toes Eye color Tail Number of molars Total changes It is clear from the table that Tree 2 is the most parsimonious, requiring only four evolutionary changes for the four characters chosen. We reject Trees 1 and 3. In the future, other systematists could gather other data to see if Tree 2 remains the most parsimonious tree in an independent test. Phylogenetic Systematics Page 3

4 PART II. PHYLOGENY OF HYPOTHETICAL FROGS (Parts II and III based on a laboratory exercise developed by Stacey Lance) The best way to begin understanding how cladistics works is to go through an exercise in which you build a phylogeny using a cladogram. To do this we will use the group of hypothetical frogs shown below. This group consists of a defined outgroup (O) and an ingroup of six species (frogs A-F) for which we want to build a cladogram. We will build the phylogeny using the list of characters and character states on the following page. Based on the characters and frog pictures, fill out the character matrix on the following page for all seven species. Above images come from Gergus EWA and Schuett GW, Labs for Vertebrate Zoology an Evolutionary Approach, 2 nd edition. Biological Sciences Press, Michigan. Phylogenetic Systematics Page 4

5 Character Matrix Character Character States Claws +/- Outgroup A B C D E F Chin hair +/- Horn +/- Tail +/- Spikes +/- Digits 4/5 Spots +/- Tympanum +/- Lateral fold +/- Nostril +/- Total number of derived traits > Now, determine which states are ancestral and derived based on the outgroup. Circle the derived traits and write the total number of derived traits for each species in the boxes at the bottom of the table. Note that the species that is most closely related to the outgroup will have the fewest number of derived traits, while the species most distantly related to the outgroup will have the largest number of derived traits. Next fill out the following table noting how many derived traits are shared for each pair of ingroup species. A B C D E F A X B X X C X X X D X X X X E X X X X X F X X X X X X Use the above matrix to draw a cladogram depicting the phylogenetic relationships among all seven species. Start by grouping the pairs that have the most shared derived traits and then linking groups together. This is difficult to describe so look at the example matrix and cladogram below and then just give it a try, and ask for help if you get stuck. We will go through this as a group before lab is over to make sure everyone understands. Look at the hypothetical example first. Phylogenetic Systematics Page 5

6 Example Matrix Of Shared Derived Traits: A B C D A X B X X 2 2 C X X X 3 D X X X X Building a cladogram from above matrix: Step 1. C and D share the most derived traits so link them together Step 2. B shares 2 derived traits with C and D, but only 1 with A. A shares 1 with C and D, so the next step is to group B with C and D. Step 3. Add the remaining species (A) to the group Phylogenetic Systematics Page 6

7 Step 4. Examine your cladogram. Each node shows a presumed common ancestor. Find the monophyletic groups. A monophyletic group is a group of species that includes an ancestral species and all of its descendants. Thus in the following cladogram, C, D and their common ancestor form a monophyletic group. B, C, D and their common ancestor are another monophyletic group. If you tried to group B, C and their common ancestor together they would be considered paraphyletic. A paraphyletic group is a group of species that includes an ancestral species but not all of its descendants. In this case you are excluding D, which shares a common ancestor with B and C. Common ancestor of C and D Common ancestor of A, B, C and D Common ancestor of B, C and D An important thing to realize is that although the nodes represent an ancestral population it does not mean that there was a single species that directly gave rise to species C and D. Rather, tracing back from D toward the common ancestor of C and D, there could be several other species along the lineage (sequence of ancestordescendant populations). For example, imagine that species D is a chimpanzee and C is a gorilla. The cladogram does not suggest that there was a single species that evolved into chimps and gorillas. What it does mean is that there was an ancestral population that gave rise to two distinct lineages. One lineage eventually gave rise to chimps and the other to gorillas. The lines of a cladogram represent the lineages and time. The deeper into the cladogram you go, the further back in time you go. Thus the common ancestor of B, C and D occurred before the common ancestor of C and D. Remember that cladistics is concerned with the timing of divergence. In this cladogram, C and D are the two most closely related species because they shared a common ancestor more recently than any other clade. Use the space below to draw a phylogenetic reconstruction for the hypothetical frog species. Once you have a cladogram you feel confident about, use lines and labels on cladogram to indicate where character states changed. How many evolutionary changes occurred in your phylogeny? Is there evidence of an evolutionary convergence having occurred in your phylogeny? How about evolutionary reversals? Phylogenetic Systematics Page 7

