Lab 2/Phylogenetics/September 16, PHYLOGENETICS

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Lab 2/Phylogenetics/September 16, 2002 1 PHYLOGENETICS"

Transcription

1 Lab 2/Phylogenetics/September 16, Read: Tudge Chapter 2 PHYLOGENETICS Objective of the Lab: To understand how DNA and protein sequence information can be used to make comparisons and assess evolutionary relationships between species. Introduction Evolutionary theory is central to a clear understanding of the biology of all organisms. One important area in the study of evolution is phylogeny, the study of evolutionary relationships among organisms. For example, how do we know that birds are closely related to reptiles (i.e. dinosaurs), or that of the five types of great apes; gibbons, orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees and humans, the gorillas and chimpanzees are the most closely related to man in an evolutionary sense? The study of gene sequences from these different organisms allows for a different mode of comparison, which provides for a clearer understanding of evolutionary relationships. In the past relationships between organisms were made based upon phenotype, are the structures and traits of two species closely related, compared to a third species. With the advent of recombinant DNA technology, systematic biologists (those scientists who study relationships between species) moved into the realm of genetics and molecular biology. This process of making comparisons between species, whether it is based upon phenotypic traits or genetic sequences, is a way of using large-scale evolutionary changes, thus firmly putting it in the realm of macroevolution. We can then define macroevolution as the large-scale trends or patterns in evolution, and the rates of change among those closely related species in which we are interested. This would mean a scientist studying the macroevolution of a related group of species would need to consider such factors as global or regional environmental changes when evaluating macroevolutionary effects on the species under study. Phylogeny is a branch of Systematics, or more specifically Taxonomics. This means an organized way of grouping and understanding relationships between species, based upon the named taxonomic unit at any level this taxonomic unit is known as a taxon. Historically Aristotle was one of the first to organize and classify life based upon physical appearance. This system was more clearly defined and organized by Carolus Linneaus as a system of taxonomy, which we call binomial nomenclature. This means that in the process of identifying individual species, a two-part name is assigned to each unique species, with the first word being the genus to which the species belongs, and the second word being the scientific epithet or name of the species in question. For example the domestic cat is Felis silvestris, while the mountain lion or puma is Felis concolor, indicating these two species belong to the same genus, and thus are closely related in an evolutionary sense, but are not identical. Additionally broader phylogenetic groups indicate other levels of relationships between species, usually based upon a defined set of phenotypic characters. These broader areas of classification for taxonomy in which a genus is placed include the family, with families being placed into orders, orders into classes, classes into phyla (phylum being the singular use of the term) and phyla into kingdoms. So using our example of the genus Felis, these cats are related to the genus Panthera (lions, tigers, leopards and jaguars) in the family Felidae. This family resides in the order Carnivora, which also includes the Canidae (dogs), Ursidae (bears) and a few others. All of these are part of the class known as Mammalia, which belongs to the phylum Chordata in the kingdom Animalia (see

2 Lab 2/Phylogenetics/September 16, Figure 1). So the use of phylogenetic diagrams allows the systematic biologist to make comparisons about the relationships between species, based upon the traits that are used to place that species into these taxonomic categories. These comparisons can be made based upon phenotypic traits, or with the advent of recombinant DNA technology and gene sequencing, these comparisons can be made at the level of the gene. A Phylogenetic Tree for Cats Felis silvestris Felis concolor Felis Panthera Felidae Canidae Ursidae Figure 1 Carnivora Mammalia Chordata Animalia In this lab we will use online databases of gene sequences to test hypotheses about the evolutionary relationships within different classes of organisms. This is in truth creating an evolutionary history for these organisms, expressed in the form of a phylogenetic tree, a branching diagram that indicates the points in time in which the currently extant species diverged from one another. The phylogenetic tree thus created represents a genealogy of probable evolutionary relationships between the species under study, and the higher taxonomic groups to which they belong. The fact that sequences of nucleotides in DNA are inherited and these sequences in the form of genes program the construction of proteins fro amino acids, use of DNA sequencing provides a very powerful tool for making these species to species comparisons. The methods usually employed for these include, DNA-DNA hybridization, restriction mapping and DNA sequencing. The hybridization method uses the complementarity of DNA to determine the level of hydrogen bonding between two single strand pieces of DNA, thus indicating the similarity of the two base sequences. Restriction mapping uses restriction enzymes to cleave DNA and compare the size of the DNA fragments made through restriction mapping. Finally DNA sequencing determines the precise sequence of the nucleotides for genes for a very precise comparison of their make-up. It is information generated by this last method, in the form of Internet databases that you will use in today s lab to make comparisons based upon a

