Rendered products in poultry feed: use of digestible formulation. Jeffre Firman, PhD Professor University of Missouri

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1 Rendered products in poultry feed: use of digestible formulation Jeffre Firman, PhD Professor University of Missouri

2 Introduction: Rendered proteins and fats Long history worldwide of use of animal proteins in the poultry industry. Products currently being utilized include meat meals from ruminant, swine and poultry, blood meals, fats, feather meal. Variety of use, broilers, turkeys, pigs, less use layers. Provide nutrients needed at competitive prices Animal protein sources may improve performance parameters over corn-soya diets While each product has different nutrient contents and potential values, most are excellent sources of high quality protein, highly available phosphorus and other minerals.

3 Goals My goal here today is to provide the information needed to utilize these products in ration formulation and how digestible formulation is useful in utilizing these products

4 Available products Meat meals/meat and bone/poultry meal Products from non-edible portion of cattle, pig or poultry processing Products may vary based on input materials, proportion of bone Utilized in the US poultry industry as a protein/aa, calcium and phosphorus source Inclusion levels typically limited by price 10% of high quality product would be fine Can be used in combination with other by-products

5 Available products Blood meal: Product based on a drying process from the blood collected in slaughter plants The more sophisticated the drying process, in general the better the product produced, spray drying is generally considered superior Blood meal is generally not used in high concentration due to its poor amino acid balance May be used as an attractant in some aqua feeds Constraints would be at 1-2% of the total ration, perhaps more in aqua

6 Available products Poultry Feather meal: Feather meal is the ground and hydrolyzed feather from chicken and turkey processing Considered to be low in digestibility and with a poor amino acid balance and is thus not heavily used in the poultry industry It is generally economically priced, but will normally be used at 1-3% of the ration May be utilized in ruminant rations as a by-pass protein, 3% addition improves milk yield in higher producing dairy cattle

7 Available products Blended meals: Several commercial blends are available as well as the ability to have products custom blended to customer specifications Some products were designed specifically as a replacement for fishmeal for instance May increase costs, useful if storage space is lacking or need to simulate fish meal Blends were more heavily utilized in the past, before computer formulation, digestible amino acids Still have a place in international markets

8 Additions of MBM and PBM MBM Level PBM Level Relative price of Prod. Price of Broiler starter / ton in USD 0% 0% NA % 5% 100% % 10% 100% % 5% 110% % 10% 110% % 5% 90% % 10% 90%

9 Digestible formulation Refers to the use of digestibility values of feedstuffs and digestible amino acid based requirements to formulate diets This is basically the same as using available Phosphorus or ME vs GE Need a solid understanding of amino acid nutrition Need a solid understanding of computer formulation Data for chickens is easily found (Heartland Lysine, Evonik, etc) Most in the US, EU, others have switched

10 Why switch to digestible formulation? Digestible formulation saves money Digestible formulation allows use of alternative ingredients more easily Digestible formulation results in more accurately meeting the birds requirement Digestible formulation allows for reduced protein and increased dietary energy Digestible formulation allows for more precise determination of amino acid requirements Digestible formulation is useful even if you just feed corn and soybean meal, and is more useful if you feed a number of ingredients

11 Diets should be formulated on the most accurate basis possible Crude protein basis Lab analysis basis Exact AA need Amino acid basis Digestible AA basis Ideal protein/tissue accretion basis

12 Digestibility coefficients Digestibility coefficient is the experimentally determined % digestibility of an individual AA in a particular product such as meat meal Determined in several ways through feeding trials with roosters, chicks Feed known quantity of feed, collect feces, determine how much has been digested vs excreted

13 Steps to digestible formulation-1 Gather information Need total AA content of all feeds Need digestible content of all feeds Example) Meat meal: Lysine 3.00% total lysine with digestibility coefficient of 90% or Thus 3.00 x 0.90 = 2.70% digestible lysine Calculate or use book values for each ingredient and each AA

14 Steps to digestible formulation-2 Enter data into computer Depending on system, can add as a new nutrient or new ingredient (meatmeal-digest) Advantage of new ingredient = fewer mistakes Advantage of new nutrient = see both total and digestible AA Determine AA requirements to use and enter requirements