8 PART III. PHYLOGENY OF BIRDS (due in lab next week) General Instructions For this project you should be working in groups. Try to do as much work as you can in class, then finish the rest on your own time. Everyone should hand in the assignment independently (please write the names of all of your group members somewhere on the assignment). Assignment For the purpose of this exercise, you are going to be exploring the phylogeny of 6 bird species (below), using a California Gull as an outgroup for your comparisons. : Outgroup: A) Cassin s Vireo B) Fox Sparrow C) Cape May Warbler D) Cedar Waxwing E) Golden-Crowned Kinglet F) Pyrrhuloxia G) California Gull Complete each of the parts of the assignment below. 1) Using the following characters and character states, as well as the pictures of the birds available on the lab computers or on the course website, create a character matrix for your 6 species and the outgroup. This should have the characters listed down the left side and the birds across the top. CHARACTER CHARACTER STATES 1) Bill color Yellow (Y) Black (B) 2) Bill bent at end Bent (B) Sharp pointy tip (S) 3) Crest on head of male Yes (Y) No (N) 4) Legs Pink (P) Not pink (N) 5) Black stripe THROUGH eye Yes (Y) No (N) 6) White bar or patch across wing coverts* White patch (W) None (N) 7) Distinct ring at least 3/4 way around eye Ring (R) None (N) * coverts are small feathers that cover the bases of the wing feathers. 2) For each of the 3 phylogenies on the next page, map the positions of the changes between character states for each of the characters in your matrix. Label each change with the number of the character. The first character has been done for you on the first tree. Make sure you use the most parsimonious mapping for each character (each character should change the minimum number of times). Sometimes a character will have two mappings that are equally parsimonious in this case just choose one. Phylogenetic Systematics Page 8

9 A) Pyrrhuloxia Sparrow Vireo Waxwing Warbler Kinglet Gull 1 1 B) Vireo Sparrow Pyrrhuloxia Waxwing Warbler Kinglet Gull C) Pyrrhuloxia Sparrow Vireo Waxwing Warbler Kinglet Gull Phylogenetic Systematics Page 9

10 3) For each tree, count up the number of character changes and write it next to the tree. Circle these numbers. Which tree(s) are the most parsimonious? 4) Pretend it s a year later, and you have collected more data to make a more detailed phylogeny. You notice that some of these species of birds are sexually dimorphic (males have significantly different plumage than females, generally much brighter!). You also notice that in some of these species both parents feed the offspring, while in others only the female feeds the offspring. You imagine that having bright males near the nest may tend to attract predators to the young. You want to distinguish between two hypotheses to explain the patterns you see: 1) Males not feeding the young is an adaptation to dimorphism 2) If males don t feed the young in a species, it will allow them to become brightly colored To begin to address this question, map the characters changes in dimorphism and males feeding the young onto each of the trees on the previous page. CHARACTER SEXUAL DIMORPHISM MALES FEED YOUNG Cassin s Vireo No No Fox Sparrow Yes No Cape May Warbler No No Cedar Waxwing No Yes Golden-Crowned Kinglet No Yes Pyrrhuloxia Yes No California Gull No Yes Note: This data is fictional 5) Which of the hypotheses in part 4 is consistent with your analysis? Explain why in a brief paragraph. 6) Did the addition of the new characters change the overall parsimoniousness of the three trees on the previous page? Explain your answer. Phylogenetic Systematics Page 10

Taxonomy Five Kingdoms

Taxonomy Five Kingdoms Taxonomy Five Kingdoms R.H Whittaker 1969 Three Domains Evolutionary Trees Cladistics: Cladograms and molecular data What are the tools used by scientists to observe and understand evolutionary relationships?

More information

18.1 Finding Order in Diversity

18.1 Finding Order in Diversity 18.1 Finding Order in Diversity Lesson Objectives Describe the goals of binomial nomenclature and systematics. Identify the taxa in the classification system devised by Linnaeus. Lesson Summary Assigning

More information

1. Which tree below is the most accurate? 1. They re exactly the same.

1. Which tree below is the most accurate? 1. They re exactly the same. Tree Thinking Assessment Quiz Complete on your own without any other resources. This is just an assessment to determine your current understanding. 1. Which tree below is the most accurate? 1. They re

More information

Name Class Date. binomial nomenclature. MAIN IDEA: Linnaeus developed the scientific naming system still used today.

Name Class Date. binomial nomenclature. MAIN IDEA: Linnaeus developed the scientific naming system still used today. Section 1: The Linnaean System of Classification 17.1 Reading Guide KEY CONCEPT Organisms can be classified based on physical similarities. VOCABULARY taxonomy taxon binomial nomenclature genus MAIN IDEA:

More information

Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Name: Class: Date: Chapter 17 Practice Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The correct order for the levels of Linnaeus's classification system,

More information

Organizing Life s Diversity Section 17.1 The History of Classification

Organizing Life s Diversity Section 17.1 The History of Classification Organizing Life s Diversity Section 17.1 The History of Classification Scan Section 1 of the chapter. Write three questions that come to mind from reading the headings and the illustration captions. 1.

More information

Unit 6: Classification and Diversity. KEY CONCEPT Organisms can be classified based on physical similarities.

Unit 6: Classification and Diversity. KEY CONCEPT Organisms can be classified based on physical similarities. KEY CONCEPT Organisms can be classified based on physical similarities. Linnaeus developed the scientific naming system still used today. Taxonomy is the science of naming and classifying organisms. White

More information

Background Knowledge: Students should understand the structure of DNA and basic genetics.