3 Lab 2/Phylogenetics/September 16, predetermined hypothesis, and then to assess a hypothesis, which you and your partners will develop. The Activity In the introduction, you were exposed to taxonomy. Felines, canines and bears are all mammals-they all shared a common evolutionary ancestor. Over times (millions of years), animals belonging to each of these groups migrated to different parts of the globe. In order to survive, these animals needed to adapt (evolve) to their physical environment. For example, polar bears live in the Arctic and seem to have white fur (actually it is colorless and they have black skin). Why would this be advantageous? First of all, camouflage for hunting. The darker skin allows for greater absorption of heat from the sun s ray s. Polar bears, located in the northern regions of the Northern hemisphere, share the continent with American brown and black bears. What would you hypothesized about their evolutionary relationship. Did the polar bears evolve from a population of brown bears that were isolated far north? In the first part of the lab, you will compare the DNA sequence of the 12s rrna (ribosomal RNA) gene. Remember, genes that are important for essential metabolic functions (protein synthesis, in this case) are conserved within species and even larger taxonomic groups. You can compare the 12s rrna gene sequence for the polar bear, black and brown American bears, the Asiatic black bear and the spectacled bear and determine their evolutionary relationship. In the second activity, you will compare the 12s rrna gene sequence of the five bears, above, with the giant panda. At a quick glance, the giant panda resembles the bear family. But if diet and behavior of the giant panda is compared with the bear family, a different situation comes to light. For both exercises, you will be accessing the 12s rrna gene sequences from a national data bank and importing the sequences to a program to analyze the data (Workbench) that will allow you to construct: 1) a distance matrix that compares the genetic differences between species (the lower the number, the closer the evolutionary match) and 2) a phylogenetic tree, showing the relationship between the bears, and the bear family and the giant panda. INVESTIGATING POLAR BEAR AND GIANT PANDA ANCESTRY USING BIOLOGY WORKBENCH AND GENBANK INSTRUCTIONS FOR IMPORTING GENE SEQUENCES: 1. Enter GenBank at: 2. In the Search GenBank box, type in the accession number of the sequence you want to find. Click Go. (You will need to do each sequence separately.) 3. Click on the highlighted accession number and information about the species will appear. 4. Next to the Display button, pull down the menu and highlight FASTA. Click the Display button. 5. Highlight the entire FASTA sequence including the initial > symbol. Copy the highlighted sequence (pull down the Edit menu and click on copy). 6. Enter Biology Workbench at:

4 Lab 2/Phylogenetics/September 16, Set up a free account (you will have to create a username and password). 8. Click on Nucleic Tools at the bottom of the webpage. 9. On the Nucleic Tools page, click on Add New Nucleic Sequence. Click run. 10. A new screen will appear. You will be able to save the FASTA information under a new name in the Label Box. Name the sequence according to the bear it represents (EX: American Black Bear). 11. Under the Label Box is a box for the Sequence. Paste (pull down the Edit menu and click on paste) the saved sequence in the box. 12. Place the cursor behind the > in the FASTA identification line, and replace the FASTA identification line (>gi..) with the label you gave the sequence (EX: American Black Bear). The line will now read: >American Black Bear. Click on Save. 13. Return to GenBank. Repeat steps 2-12 for each of the remaining accession numbers. Accession Numbers for Species: American Black Bear American Brown Bear Spectacled Bear Asiatic Black Bear Polar Bear Y08520 L21889 L21883 L21890 L22164 Make sure you have all 5 bear sequences imported BEFORE moving on! INSTRUCTIONS FOR GENE SEQUENCE ANALYSIS AND TREE CONSTRUCTION: 1. In Biology Workbench, select Nucleic Tools, and select the 5 bear sequences you imported. 2. In the Nucleic Tools menu box, scroll down and highlight CLUSTALW. Click Run. Click Submit. 3. Click on Import Alignments. 4. Scroll down through the Import Alignments window and highlight CLUSTALDIST. Under the Import Alignments window, select the group of sequences you want to analyze. Click Run. Click Submit. 5. A data matrix will appear on the next screen. Print this screen so you can examine the data later. 6. Close the screen with the data matrix. 7. Click the Back button once. 8. Scroll down through the Import Alignments window and highlight DRAWGRAM. Once again, make sure you choose the sequences you want to analyze. Click Run. Click Submit. 9. The phylogenetic tree will appear on the next screen. Print this screen so you can examine the data later.

5 Lab 2/Phylogenetics/September 16, GIANT PANDA BEAR RELATIONSHIP TO THE PREVIOUSLY DETERMINED DATA: In GenBank, access the giant panda 12s rrna gene sequence (accession number Y08521) and import it into Biology Workbench. Run a new alignment using all 5 of the previous bear sequences and the panda bear sequence. Import the alignment into Alignment Tools. Use CLUSTALDIST to create a distance matrix and DRAWGRAM to develop the phylogenetic tree. Print the matrix and the tree. The Assignment: A. Evolutionary relationship of five bears species using 12s RNA gene sequence. 1. Distance matrix 2. Phylogenetic tree B. Evolutionary relationship of the five bears species and the giant panda using 12s RNA gene sequence. 1. Distance matrix 2. Phylogenetic tree C. Questions 1. Hypothesis for bear s phylogenetic tree. What would you state as a hypothesis for the relationships between the five bear species? 2. Reevaluate your hypothesis. Were you correct? Why? What is the true relationship? 3. Hypothesis for bear s phylogenetic tree. What would you state as a hypothesis for the relationships between the five bear species and the giant panda? 4. Reevaluate your hypothesis. Were you correct? Why? What is the true relationship? 5. Briefly discuss genotypic analysis vs. phenotypic analysis. What would be the advantages and disadvantages to both? EACH PERSON SHOULD GENERATE THEIR OWN DISTANCE MATRICES AND PHYLOGENETIC TREES. ANSWERS TO ALL QUESTIONS SHOULD BE INDIVIDUAL WORK. References: Campbell, N.A. (1996) Biology (Fourth Edition). Redwood City, CA: Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Co. Maier, C.A. (2001) Building Phylogenetic Trees from DNA Sequencing Data: Investigating Polar Bear and Giant Panda Ancestry. The American Biology Teacher 63(9) Nov./Dec Starr C. and Taggart, R. Evolution of Life (Eighth Edition). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co.

Organizing Life s Diversity Section 17.1 The History of Classification

Organizing Life s Diversity Section 17.1 The History of Classification Organizing Life s Diversity Section 17.1 The History of Classification Scan Section 1 of the chapter. Write three questions that come to mind from reading the headings and the illustration captions. 1.