15 Back formulation to determine requirements Method of looking at currently fed levels of AA Take current diet and use computer to calculate digestible AA by forcing in the corn, soybean meal, meat meal, etc Example) If diet is 50% corn, 30% soy,10% meat meal, etc Ingredient side min-max 60% corn, 30% soy allows one to see the current digestible AA levels being fed Can then use these AA levels as nutrient constraints

16 Protein constraints May eliminate protein constraints Must know order of limitation Must use a constraint on one AA past what is available as pure source This constraint sets the protein level Example) If we have met, lys available we would need thr constraint Threonine constraint would set the level of protein as all other limiting AA levels would be met by the protein source

17 Broiler - Constraints Table 2: Minimum digestible AA requirements used in the formulations of Hi and Low diets. FEEDING PHASES Starter Grower Finisher Withdraw Digestible lysine, % Amino acids (%) Threonine Methionine TSAA Tryptophan Isoleucine Valine Arginine Minimum digestible AA requirements for the Hi and Low diets for each of the feeding phases.

18 Cobb 500 Table 3: Effects of different levels of CP on performance of commercial Cobb500 broilers FEEDING PHASES 0 TO 2 WEEKS 0 TO 4 WEEKS 0 TO 6 WEEKS Treatments FI BWG FDGN FI BWG FDGN FI BWG FDGN (g) (g) (g:g) (kg) (kg) (kg:kg) (kg) (kg) (kg:kg) Hi 468 a 334 a ,934 1,334 a c 4,051 2, Hi-0.5% 467 a 333 a ,919 1,309 ab cb 4,067 2, Hi-1.0% 467 a 325 ab ,934 1,317 a b 4,052 2, Low (Hi-1.5%) 446 b 311 b ,892 1,273 b a 4,001 2, SEM Probability

19 Ross 308 Table 5: Effects of different levels of CP on performance of Ross 308 broilers FEEDING PHASES 0 TO 2 WEEKS 0 TO 4 WEEKS 0 TO 6 WEEKS 0 TO 7 WEEKS FI BWG FDGN FI BWG FDGN FI BWG FDGN FI BWG FDGN Treatments (g) (g) (g:g) (kg) (kg) (kg:kg) (kg) (kg) (kg:kg) (kg) (kg) (kg:kg) Hi 413 a a a Hi-0.5% 439 ab b ab Hi-1.0% 451 b b ab Low (Hi-1.5%) 419 a a b SEM Probability Anova Linear Quadratic

20 Table 3. Predicted Requirements for Lysine, SAA, and Threonine at 8 Growth Periods Period Dig Lys Dig SAA Dig Thr Day % of diet % of diet % of diet 0 to to to to to to to to *Data from Emmert, University of Arkansas

21 Current minimum Amino Acid Recommended in Diet Formulation (% of diet, digestible basis, toms) Age (wks) Lysine Meth+Cys Threonine Valine 0.97* 0.94* * Isoleucine * 0.75* 0.65* 0.54* 0.46* 0.38 *Protein level set by this AA

22 Body weight gain and feed efficiency from 3 to 21 weeks of age (Trial 2). Gain (kg) Trt SE P value >.05 >.05 >.05 >.05 >.05 >.05 >.05 Different letters indicate significantly different means

23 Body weight gain and feed efficiency from 3 to 21 weeks of age (Trial 2). FE (kg:kg) Trt SE P value >.05 >.05 >.05 >.05 >.05 >.05 >.05 Different letters indicate significantly different means

24 Feed cost comparison between diets fed (Prices per US ton) Time period fed (wks) Treatment Agristats Ideal diet Ideal +5% Ideal +10%

25 Layers Not as well developed Lower cost rations so less emphasis? Still lots of variation on lysine requirement Age, strain, intake Breeder recommendations?

26 From Bregendahl and Roberts Layers

27 Types of fat Available for Use in Rations Tallow: saturated source, used for soap manufacture traditionally Poultry fat: less saturated, probably source of choice for poultry, but frequently less available Fish oil: less saturated, other purported benefits, very expensive Vegetable oils: soy oil, etc, generally good source, expensive Yellow grease: generally cost effective if available, generally comparable to soyoil

28 Understanding energy use Maintenance energy Energy for production +/- Changes in energy

29 Summary Variety of products available for cost effective formulation Making the switch is worth the time due to cost savings which can be substantial Relatively complicated if new to this, may need some help initially Use of Animal By-products makes sense in many situations

30 Questions?

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