Background Knowledge: Students should understand the structure of DNA and basic genetics. Biology STANDARD V: Objective 3 Title: Investigating Common Descent Background Knowledge: Students should understand the structure of DNA and basic genetics. Objective: In this activity students will build

More information

Phylogeny and the Tree of Life. The Science of Biology: Part IV

Phylogeny and the Tree of Life. The Science of Biology: Part IV Phylogeny and the Tree of Life The Science of Biology: Part IV 1 Taxonomy, Phylogeny and Systematics Taxonomy: the study of naming and classifying organisms. Phylogeny: the evolutionary history of a group

More information

Evolution of Birds. Summary:

Evolution of Birds. Summary: Oregon State Standards OR Science 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.3S.1, 7.3S.2 8.1, 8.2, 8.2L.1, 8.3, 8.3S.1, 8.3S.2 H.1, H.2, H.2L.4, H.2L.5, H.3, H.3S.1, H.3S.2, H.3S.3 Summary: Students create phylogenetic trees to

More information

Building a phylogenetic tree

Building a phylogenetic tree bioscience explained 134567 Wojciech Grajkowski Szkoła Festiwalu Nauki, ul. Ks. Trojdena 4, 02-109 Warszawa Building a phylogenetic tree Aim This activity shows how phylogenetic trees are constructed using

More information

LAB 21 Using Bioinformatics to Investigate Evolutionary Relationships; Have a BLAST!

LAB 21 Using Bioinformatics to Investigate Evolutionary Relationships; Have a BLAST! LAB 21 Using Bioinformatics to Investigate Evolutionary Relationships; Have a BLAST! Introduction: Between 1990-2003, scientists working on an international research project known as the Human Genome Project,

More information

Lab 2/Phylogenetics/September 16, 2002 1 PHYLOGENETICS

Lab 2/Phylogenetics/September 16, 2002 1 PHYLOGENETICS Lab 2/Phylogenetics/September 16, 2002 1 Read: Tudge Chapter 2 PHYLOGENETICS Objective of the Lab: To understand how DNA and protein sequence information can be used to make comparisons and assess evolutionary

More information

1 Phylogenetic History: The Evolution of Marine Mammals

1 Phylogenetic History: The Evolution of Marine Mammals 1 Phylogenetic History: The Evolution of Marine Mammals Think for a moment about marine mammals: seals, walruses, dugongs and whales. Seals and walruses are primarily cold-water species that eat mostly

More information

IDENTIFICATION OF ORGANISMS

IDENTIFICATION OF ORGANISMS reflect Take a look at the pictures on the right. Think about what the two organisms have in common. They both need food and water to survive. They both grow and reproduce. They both have similar body

More information

Name Period. 3. How many rounds of DNA replication and cell division occur during meiosis?

Name Period. 3. How many rounds of DNA replication and cell division occur during meiosis? Name Period GENERAL BIOLOGY Second Semester Study Guide Chapters 3, 4, 5, 6, 11, 14, 16, 17, 18 and 19. SEXUAL REPRODUCTION AND MEIOSIS 1. What is the purpose of meiosis? 2. Distinguish between diploid

More information

The Clompleat Cladist

The Clompleat Cladist Seminars on Science Sharks and Rays: Myth and Reality THE UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS SPECIAL PUBLICATION MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY No. 19 The Clompleat Cladist A Primer of Phylogenetic Procedures E.O. WILEY

More information

10 What Is a Species? Th i n k a b o u t t h e many different types of organisms you see in a typical day.

10 What Is a Species? Th i n k a b o u t t h e many different types of organisms you see in a typical day. 10 What Is a Species? Th i n k a b o u t t h e many different types of organisms you see in a typical day. In addition to humans, you might see mammals such as dogs and cats; birds such as robins and pigeons;

More information

Practice Questions 1: Evolution

Practice Questions 1: Evolution Practice Questions 1: Evolution 1. Which concept is best illustrated in the flowchart below? A. natural selection B. genetic manipulation C. dynamic equilibrium D. material cycles 2. The diagram below

More information

Schools of Systematics. Schools of Systematics. What is Evolutionary Systematics? What is Evolutionary Systematics? What is Evolutionary Systematics?

Schools of Systematics. Schools of Systematics. What is Evolutionary Systematics? What is Evolutionary Systematics? What is Evolutionary Systematics? Topic 3: Systematics II What are the schools of thought of systematics? How does one make a cladogram? What are higher taxa & ranks? How should they be used in this course? Applying phylogenies Evolution

More information

The Compleat Cladist. A Primer of Phylogenetic Procedures INTRODUCTION, TERMS, AND CONCEPTS

The Compleat Cladist. A Primer of Phylogenetic Procedures INTRODUCTION, TERMS, AND CONCEPTS Seminars on Science: Diversity of Fishes THE UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY SPECIAL PUBLICATION No. 19 October 1991 The Compleat Cladist A Primer of Phylogenetic Procedures E. O. WILEY

More information

BIOL 1030 TOPIC 1 LECTURE NOTES Topic 1: Classification and the Diversity of Life (Chapters 25, 26.6)

BIOL 1030 TOPIC 1 LECTURE NOTES Topic 1: Classification and the Diversity of Life (Chapters 25, 26.6) Topic 1: Classification and the Diversity of Life (Chapters 25, 26.6) I. Background review (Biology 1020 material) A. Scientific Method 1. observations 2. scientific model explains observations makes testable

More information

Assign: Unit 1: Preparation Activity page 4-7. Chapter 1: Classifying Life s Diversity page 8