More information

18.1 Finding Order in Diversity

18.1 Finding Order in Diversity 18.1 Finding Order in Diversity Lesson Objectives Describe the goals of binomial nomenclature and systematics. Identify the taxa in the classification system devised by Linnaeus. Lesson Summary Assigning

More information

Name Class Date. binomial nomenclature. MAIN IDEA: Linnaeus developed the scientific naming system still used today.

Name Class Date. binomial nomenclature. MAIN IDEA: Linnaeus developed the scientific naming system still used today. Section 1: The Linnaean System of Classification 17.1 Reading Guide KEY CONCEPT Organisms can be classified based on physical similarities. VOCABULARY taxonomy taxon binomial nomenclature genus MAIN IDEA:

More information

Fossils have been found in Precambrian rocks 3.5 billion years old.

Fossils have been found in Precambrian rocks 3.5 billion years old. 98 Family Histories i n v e s t i g at i o n Fossils have been found in Precambrian rocks 3.5 billion years old. But most have been found in rocks of the Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic eras, which are

More information

Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Name: Class: Date: Chapter 17 Practice Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The correct order for the levels of Linnaeus's classification system,

More information

Evolution and the Origin of New Species

Evolution and the Origin of New Species Evolution and the Origin of New Species The Species Concept A. Taxonomy 1. The science of classifying organisms based on their relationships with one another B. Species 1. A population or group of populations

More information

LAB 21 Using Bioinformatics to Investigate Evolutionary Relationships; Have a BLAST!

LAB 21 Using Bioinformatics to Investigate Evolutionary Relationships; Have a BLAST! LAB 21 Using Bioinformatics to Investigate Evolutionary Relationships; Have a BLAST! Introduction: Between 1990-2003, scientists working on an international research project known as the Human Genome Project,

More information

How Scientists Classify Living Things. on Earth. Fill the board or a large sheet of paper with the names of organisms.

How Scientists Classify Living Things. on Earth. Fill the board or a large sheet of paper with the names of organisms. How Scientists Classify Living Things 2.4 TRY THIS: CLASSIFY LIVING THINGS Skills Focus: classifying, communicating How would you classify living things? 1. As a class, brainstorm all the different types

More information

Unit 6: Classification and Diversity. KEY CONCEPT Organisms can be classified based on physical similarities.

Unit 6: Classification and Diversity. KEY CONCEPT Organisms can be classified based on physical similarities. KEY CONCEPT Organisms can be classified based on physical similarities. Linnaeus developed the scientific naming system still used today. Taxonomy is the science of naming and classifying organisms. White

More information

4. Why are common names not good to use when classifying organisms? Give an example.

4. Why are common names not good to use when classifying organisms? Give an example. 1. Define taxonomy. Classification of organisms 2. Who was first to classify organisms? Aristotle 3. Explain Aristotle s taxonomy of organisms. Patterns of nature: looked like 4. Why are common names not

More information

Phylogeny and the Tree of Life. The Science of Biology: Part IV

Phylogeny and the Tree of Life. The Science of Biology: Part IV Phylogeny and the Tree of Life The Science of Biology: Part IV 1 Taxonomy, Phylogeny and Systematics Taxonomy: the study of naming and classifying organisms. Phylogeny: the evolutionary history of a group

More information

1 Sorting It All Out. Say It

1 Sorting It All Out. Say It CHAPTER 9 1 Sorting It All Out SECTION Classification BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is classification? How do scientists classify organisms?

More information

Background Knowledge: Students should understand the structure of DNA and basic genetics.

Background Knowledge: Students should understand the structure of DNA and basic genetics. Biology STANDARD V: Objective 3 Title: Investigating Common Descent Background Knowledge: Students should understand the structure of DNA and basic genetics. Objective: In this activity students will build

More information

GENE MUTATIONS. Name: Date: Period: Part One: DNA Error in Replication

GENE MUTATIONS. Name: Date: Period: Part One: DNA Error in Replication Part One: DNA Error in Replication In your Modern Biology textbook, turn to page 202. After reading this page, complete the following. 1. A mutation is a change in. 2. Since genes (sections of DNA) code

More information

Biology 164 Laboratory PHYLOGENETIC SYSTEMATICS

Biology 164 Laboratory PHYLOGENETIC SYSTEMATICS Biology 164 Laboratory PHYLOGENETIC SYSTEMATICS Objectives 1. To become familiar with the cladistic approach to reconstruction of phylogenies. 2. To construct a character matrix and phylogeny for a group

More information

Assign: Unit 1: Preparation Activity page 4-7. Chapter 1: Classifying Life s Diversity page 8

Assign: Unit 1: Preparation Activity page 4-7. Chapter 1: Classifying Life s Diversity page 8 Assign: Unit 1: Preparation Activity page 4-7 Chapter 1: Classifying Life s Diversity page 8 1.1: Identifying, Naming, and Classifying Species page 10 Key Terms: species, morphology, phylogeny, taxonomy,

More information

COMPARING DNA SEQUENCES TO DETERMINE EVOLUTIONARY RELATIONSHIPS AMONG MOLLUSKS

COMPARING DNA SEQUENCES TO DETERMINE EVOLUTIONARY RELATIONSHIPS AMONG MOLLUSKS COMPARING DNA SEQUENCES TO DETERMINE EVOLUTIONARY RELATIONSHIPS AMONG MOLLUSKS OVERVIEW In the online activity Biodiversity and Evolutionary Trees: An Activity on Biological Classification, you generated

More information

AP Biology Essential Knowledge Student Diagnostic

AP Biology Essential Knowledge Student Diagnostic AP Biology Essential Knowledge Student Diagnostic Background The Essential Knowledge statements provided in the AP Biology Curriculum Framework are scientific claims describing phenomenon occurring in

More information

Classification and Evolution

Classification and Evolution Classification and Evolution Starter: How many different ways could I split these objects into 2 groups? Classification All living things can also be grouped how do we decide which groups to put them into?