Assign: Unit 1: Preparation Activity page 4-7. Chapter 1: Classifying Life s Diversity page 8 Assign: Unit 1: Preparation Activity page 4-7 Chapter 1: Classifying Life s Diversity page 8 1.1: Identifying, Naming, and Classifying Species page 10 Key Terms: species, morphology, phylogeny, taxonomy,

More information

not to be republished NCERT Heredity and Evolution CHAPTER 9 Multiple Choice Questions

not to be republished NCERT Heredity and Evolution CHAPTER 9 Multiple Choice Questions CHAPTER 9 Heredity and Evolution Multiple Choice Questions 1. Exchange of genetic material takes place in (a) vegetative reproduction (b) asexual reproduction (c) sexual reproduction (d) budding 2. Two

More information

READERS of this publication understand the

READERS of this publication understand the The Classification & Evolution of Caminalcules Robert P. Gendron READERS of this publication understand the importance, and difficulty, of teaching evolution in an introductory biology course. The difficulty

More information

Whale Adaptations. WHALES: Giants of the Deep Activities for Grades 6-8. Overview. Background for Educators. Before Your Visit

Whale Adaptations. WHALES: Giants of the Deep Activities for Grades 6-8. Overview. Background for Educators. Before Your Visit Whale Adaptations Overview Before Your Visit: Students will read and discuss an informational text on whale evolution. During Your Visit: Students will observe the materials in the Whales: Giants of the

More information

Introduction to Biological Anthropology: Notes 5 What are species and how do they arise? Copyright Bruce Owen 2009 Two ways to look at evolution We

Introduction to Biological Anthropology: Notes 5 What are species and how do they arise? Copyright Bruce Owen 2009 Two ways to look at evolution We Introduction to Biological Anthropology: Notes 5 What are species and how do they arise? Copyright Bruce Owen 2009 Two ways to look at evolution We can look at it up close as we did with the minor variations

More information

Taxonomy and Classification

Taxonomy and Classification Taxonomy and Classification Taxonomy = the science of naming and describing species Wisdom begins with calling things by their right names -Chinese Proverb museums contain ~ 2 Billion specimens worldwide

More information

Identifying Vertebrates Using Classification Keys

Identifying Vertebrates Using Classification Keys Name Class Date Chapter 18 Classification Identifying Vertebrates Using Classification Keys Introduction Organisms such as vertebrates (animals with backbones) are classified into groups according to certain

More information

Lesson Title: Constructing a Dichotomous Key and Exploring Its Relationship to Evolutionary Patterns

Lesson Title: Constructing a Dichotomous Key and Exploring Its Relationship to Evolutionary Patterns Lesson Title: Constructing a Dichotomous Key and Exploring Its Relationship to Evolutionary Patterns NSF GK-12 Fellow: Tommy Detmer Grade Level: 4 th and 5 th grade Type of Lesson: STEM Objectives: The

More information

The Art of the Tree of Life. Catherine Ibes & Priscilla Spears March 2012

The Art of the Tree of Life. Catherine Ibes & Priscilla Spears March 2012 The Art of the Tree of Life Catherine Ibes & Priscilla Spears March 2012 from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being, evolved. Charles Darwin, The

More information

What is it? Dichotomous Keys Teacher Information

What is it? Dichotomous Keys Teacher Information STO-110 What is it? Dichotomous Keys Teacher Information Summary Students use a dichotomous key to identify a collection of plastic frogs. They design and test a dichotomous key that could be used to identify

More information

17.1. The Tree of Life CHAPTER 17. Organisms can be classified based on physical similarities. Linnaean taxonomy. names.

17.1. The Tree of Life CHAPTER 17. Organisms can be classified based on physical similarities. Linnaean taxonomy. names. SECTION 17.1 THE LINNAEAN SYSTEM OF CLASSIFICATION Study Guide KEY CONCEPT Organisms can be classified based on physical similarities. VOCABULARY taxonomy taxon binomial nomenclature genus MAIN IDEA: Linnaeus

More information

Systematics - BIO 615

Systematics - BIO 615 Outline - and introduction to phylogenetic inference 1. Pre Lamarck, Pre Darwin Classification without phylogeny 2. Lamarck & Darwin to Hennig (et al.) Classification with phylogeny but without a reproducible

More information

Two Different Ways to Think About Race

Two Different Ways to Think About Race Two Different Ways to Think About Race Essentialist: the notion that there is some easily observable set of characteristics possessed by individuals that allow for their classification into a small number

More information

Quiz #4 Ch. 4 Modern Evolutionary Theory

Quiz #4 Ch. 4 Modern Evolutionary Theory Physical Anthropology Summer 2014 Dr. Leanna Wolfe Quiz #4 Ch. 4 Modern Evolutionary Theory 1. T/F Evolution by natural selection works directly on individuals, transforming populations. 2. T/F A genotypic

More information

Writing a Dichotomous Key to Wildflowers

Writing a Dichotomous Key to Wildflowers Writing a Dichotomous Key to Wildflowers Objectives: 1. Understand how to use and make dichotomous keys. 2. Understand common terminology of plant morphology. 3. Learn to recognize some fall wildflowers.

More information

How to draw. bugs & insects. with basic shapes!

How to draw. bugs & insects. with basic shapes! How to draw bugs & insects with basic shapes! Learn to draw fun pictures in 5 simple steps or less, all while learning your basic geometric shapes and practicing following directions! Table of contents

More information

Gene Trees in Species Trees

Gene Trees in Species Trees Computational Biology Class Presentation Gene Trees in Species Trees Wayne P. Maddison Published in Systematic Biology, Vol. 46, No.3 (Sept 1997), pp. 523-536 Overview Gene Trees and Species Trees Processes

More information

Using and Constructing a Dichotomous Key

Using and Constructing a Dichotomous Key Name Class Date Chapter 18 Classification Using and Constructing a Dichotomous Key You may want to refer students to Chapter 18 in the textbook for a discussion of the classification system used in biology.

More information

How to Build a Phylogenetic Tree

How to Build a Phylogenetic Tree How to Build a Phylogenetic Tree Phylogenetics tree is a structure in which species are arranged on branches that link them according to their relationship and/or evolutionary descent. A typical rooted

More information

All about water birds

All about water birds All about water birds Page 1 Living on the water Our canals and rivers provide lots of different places for birds to live, build their nests, find food and bring up their babies. The six most common birds

More information

CONCEPT MAP (AB=CDEF)

CONCEPT MAP (AB=CDEF) ETHOLOGY Vocabulary CONCEPT MAP (AB=CDEF) Folk Psychology Cause Development Evolution Function Proximate Ultimate Animal Behavior = Cause + Development + Evolution + Function KEYWORD CONCEPTS HIERARCHICAL

More information

Animal Form and Function. Vertebrate Animals. Kingdom Animalia. A combination of features distinguish the Animalia from all other Kingdoms

Animal Form and Function. Vertebrate Animals. Kingdom Animalia. A combination of features distinguish the Animalia from all other Kingdoms Animal Form and Function Kight Vertebrate Animals Kingdom Animalia A combination of features distinguish the Animalia from all other Kingdoms 1. Eukaryotic cells. 2. Heterotrophic Thought Question: What

More information

1 Sorting It All Out. Say It

1 Sorting It All Out. Say It CHAPTER 9 1 Sorting It All Out SECTION Classification BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is classification? How do scientists classify organisms?

More information

Student Guide for Mesquite

Student Guide for Mesquite MESQUITE Student User Guide 1 Student Guide for Mesquite This guide describes how to 1. create a project file, 2. construct phylogenetic trees, and 3. map trait evolution on branches (e.g. morphological

More information

Lab 7: Classification

Lab 7: Classification Lab 7: Classification Concepts covered Taxonomy Linnean System Dicotomous Key How are cats and dogs similar? How can all of the organisms in the world be grouped? What is a phylum? Classification is the

More information

Performance study of supertree methods

Performance study of supertree methods Q&A How did you become involved in doing research? I applied for an REU (Research for Undergraduates) at KU last summer and worked with Dr. Mark Holder for ten weeks. It was an amazing experience! How

More information

The Story of Human Evolution Part 1: From ape-like ancestors to modern humans

The Story of Human Evolution Part 1: From ape-like ancestors to modern humans The Story of Human Evolution Part 1: From ape-like ancestors to modern humans Slide 1 The Story of Human Evolution This powerpoint presentation tells the story of who we are and where we came from - how

More information

Activity 2.4 Text:Campbell,v.8,chapter24 SPECIATION SPECIES BIOLOGICAL CONCEPT REPRODUCTIVE BARRIERS PREZYGOTIC: Evolution Activity 2.

Activity 2.4 Text:Campbell,v.8,chapter24 SPECIATION SPECIES BIOLOGICAL CONCEPT REPRODUCTIVE BARRIERS PREZYGOTIC: Evolution Activity 2. AP BIOLOGY Activity 2.4 Text:Campbell,v.8,chapter24 NAME DATE HOUR SPECIATION SPECIATION SPECIES BIOLOGICAL CONCEPT REPRODUCTIVE BARRIERS PREZYGOTIC: Evolution Activity 2.4 page 1 POSTZYGOTIC: MODES OF

More information

Consensus trees and tree support

Consensus trees and tree support Newsletter 64 28 Consensus trees and tree support In this article I will look at two separate issues; consensus trees and support for the nodes on your tree. There is a tenuous link between these as we

More information

A. attract a mate B. reproduce C. sleep D. hunt for prey

A. attract a mate B. reproduce C. sleep D. hunt for prey 2. Fill in the blank. A crocodile's eyes are on top of its head, and its nostrils are on top of its snout. Having its eyes and nostrils in special places help the crocodile.. A. attract a mate B. reproduce

More information

Grouping animals - Classification Teacher Notes/ Activity/Worksheets

Grouping animals - Classification Teacher Notes/ Activity/Worksheets Grouping animals - Classification Teacher Notes/ Activity/Worksheets What can we offer At Hamilton Zoo we can provide educational opportunities for students of all levels. This programme gives students