More information

What Do I Need to Know About Classification?

What Do I Need to Know About Classification? What Do I Need to Know About Classification? (Chapter 17 Honors) MULTIPLE CHOICE: Circle ALL that are true. There may be MORE THAN one correct answer. *Correct Answer(s) 1. The science that specializes

More information

Principles of Evolution - Origin of Species

Principles of Evolution - Origin of Species Theories of Organic Evolution X Multiple Centers of Creation (de Buffon) developed the concept of "centers of creation throughout the world organisms had arisen, which other species had evolved from X

More information

RETRIEVING SEQUENCE INFORMATION. Nucleotide sequence databases. Database search. Sequence alignment and comparison

RETRIEVING SEQUENCE INFORMATION. Nucleotide sequence databases. Database search. Sequence alignment and comparison RETRIEVING SEQUENCE INFORMATION Nucleotide sequence databases Database search Sequence alignment and comparison Biological sequence databases Originally just a storage place for sequences. Currently the

More information

AP Biology Learning Objective Cards

AP Biology Learning Objective Cards 1.1 The student is able to convert a data set from a table of numbers that reflect a change in the genetic makeup of a population over time and to apply mathematical methods and conceptual understandings

More information

IDENTIFICATION OF ORGANISMS

IDENTIFICATION OF ORGANISMS reflect Take a look at the pictures on the right. Think about what the two organisms have in common. They both need food and water to survive. They both grow and reproduce. They both have similar body

More information

Understanding by Design. Title: BIOLOGY/LAB. Established Goal(s) / Content Standard(s): Essential Question(s) Understanding(s):

Understanding by Design. Title: BIOLOGY/LAB. Established Goal(s) / Content Standard(s): Essential Question(s) Understanding(s): Understanding by Design Title: BIOLOGY/LAB Standard: EVOLUTION and BIODIVERSITY Grade(s):9/10/11/12 Established Goal(s) / Content Standard(s): 5. Evolution and Biodiversity Central Concepts: Evolution

More information

investigation 3 Comparing DNA Sequences to

investigation 3 Comparing DNA Sequences to Big Idea 1 Evolution investigation 3 Comparing DNA Sequences to Understand Evolutionary Relationships with BLAST How can bioinformatics be used as a tool to determine evolutionary relationships and to

More information

Taxonomy Five Kingdoms

Taxonomy Five Kingdoms Taxonomy Five Kingdoms R.H Whittaker 1969 Three Domains Evolutionary Trees Cladistics: Cladograms and molecular data What are the tools used by scientists to observe and understand evolutionary relationships?

More information

Bioinformatics Grid - Enabled Tools For Biologists.

Bioinformatics Grid - Enabled Tools For Biologists. Bioinformatics Grid - Enabled Tools For Biologists. What is Grid-Enabled Tools (GET)? As number of data from the genomics and proteomics experiment increases. Problems arise for the current sequence analysis

More information

Bioinformatics Lab. MODULE 1: Sequence Taxonomy

Bioinformatics Lab. MODULE 1: Sequence Taxonomy Student Activity Sheet Name: Bioinformatics Lab MODULE 1: Sequence Taxonomy Objective: The goal of this module is to introduce you to the number and diversity of nucleotide sequences in the NCBI database.

More information

Bioinformatics Resources at a Glance

Bioinformatics Resources at a Glance Bioinformatics Resources at a Glance A Note about FASTA Format There are MANY free bioinformatics tools available online. Bioinformaticists have developed a standard format for nucleotide and protein sequences

More information

Chironomid DNA Barcode Database Search System. User Manual

Chironomid DNA Barcode Database Search System. User Manual Chironomid DNA Barcode Database Search System User Manual National Institute for Environmental Studies Center for Environmental Biology and Ecosystem Studies December 2015 Contents 1. Overview 1 2. Search

More information

How Are Proteins Made?

How Are Proteins Made? Proteins play a crucial role in almost every biological process, from cell signaling to cell division. Each protein has to be uniquely suited to its particular job, yet they are all made of the same 20

More information

Station #1: Taxonomy

Station #1: Taxonomy Station #1: Taxonomy Examine the table showing the classification of four organisms. The answer the questions. Taxon Green Frog Mountain Lion Domestic Dog Human Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus

More information

Transcription and Translation of DNA

Transcription and Translation of DNA Transcription and Translation of DNA Genotype our genetic constitution ( makeup) is determined (controlled) by the sequence of bases in its genes Phenotype determined by the proteins synthesised when genes

More information

INTRODUCTION: Topic I: RIBOSOMAL RNA

INTRODUCTION: Topic I: RIBOSOMAL RNA INTRODUCTION: The rrna gene is the most conserved (least variable) DNA in all cells. Portions of the rdna sequence from distantly related organisms are remarkably similar. This means that sequences from

More information

Scientific Process Skills: Scientific Process Skills:

Scientific Process Skills: Scientific Process Skills: Texas University Interscholastic League Contest Event: Science The contest challenges students to read widely in biology, to understand the significance of experiments rather than to recall obscure details,

More information

Figure During transcription, RNA nucleotides base-pair one by one with DNA

Figure During transcription, RNA nucleotides base-pair one by one with DNA Objectives Describe the process of DNA transcription. Explain how an RNA message is edited. Describe how RNA is translated to a protein. Summarize protein synthesis. Key Terms messenger RNA (mrna) RNA