More information

Mendelian Genetics. Lab Exercise 13. Contents. Objectives. Introduction

Mendelian Genetics. Lab Exercise 13. Contents. Objectives. Introduction Lab Exercise Mendelian Genetics Contents Objectives 1 Introduction 1 Activity.1 Forming Gametes 2 Activity.2 Monohybrid Cross 3 Activity.3 Dihybrid Cross 4 Activity.4 Gene Linkage 5 Resutls Section 8 Objectives

More information

The History of Geology and Life on Earth. Early Earth History. Name. Date

The History of Geology and Life on Earth. Early Earth History. Name. Date Name Date Use the TIMELINE OF LIFE ON EARTH in the Islands of Evolution exhibit to learn about the history of life on Earth. Then, continue to the Earthquake exhibit to answer questions on the geologic

More information

4. Why are common names not good to use when classifying organisms? Give an example.

4. Why are common names not good to use when classifying organisms? Give an example. 1. Define taxonomy. Classification of organisms 2. Who was first to classify organisms? Aristotle 3. Explain Aristotle s taxonomy of organisms. Patterns of nature: looked like 4. Why are common names not

More information

Lab 2 - Illustrating Evolutionary Relationships Between Organisms: Emperor Penguins and Phylogenetic Trees

Lab 2 - Illustrating Evolutionary Relationships Between Organisms: Emperor Penguins and Phylogenetic Trees Biology 18 Spring 2008 Lab 2 - Illustrating Evolutionary Relationships Between Organisms: Emperor Penguins and Phylogenetic Trees Pre-Lab Reference Reading: Review pp. 542-556 and pp. 722-737 in Life by

More information

Unit 7D Variation and classification. About the unit. Expectations. Science Year 7. Where the unit fits in

Unit 7D Variation and classification. About the unit. Expectations. Science Year 7. Where the unit fits in Science Year 7 Unit 7D Variation and classification About the unit In this unit pupils: explore variation within and between species consider why classification is important and are introduced to scientific

More information

Carnivore, omnivore or herbivore?

Carnivore, omnivore or herbivore? Carnivore, omnivore or herbivore? Physical adaptations of the giant panda Student booklet (ST) October 2010 panda_st_student.doc Context The Giant Panda is a species that is faced with extinction. It is

More information

Physical features of eight different species with shells

Physical features of eight different species with shells Physical features of eight different species with shells In this study, eight different shells from different species were examined by looking at the physical features of the shells. The purpose of the

More information

Natural Selection v Evolution

Natural Selection v Evolution Adaptation Natural Selection v Evolution Evolution = observed change in organisms over historic and geologic time Natural selection = one hypothesized mechanism for change Has enormous body of supporting

More information

Topic 1 Classification, Variation and Inheritance

Topic 1 Classification, Variation and Inheritance Topic 1 Classification, Variation and Inheritance How are organisms classified? Kingdom (Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Prokaryotae (bacteria), Protoctista) Phylum Class Order Family always ends ae or ea Genus

More information

Materials and Resources:

Materials and Resources: Keywords: class classification family genus invertebrates kingdom order phylum species 1. Engage: Introduction: Students investigate different questioning techniques through a classification game. Materials

More information

What Do I Need to Know About Classification?

What Do I Need to Know About Classification? What Do I Need to Know About Classification? (Chapter 17 Honors) MULTIPLE CHOICE: Circle ALL that are true. There may be MORE THAN one correct answer. *Correct Answer(s) 1. The science that specializes

More information

Introduction to genetics

Introduction to genetics Introduction to genetics Biology chapter 11 Mr. Hines 11.1 The work of Gregor Mendel What makes you unique? A. Nearly all living things are unique in some way. B. Humans for example all have different

More information

FIELD IDENTIFICATION GUIDE FOR THE ANOLE LIZARDS OF MIAMI

FIELD IDENTIFICATION GUIDE FOR THE ANOLE LIZARDS OF MIAMI FIELD IDENTIFICATION GUIDE FOR THE ANOLE LIZARDS OF MIAMI JASON J. KOLBE Department of Biological Sciences University of Rhode Island Kingston, Rhode Island 02892 USA Email: jjkolbe@mail.uri.edu KENNETH

More information

Ranger Report About Costa Rican Butterflies

Ranger Report About Costa Rican Butterflies 1. Ranger Report About Costa Rican Butterflies Kingdom Phylum Class Order Animalia Antropoda Insecta Lepidoptera Copyright - The Rainforest Rangers www.therainforestrangers.com! 1 Insect Status: Endangered

More information

Featured Feathers (K-3)

Featured Feathers (K-3) Featured Feathers (K-3) At a glance Students create representations of various bird body parts and share them with the class. Time requirement One session of 30 to 45 minutes Group size and grades Any

More information

Characteristics and classification of living organisms

Characteristics and classification of living organisms Unit 1 Characteristics and classification of living organisms Welcome to the exciting and amazing world of living things. Go outside and look around you. Look at the sky, the soil, trees, plants, people,

More information

The Chronicle Review Home Opinion & Ideas The Chronicle Review

The Chronicle Review Home Opinion & Ideas The Chronicle Review The Chronicle Review Home Opinion & Ideas The Chronicle Review May 12, 2000 98% Alike? (What Our Similarity to Apes Tells Us About Our Understanding of Genetics) By JONATHAN MARKS It's not too hard to

More information

Species Concepts and Speciation

Species Concepts and Speciation Species Concepts and Speciation Speciation - Contents What are species? Definitions and concepts. Forms of speciation. Reproductive isolating mechanisms. Clines and ring species. How many species are there?