More information

CHAPTER 1 A VIEW OF LIFE

CHAPTER 1 A VIEW OF LIFE CHAPTER 1 A VIEW OF LIFE 1.1 How to Define Life Living things are called organisms. Organisms are often hard to define because they are so diverse; however, they share many common characteristics: 1. Living

More information

BIOL 1030 TOPIC 1 LECTURE NOTES Topic 1: Classification and the Diversity of Life (Chapters 25, 26.6)

BIOL 1030 TOPIC 1 LECTURE NOTES Topic 1: Classification and the Diversity of Life (Chapters 25, 26.6) Topic 1: Classification and the Diversity of Life (Chapters 25, 26.6) I. Background review (Biology 1020 material) A. Scientific Method 1. observations 2. scientific model explains observations makes testable

More information

Biological Sequence Data Formats

Biological Sequence Data Formats Biological Sequence Data Formats Here we present three standard formats in which biological sequence data (DNA, RNA and protein) can be stored and presented. Raw Sequence: Data without description. FASTA

More information

Classification Why Things are Grouped classify Methods of Classification

Classification Why Things are Grouped classify Methods of Classification Classification What features do biologists use to group living things? You know that most plants are green and do not more around. You also know that most animals are not green and do move around. The

More information

Introduction to Bioinformatics AS 250.265 Laboratory Assignment 6

Introduction to Bioinformatics AS 250.265 Laboratory Assignment 6 Introduction to Bioinformatics AS 250.265 Laboratory Assignment 6 In the last lab, you learned how to perform basic multiple sequence alignments. While useful in themselves for determining conserved residues

More information

TAXONOMY & the 3 Kingdom idea Chapter 9 There are 2 important videos in this chapter. 1 is Microbial Evolution and is accessed from the Nav page

TAXONOMY & the 3 Kingdom idea Chapter 9 There are 2 important videos in this chapter. 1 is Microbial Evolution and is accessed from the Nav page TAXONOMY & the 3 Kingdom idea Chapter 9 There are 2 important videos in this chapter. 1 is Microbial Evolution and is accessed from the Nav page videos. The other is found as Origins Video with a worksheet

More information

Evidence for evolution factsheet

Evidence for evolution factsheet The theory of evolution by natural selection is supported by a great deal of evidence. Fossils Fossils are formed when organisms become buried in sediments, causing little decomposition of the organism.

More information

WJEC AS Biology Biodiversity & Classification (2.1 All Organisms are related through their Evolutionary History)

WJEC AS Biology Biodiversity & Classification (2.1 All Organisms are related through their Evolutionary History) Name:.. Set:. Specification Points: WJEC AS Biology Biodiversity & Classification (2.1 All Organisms are related through their Evolutionary History) (a) Biodiversity is the number of different organisms

More information

Analyzing A DNA Sequence Chromatogram

Analyzing A DNA Sequence Chromatogram LESSON 9 HANDOUT Analyzing A DNA Sequence Chromatogram Student Researcher Background: DNA Analysis and FinchTV DNA sequence data can be used to answer many types of questions. Because DNA sequences differ

More information

Evolution and Darwin

Evolution and Darwin Evolution and Darwin Evolution The processes that have transformed life on earth from it s earliest forms to the vast diversity that characterizes it today. A change in the genes!!!!!!!! Old Theories of

More information

The Art of the Tree of Life. Catherine Ibes & Priscilla Spears March 2012

The Art of the Tree of Life. Catherine Ibes & Priscilla Spears March 2012 The Art of the Tree of Life Catherine Ibes & Priscilla Spears March 2012 from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being, evolved. Charles Darwin, The

More information

Let s get started. So, what is science?

Let s get started. So, what is science? Let s get started So, what is science? Well Science Science is the observation of phenomena and the theoretical explanation of it. Simply, it is the state of knowing. Biology Biology is the study of life.

More information

The Steps. 1. Transcription. 2. Transferal. 3. Translation

The Steps. 1. Transcription. 2. Transferal. 3. Translation Protein Synthesis Protein synthesis is simply the "making of proteins." Although the term itself is easy to understand, the multiple steps that a cell in a plant or animal must go through are not. In order

More information

GenBank, Entrez, & FASTA

GenBank, Entrez, & FASTA GenBank, Entrez, & FASTA Nucleotide Sequence Databases First generation GenBank is a representative example started as sort of a museum to preserve knowledge of a sequence from first discovery great repositories,

More information

The Origin of Life. The Origin of Life. Reconstructing the history of life: What features define living systems?

The Origin of Life. The Origin of Life. Reconstructing the history of life: What features define living systems? The Origin of Life I. Introduction: What is life? II. The Primitive Earth III. Evidence of Life s Beginning on Earth A. Fossil Record: a point in time B. Requirements for Chemical and Cellular Evolution:

More information

Evolution Unit Plan. Stage 1: Identify Desired Results Title: Evolution of Life

Evolution Unit Plan. Stage 1: Identify Desired Results Title: Evolution of Life Evolution Unit Plan Stage 1: Identify Desired Results Title: Evolution of Life Unit Description: Evolution is a topic that is fundamental to the study of Biology, linking areas such as genetics, molecular

More information

Course Name: BIOL 10A. Title: Cellular Biology, Genetics & Evolution. Units: 5

Course Name: BIOL 10A. Title: Cellular Biology, Genetics & Evolution. Units: 5 Course Name: BIOL 10A Title: Cellular Biology, Genetics & Evolution Units: 5 Course Description: Investigates the principles governing cell biology, metabolism, genetics, evolution and history of life