More information

Incomplete Dominance and Codominance

Incomplete Dominance and Codominance Name: Date: Period: Incomplete Dominance and Codominance 1. In Japanese four o'clock plants red (R) color is incompletely dominant over white (r) flowers, and the heterozygous condition (Rr) results in

More information

Principles of Evolution - Origin of Species

Principles of Evolution - Origin of Species Theories of Organic Evolution X Multiple Centers of Creation (de Buffon) developed the concept of "centers of creation throughout the world organisms had arisen, which other species had evolved from X

More information

Table of Contents. Introduction to New York State Science UNIT 1 Analysis, Inquiry, and Design, Part

Table of Contents. Introduction to New York State Science UNIT 1 Analysis, Inquiry, and Design, Part Table of ontents Introduction to New York State Science 8......................... 5 UNIT 1 Analysis, Inquiry, and Design, Part 1........................ 7 Lesson 1 Scientific Investigations [1S1.1a c;

More information

Classifying Organisms

Classifying Organisms Grouping Organisms Classifying Organisms When you look for socks to wear, you probably go to your sock drawer. Your shirts might be in a different drawer. The clothes are grouped so that you can find them.

More information

How do populations evolve?... Are there any trends?...

How do populations evolve?... Are there any trends?... How do populations evolve?... Are there any trends?... Gene pool: all of the genes of a population Allele frequency: the percentage of any particular allele in a gene pool A population in which an allele

More information

Evolution by Natural Selection 1

Evolution by Natural Selection 1 Evolution by Natural Selection 1 I. Mice Living in a Desert These drawings show how a population of mice on a beach changed over time. 1. Describe how the population of mice is different in figure 3 compared

More information

Dichotomous Keys. Introduction

Dichotomous Keys. Introduction Dichotomous Keys Introduction Taxonomic systems can be used to help identify unknown organisms. A taxonomist, working on a particular group of organisms, will devise and publish a taxonomic key to aid

More information

Classification Why Things are Grouped classify Methods of Classification

Classification Why Things are Grouped classify Methods of Classification Classification What features do biologists use to group living things? You know that most plants are green and do not more around. You also know that most animals are not green and do move around. The

More information

Bioinformatics Lab. MODULE 1: Sequence Taxonomy

Bioinformatics Lab. MODULE 1: Sequence Taxonomy Student Activity Sheet Name: Bioinformatics Lab MODULE 1: Sequence Taxonomy Objective: The goal of this module is to introduce you to the number and diversity of nucleotide sequences in the NCBI database.

More information

Smithsonian Books, 2001. 1 Groves, Colin P. Primate Taxonomy. Smithsonian Series in Comparative Evolutionary Biology. Washington, D.C.

Smithsonian Books, 2001. 1 Groves, Colin P. Primate Taxonomy. Smithsonian Series in Comparative Evolutionary Biology. Washington, D.C. Primates at Woodland Park Zoo Pre-visit Information for Teachers If you are planning a field trip to the zoo and wish to have your students focus on or study primates during their zoo visit, this pre-visit

More information

Contents. Principles of Taxonomy. Préface to the First Edition. Préface to the Second Edition. Acknowledgments for the First Edition

Contents. Principles of Taxonomy. Préface to the First Edition. Préface to the Second Edition. Acknowledgments for the First Edition Contents Préface to the First Edition Préface to the Second Edition Acknowledgments for the First Edition Acknowledgments for the Second Edition xv xvii xix xxi PART ONE Principles of Taxonomy SECTION

More information

Students analyze characteristics of six pterosaurs to determine the role of adaptive radiation in their evolution from a common ancestor.

Students analyze characteristics of six pterosaurs to determine the role of adaptive radiation in their evolution from a common ancestor. This website would like to remind you: Your browser (Safari 7) is out of date. Update your browser for more security, comfort and the best experience on this site. Activityapply Adaptive Radiation How

More information

Seattle is -- FOR THE BIRDS. How to Identify Common Seattle Birds

Seattle is -- FOR THE BIRDS. How to Identify Common Seattle Birds Seattle is -- FOR THE BIRDS How to Identify Common Seattle Birds Want to learn more about birds? Join Seattle Audubon s Family and Youth Programs Mailing List to hear about upcoming opportunities. Name:

More information

Living Things: Classification and Keys

Living Things: Classification and Keys Living Things: Classification and Keys Level 3 (a) Tom watched birds feeding in his garden. He spotted the birds shown below. not to scale Tom recorded what the birds in his garden ate. His results are

More information

9.1: Mechanisms of Evolution and Their Effect on Populations pg. 350-359

9.1: Mechanisms of Evolution and Their Effect on Populations pg. 350-359 9.1: Mechanisms of Evolution and Their Effect on Populations pg. 350-359 Key Terms: gene flow, non-random mating, genetic drift, founder effect, bottleneck effect, stabilizing selection, directional selection