More information

Biology Performance Level Descriptors

Biology Performance Level Descriptors Limited A student performing at the Limited Level demonstrates a minimal command of Ohio s Learning Standards for Biology. A student at this level has an emerging ability to describe genetic patterns of

More information

BIOLOGY B. AS and A LEVEL (ADVANCING BIOLOGY) Theme: The development of species: evolution and classification Delivery Guide H022/H422

BIOLOGY B. AS and A LEVEL (ADVANCING BIOLOGY) Theme: The development of species: evolution and classification Delivery Guide H022/H422 AS and A LEVEL Delivery Guide H022/H422 BIOLOGY B (ADVANCING BIOLOGY) Theme: The development of species: evolution and classification 3.1.3 January 2016 We will inform centres about any changes to the

More information

Ch. 13 How Populations Evolve Period. 4. Describe Lamarck s proposed theory of evolution, The Theory of Acquired Traits.

Ch. 13 How Populations Evolve Period. 4. Describe Lamarck s proposed theory of evolution, The Theory of Acquired Traits. Ch. 13 How Populations Evolve Name Period California State Standards covered by this chapter: Evolution 7. The frequency of an allele in a gene pool of a population depends on many factors and may be stable

More information

of interrelatedness and decent with modification. However, technological advances are opening another powerful avenue of comparison: DNA sequences.

of interrelatedness and decent with modification. However, technological advances are opening another powerful avenue of comparison: DNA sequences. SCI115SC Module 3 AVP Transcript Title: Genetic Similarity Title Slide Narrator: Welcome to this presentation on genetic similarity. Slide 2 Title: Underlying the Outwardly Visible Similarities, We Find

More information

Molecules, Morphology and Species Concepts. Speciation Occurs at Widely Differing Rates. Speciation Rates

Molecules, Morphology and Species Concepts. Speciation Occurs at Widely Differing Rates. Speciation Rates Molecules, Morphology and Species Concepts Speciation Occurs at Widely Differing Rates Horseshoe crabs (Limulus), the same as fossils 300 Mya Darwin s Finches: 13 species within 100,000 years. Speciation

More information

Evolution (18%) 11 Items Sample Test Prep Questions

Evolution (18%) 11 Items Sample Test Prep Questions Evolution (18%) 11 Items Sample Test Prep Questions Grade 7 (Evolution) 3.a Students know both genetic variation and environmental factors are causes of evolution and diversity of organisms. (pg. 109 Science

More information

LEVEL TWO BIOLOGY: GENE EXPRESSION

LEVEL TWO BIOLOGY: GENE EXPRESSION LEVEL TWO BIOLOGY: GENE EXPRESSION Protein synthesis DNA structure and replication Polypeptide chains and amino acids Mutations Metabolic pathways Protein Synthesis: I can define a protein in terms of

More information

Characteristics and classification of living organisms

Characteristics and classification of living organisms Unit 1 Characteristics and classification of living organisms Welcome to the exciting and amazing world of living things. Go outside and look around you. Look at the sky, the soil, trees, plants, people,

More information

I. Use BLAST to Find DNA Sequences in Databases (Electronic PCR)

I. Use BLAST to Find DNA Sequences in Databases (Electronic PCR) Using DNA Barcodes to Identify and Classify Living Things: Bioinformatics I. Use BLAST to Find DNA Sequences in Databases (Electronic PCR) 1. Perform a BLAST search as follows: a) Do an Internet search

More information

MAKING AN EVOLUTIONARY TREE

MAKING AN EVOLUTIONARY TREE Student manual MAKING AN EVOLUTIONARY TREE THEORY The relationship between different species can be derived from different information sources. The connection between species may turn out by similarities

More information

DNA to Protein BIOLOGY INSTRUCTIONAL TASKS

DNA to Protein BIOLOGY INSTRUCTIONAL TASKS BIOLOGY INSTRUCTIONAL TASKS DNA to Protein Grade-Level Expectations The exercises in these instructional tasks address content related to the following science grade-level expectations: Contents LS-H-B1

More information

Activity #5. Mr. Green Genes

Activity #5. Mr. Green Genes Activity #5. Mr. Green Genes a. Hypothesis Development Using Bioinformatics b. Plasmid DNA Isolation & Restriction Enzyme Digestion & Phenotype Confirmation, c. Gel Electrophoresis In this experiment,

More information

17.1. The Tree of Life CHAPTER 17. Organisms can be classified based on physical similarities. Linnaean taxonomy. names.

17.1. The Tree of Life CHAPTER 17. Organisms can be classified based on physical similarities. Linnaean taxonomy. names. SECTION 17.1 THE LINNAEAN SYSTEM OF CLASSIFICATION Study Guide KEY CONCEPT Organisms can be classified based on physical similarities. VOCABULARY taxonomy taxon binomial nomenclature genus MAIN IDEA: Linnaeus

More information

OUTCOMES. PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IB Biology Core Topic 3.5 Transcription and Translation OVERVIEW ANIMATION CONTEXT RIBONUCLEIC ACID (RNA)

OUTCOMES. PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IB Biology Core Topic 3.5 Transcription and Translation OVERVIEW ANIMATION CONTEXT RIBONUCLEIC ACID (RNA) OUTCOMES PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IB Biology Core Topic 3.5 Transcription and Translation 3.5.1 Compare the structure of RNA and DNA. 3.5.2 Outline DNA transcription in terms of the formation of an RNA strand

More information

AP Biology Summer Assignment Due at the beginning of the first Red/Gold day of class 1

AP Biology Summer Assignment Due at the beginning of the first Red/Gold day of class 1 AP Biology 2016-2017 Summer Assignment Due at the beginning of the first Red/Gold day of class 1 Welcome to AP Biology! This is going to be an exciting and challenging year. This is a fastpaced class.

More information

Biology Final Exam Study Guide: Semester 2

Biology Final Exam Study Guide: Semester 2 Biology Final Exam Study Guide: Semester 2 Questions 1. Scientific method: What does each of these entail? Investigation and Experimentation Problem Hypothesis Methods Results/Data Discussion/Conclusion

More information

Name Period _. Regents Biology Date _ REVIEW 5: GENETICS

Name Period _. Regents Biology Date _ REVIEW 5: GENETICS Name Period _ Regents Biology Date _ REVIEW 5: GENETICS 1. Chromosomes: a. Humans have 46 chromosomes, or _23 _ homologous pairs. Homologous: _Chromosomes of the same position and size b. Chromosome pairs

More information

Transcription Animations

Transcription Animations Transcription Animations Name: Lew Ports Biology Place http://www.lewport.wnyric.org/jwanamaker/animations/protein%20synthesis%20-%20long.html Protein is the making of proteins from the information found

More information

Biology 6 Survival Kit

Biology 6 Survival Kit Biology 6 Survival Kit Prof. Sara Huang What oes Biology 6 Cover? Chemistry Cell structure and function Genetics and molecular biology Animal structure and function Factors That Contribute to Your Success

More information

Crime Scene Investigation (Adopted from Forensics in the Classroom developed by Court TV)

Crime Scene Investigation (Adopted from Forensics in the Classroom developed by Court TV) Crime Scene Investigation (Adopted from Forensics in the Classroom developed by Court TV) The case: Last night, the school cafeteria was vandalized; the kitchen area was broken into, several appliances

More information

Name Period. 3. How many rounds of DNA replication and cell division occur during meiosis?

Name Period. 3. How many rounds of DNA replication and cell division occur during meiosis? Name Period GENERAL BIOLOGY Second Semester Study Guide Chapters 3, 4, 5, 6, 11, 14, 16, 17, 18 and 19. SEXUAL REPRODUCTION AND MEIOSIS 1. What is the purpose of meiosis? 2. Distinguish between diploid

More information

ECO-1.1: I can describe the processes that move carbon and nitrogen through ecosystems.

ECO-1.1: I can describe the processes that move carbon and nitrogen through ecosystems. Cycles of Matter ECO-1.1: I can describe the processes that move carbon and nitrogen through ecosystems. ECO-1.2: I can explain how carbon and nitrogen are stored in ecosystems. ECO-1.3: I can describe

More information

DNA Web Quest. 2. Who discovered that individual traits are passed on from one generation to the next? In what year?

DNA Web Quest. 2. Who discovered that individual traits are passed on from one generation to the next? In what year? Part 1 Introduction, History, DNA Structure, DNA Replication Introduction Go to http://science.howstuffworks.com/cell4.htm Read the text. As you read fill in the blanks below. Stop! 1 DNA History Go to

More information

Taxonomy and Classification

Taxonomy and Classification Taxonomy and Classification Taxonomy = the science of naming and describing species Wisdom begins with calling things by their right names -Chinese Proverb museums contain ~ 2 Billion specimens worldwide

More information

Transcription Activity Guide

Transcription Activity Guide Transcription Activity Guide Teacher Key Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) Introduction Central Dogma: DNA to RNA to Protein Almost all dynamic functions in a living organism depend on proteins. Proteins are molecular

More information

Worksheet - COMPARATIVE MAPPING 1

Worksheet - COMPARATIVE MAPPING 1 Worksheet - COMPARATIVE MAPPING 1 The arrangement of genes and other DNA markers is compared between species in Comparative genome mapping. As early as 1915, the geneticist J.B.S Haldane reported that

More information

Quiz #4 Ch. 4 Modern Evolutionary Theory

Quiz #4 Ch. 4 Modern Evolutionary Theory Physical Anthropology Summer 2014 Dr. Leanna Wolfe Quiz #4 Ch. 4 Modern Evolutionary Theory 1. T/F Evolution by natural selection works directly on individuals, transforming populations. 2. T/F A genotypic

More information

How Populations Evolve

How Populations Evolve How Populations Evolve Darwin and the Origin of the Species Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, November 24, 1859. Darwin presented two main concepts: Life

More information

Prentice Hall Biology: Exploring Life 2004 Correlated to: District of Columbia Public Schools, Science, Biology I (Grade 9)

Prentice Hall Biology: Exploring Life 2004 Correlated to: District of Columbia Public Schools, Science, Biology I (Grade 9) District of Columbia Public Schools, Science, Biology I (Grade 9) BIOLOGY Content Standard 2: Each student observes and investigates organisms, their characteristics, life cycles and environments. Performance

More information

Unit 1: Chemistry of Life Guided Reading Questions (70 pts total)

Unit 1: Chemistry of Life Guided Reading Questions (70 pts total) AP Biology Biology, Campbell and Reece, 10th Edition Adapted from chapter reading guides originally created by Lynn Miriello Name: Unit 1: Chemistry of Life Guided Reading Questions (70 pts total) Chapter

More information

10 What Is a Species? Th i n k a b o u t t h e many different types of organisms you see in a typical day.

10 What Is a Species? Th i n k a b o u t t h e many different types of organisms you see in a typical day. 10 What Is a Species? Th i n k a b o u t t h e many different types of organisms you see in a typical day. In addition to humans, you might see mammals such as dogs and cats; birds such as robins and pigeons;

More information

Title: Create A New Animal. Grade Level: 3 rd -5 th. Subject: Biology. Time: 60-90 minutes