More information

A Bad Case of Stripes

A Bad Case of Stripes 0 SS 2010 Literature Project: A Bad Case of Stripes Methodology of Teaching Literature and Culture Lecturer: Ms. Elisabeth Poelzleitner designed for an Austrian Lower School by Verena Vorraber 0 1 Table

More information

of interrelatedness and decent with modification. However, technological advances are opening another powerful avenue of comparison: DNA sequences.

of interrelatedness and decent with modification. However, technological advances are opening another powerful avenue of comparison: DNA sequences. SCI115SC Module 3 AVP Transcript Title: Genetic Similarity Title Slide Narrator: Welcome to this presentation on genetic similarity. Slide 2 Title: Underlying the Outwardly Visible Similarities, We Find

More information

Molecules, Morphology and Species Concepts. Speciation Occurs at Widely Differing Rates. Speciation Rates

Molecules, Morphology and Species Concepts. Speciation Occurs at Widely Differing Rates. Speciation Rates Molecules, Morphology and Species Concepts Speciation Occurs at Widely Differing Rates Horseshoe crabs (Limulus), the same as fossils 300 Mya Darwin s Finches: 13 species within 100,000 years. Speciation

More information

Multiple Choice Review - Heredity

Multiple Choice Review - Heredity Questions #1-3 refer to the following situation: Multiple Choice Review - Heredity In humans, detached earlobes (D) is dominant to attached earlobes (d). Alison and her father have attached earlobes. Her

More information

Evolution, Natural Selection, and Speciation D. L. A. Underwood Biology Entomology. A. Adaptation. 4. Adaptedness is at the phenotypic level.

Evolution, Natural Selection, and Speciation D. L. A. Underwood Biology Entomology. A. Adaptation. 4. Adaptedness is at the phenotypic level. Evolution, Natural Selection, and Speciation D. L. A. Underwood Biology 316 - Entomology A. Adaptation 1. Three definitions: a. Any behavioral, morphological, or physiological trait that is assumed to

More information

Preparation. Educator s Section: pp. 1 3 Unit 1 instructions: pp. 4 5 Unit 2 instructions: pp. 6 7 Masters/worksheets: pp. 8-17

Preparation. Educator s Section: pp. 1 3 Unit 1 instructions: pp. 4 5 Unit 2 instructions: pp. 6 7 Masters/worksheets: pp. 8-17 ActionBioscience.org lesson To accompany the article by Lawrence M. Page, Ph.D.: "Planetary Biodiversity Inventories: A Response to the Taxonomic Crisis" (May 2006) http://www.actionbioscience.org/biodiversity/page.html

More information

*** Kindergarten Science ***

*** Kindergarten Science *** *** Kindergarten Science *** Standard 2 Organisms can be described and sorted by their physical characteristics. Essential Question 1 What do living things have in common? Understanding Deer - Students

More information

Protein Sequence Analysis - Overview -

Protein Sequence Analysis - Overview - Protein Sequence Analysis - Overview - UDEL Workshop Raja Mazumder Research Associate Professor, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Georgetown University Medical Center Topics Why do protein

More information

Chapter 4: Relatedness and taxonomy

Chapter 4: Relatedness and taxonomy Chapter 4: Relatedness and taxonomy Even since Darwin, taxonomy, the framework of formal names used for scientific communication, has acquired a clear and definable mission of representing evolutionary

More information

Biological Classification. Fun!

Biological Classification. Fun! Biological Classification Fun! Classification Arranging organisms into hierarchical groups each higher taxon contains one or more lower taxa based on similarities and naming the groups Phylogeny Branch

More information

Birds and insects. About this unit

Birds and insects. About this unit Unit 26 Birds and insects About this unit This unit is about birds and insects. Pupils learn a song about how to introduce themselves. They read about birds and look for cause and effect. The unit helps

More information

WJEC AS Biology Biodiversity & Classification (2.1 All Organisms are related through their Evolutionary History)

WJEC AS Biology Biodiversity & Classification (2.1 All Organisms are related through their Evolutionary History) Name:.. Set:. Specification Points: WJEC AS Biology Biodiversity & Classification (2.1 All Organisms are related through their Evolutionary History) (a) Biodiversity is the number of different organisms

More information

Flower Model: Teacher Instructions Sepals Anther Stamens (male) Filament Stigma Pistil Style (female) Ovary Petals sepals petals stamens pistil

Flower Model: Teacher Instructions Sepals Anther Stamens (male) Filament Stigma Pistil Style (female) Ovary Petals sepals petals stamens pistil Flower Model: Teacher Instructions In order to better understand the reproductive cycle of a flower, take a look at some flowers and note the male and female parts. Most flowers are different; some have

More information

GENE MUTATIONS. Name: Date: Period: Part One: DNA Error in Replication

GENE MUTATIONS. Name: Date: Period: Part One: DNA Error in Replication Part One: DNA Error in Replication In your Modern Biology textbook, turn to page 202. After reading this page, complete the following. 1. A mutation is a change in. 2. Since genes (sections of DNA) code

More information