Title: Create A New Animal. Grade Level: 3 rd -5 th. Subject: Biology. Time: 60-90 minutes Title: Create A New Animal Grade Level: 3 rd -5 th Subject: Biology Time: 60-90 minutes Objective: Students will better understand physical adaptations of certain animals, and how those adaptations increase

More information

KEY CONCEPT Organisms can be classified based on physical similarities. binomial nomenclature

KEY CONCEPT Organisms can be classified based on physical similarities. binomial nomenclature Section 17.1: The Linnaean System of Classification Unit 9 Study Guide KEY CONCEPT Organisms can be classified based on physical similarities. VOCABULARY taxonomy taxon binomial nomenclature genus MAIN

More information

MCAS Biology. Review Packet

MCAS Biology. Review Packet MCAS Biology Review Packet 1 Name Class Date 1. Define organic. THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE 2. All living things are made up of 6 essential elements: SPONCH. Name the six elements of life. S N P C O H 3. Elements

More information

A Tutorial in Genetic Sequence Classification Tools and Techniques

A Tutorial in Genetic Sequence Classification Tools and Techniques A Tutorial in Genetic Sequence Classification Tools and Techniques Jake Drew Data Mining CSE 8331 Southern Methodist University jakemdrew@gmail.com www.jakemdrew.com Sequence Characters IUPAC nucleotide

More information

SESSION 2. Possible answer:

SESSION 2. Possible answer: UPDATED CLONE THAT GENE ACTIVITY 2014 TEACHER GUIDE SESSION 2 Key ideas: When creating a recombinant plasmid, it is important to examine the sequences of the plasmid DNA and of the human DNA that contains

More information

Sequence Formats and Sequence Database Searches. Gloria Rendon SC11 Education June, 2011

Sequence Formats and Sequence Database Searches. Gloria Rendon SC11 Education June, 2011 Sequence Formats and Sequence Database Searches Gloria Rendon SC11 Education June, 2011 Sequence A is the primary structure of a biological molecule. It is a chain of residues that form a precise linear

More information

Data for phylogenetic analysis

Data for phylogenetic analysis Data for phylogenetic analysis The data that are used to estimate the phylogeny of a set of tips are the characteristics of those tips. Therefore the success of phylogenetic inference depends in large

More information

The Story of Human Evolution Part 1: From ape-like ancestors to modern humans

The Story of Human Evolution Part 1: From ape-like ancestors to modern humans The Story of Human Evolution Part 1: From ape-like ancestors to modern humans Slide 1 The Story of Human Evolution This powerpoint presentation tells the story of who we are and where we came from - how

More information

Theory of Evolution. A. the beginning of life B. the evolution of eukaryotes C. the evolution of archaebacteria D. the beginning of terrestrial life

Theory of Evolution. A. the beginning of life B. the evolution of eukaryotes C. the evolution of archaebacteria D. the beginning of terrestrial life Theory of Evolution 1. In 1966, American biologist Lynn Margulis proposed the theory of endosymbiosis, or the idea that mitochondria are the descendents of symbiotic, aerobic eubacteria. What does the

More information

Biology 1 st PU QUESTION BANK UNIT 1: DIVERSITY IN THE LIVING WORLD CHAPTER 1: THE LIVING THINGS. (Questions carrying one mark)

Biology 1 st PU QUESTION BANK UNIT 1: DIVERSITY IN THE LIVING WORLD CHAPTER 1: THE LIVING THINGS. (Questions carrying one mark) Biology 1 st PU QUESTION BANK UNIT 1: DIVERSITY IN THE LIVING WORLD CHAPTER 1: THE LIVING THINGS (Questions carrying one mark) 1. What is habitat? 2. Define Biodiversity. 3. What is population? 4. What

More information

Lab 2 - Illustrating Evolutionary Relationships Between Organisms: Emperor Penguins and Phylogenetic Trees

Lab 2 - Illustrating Evolutionary Relationships Between Organisms: Emperor Penguins and Phylogenetic Trees Biology 18 Spring 2008 Lab 2 - Illustrating Evolutionary Relationships Between Organisms: Emperor Penguins and Phylogenetic Trees Pre-Lab Reference Reading: Review pp. 542-556 and pp. 722-737 in Life by

More information

Unit 2: Organisms and Envrionments Exam Review

Unit 2: Organisms and Envrionments Exam Review 6.12A: Living Organisms and Cells Unit 2: Organisms and Envrionments Exam Review All living things are made of. Cells are the of living things they are the smallest part of an organism. Some organisms

More information

Topic 6: Genetics. 1. The transfer of genes from parents to their offspring is known as

Topic 6: Genetics. 1. The transfer of genes from parents to their offspring is known as 1. The transfer of genes from parents to their offspring is known as 5. The diagram below represents a reproductive process that takes place in humans. (1) differentiation (2) heredity (3) immunity (4)

More information

Evolution and Medicine a New Approach for High School Biology

Evolution and Medicine a New Approach for High School Biology LIVE INTERACTIVE LEARNING @ YOUR DESKTOP Evolution and Medicine a New Approach for High School Biology May 10, 2011 Evolution and Medicine a New Approach for High School Biology Paul Beardsley May 10,

More information

Lesson Title: Constructing a Dichotomous Key and Exploring Its Relationship to Evolutionary Patterns

Lesson Title: Constructing a Dichotomous Key and Exploring Its Relationship to Evolutionary Patterns Lesson Title: Constructing a Dichotomous Key and Exploring Its Relationship to Evolutionary Patterns NSF GK-12 Fellow: Tommy Detmer Grade Level: 4 th and 5 th grade Type of Lesson: STEM Objectives: The

More information