EXCEL FEED FORMULATION AND FEEDING MODELS. F.B. Onwurah

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1 EXCEL FEED FORMULATION AND FEEDING MODELS F.B. Onwurah Federal College of Education (Technical),Omoku, Rivers State, Nigeria. Abstract A feed formulation model has been developed using Microsoft excel package. This excel assisted feed formulation model has been developed by use of simple arithmetics. It is user-friendly and does not require complex or repeated calculations at different levels, or when feed ingredients are changed. It only requires the cueing-in of ingredients and their required quantities. This, on a click shows the new protein and energy levels. It therefore implies that, one keeps adjusting the nutrient quantities until the required protein and energy levels are met. A feed management model is also been developed. The model gives an extimate of feed requirements of birds at variuos ages. It extimates toatal feed and cost of feed required, thus a least cost approach as it saves cost from feed wastage. These Microsoft excel asssisted packages are intended for presentation and criticisms for a possible software development. Key words: Excel Assisted, Feed Formulation,Feed Management, User-Friendly, Ingredients, Protein and Energy Levels. INTRODUCTION Feed formulation and feed management have been major concerns to poultry nutritionists all over the world. These have resulted in the production of feed formulation feed management softwares available for purchase and download from the internet. The available methods of feed formulation such as Pearson s square, modified Pearson s square, substitution methods and various computer models of least cost formulation Stochastic, Linear and Stochilinear programming models have serious limitations. Pearson s square which is the simplest accommodates only two ingredients, which made room for modified Pearson s square. These allow for different calculations at every level when feed ingredients are changed. The other methods are much more sophiscated in feed formulation. These excel - assisted models are much more easy to use and do not require calculations at every step or when ingredients are changed, but that ingredients be cued-in only, and adjusted until the required protein and energy levels are met, and that required information are also cued-in for the required feed intake. This allows for prudence in the management of feed which attracts between 70 and 80% of the total production cost. It is very much user-friendly and requires only simple arithematics. These models are intended for practical livestock farmers and teachers and students of animal production and management in tetiary institutions. Table 1: Feed Formulation NUTRIENTS INCLUSION % CP % CONT. ENERGY % CONT. Co-Published By: Human Resource Management Academic Research Society 192

2 Guinea corn meal Cashew seed meal Bread fruit seed meal Maize bran Rice polishing Rice Sesame seed meal Sunflower seed meal Ipil ipil Kidney beans Chick peas Potatoes Mollasses Millet Wheat Sorghum Cotton seed meal Poultry dropping Jackbean meal Feather meal Maize cob Citrus pulp Cane mollases Cassava leaf meal Cassava peel meal Cassava tuber Rice bran Blood meal Palm kernel cake Brewer's grain Palm oil Maize Soybean Groundnut Fishmeal Wheat bran Bone meal Premix 0 0 Salt Co-Published By: Human Resource Management Academic Research Society 193

3 TABLE 2: ILLUSTRATION Maize Soybean Groundnut Fishmeal Wheat bran Bone meal 3 Premix 1.5 Salt FORMULAR CHECK PEARSON'S SQUARE CALCULATION 20.4/34 *100 = 60% MAIZE 100% 13.6/34 * 100 = 40% SOYBEAN TABLE 3: FEED CONSUMPTION FEED INTAKE FOR POULTRY NO OF BIRDS TO o C D. WT. GAIN(g) AV. LV. WT. Kcal GRTH /D SUST ENANCE F. EN TDER (g) F.I./ DAY(Kg) F.I./W (Kg) WEEK WEEK WEEK 3 WEEK 4 WEEK #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV Co-Published By: Human Resource Management Academic Research Society 194

4 WEEK #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV WEEK #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV WEEK #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV WEEK #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV WEEK #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV WEEK #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV WEEK #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV FEED INTAKE FOR LAYERS NO BIRDS OF TEMPERATURE D. WT. GAIN(g) AV. WT. LV. AV.EGG WT. LAYING RATE Kcal - GROWTH/D K L WEEK % WEEK 24 WEEK 25 WEEK 26 WEEK 27 WEEK 28 WEEK 29 WEEK 30 WEEK 31 WEEK 32 WEEK 33 WEEK 34 Co-Published By: Human Resource Management Academic Research Society 195

5 LIVESTOCK FEED PRODUCTION AND FEEDING MODELS Farmers are often gifted technical innovators. The technology they develop is very useful because it uses low-cost resources available on local farms. However, knowledge of these innovations is often restricted to a small area. Although many valuable items of technology have been developed by research institutions, they are often too expensive for small-scale farmers to be able to adopt them. Labour-saving farming methods based on low-cost inputs which are locally available are often more suitable for small farms than the technology developed on research stations, and can make an important contribution to the sustainability of small farms in the region (FFTC,2007).Livestock feed formulation models such as feeding trials and the Pearson s square are the simplest, but have the problem of long periods of trials and having only two ingredients accommodation. The other methods are more relaible as they accommodate more than two ingredients. Ration (or feed) formulation does not merely involve mathematical calculations to meet the requirement of the birds, since the result of the calculation may turn out to be impractical and not ideal for feeding of poultry. An experienced Poultry nutritionist, therefore, needs to evaluate the feed formulation before it can be given to the birds. Factors to be considered in making good feed are: 1. Acceptability to the birds. The ration being formulated has to be palatable enough to stimulate intake by the birds. Feed refused by the birds is worthless, since feed has to be consumed and utilized. 2. Digestibility of the feed. The nutrients in the feed have to be digested and released into the gastrointestinal tract to be utilized by the birds. Rations with high fiber content cannot be tolerated. 3. Cost of feed ingredients. The requirement of the birds can be met through several combinations of feed ingredients. However, when the cost of these ingredients are considered, there can only be one least-cost formulation. The least-cost ration should ensure that the requirements of the birds are met. 4. Presence of anti-nutritional factors and toxins. The presence of anti-nutritional factors in the feed, such as anti-trypsin factor in soybean meal, affects the digestion of some nutrients by making them unavailable to the animal. Some feed ingredients may also contain toxic substances, which may be detrimental to the animal when given in excessive amounts. The inclusion of these feed Co-Published By: Human Resource Management Academic Research Society 196

6 ingredients should therefore be limited or eliminated from the formulation. There are several methods in formulating rations. All of them have the same objectives of providing the required balanced nutrients at the least possible cost. 1. Trial-and-error Method. This is the most popular method of formulating rations for poultry. As the name implies, the formulation is manipulated until the nutrient requirements of the birds are met. This method makes possible the formulation of a ration that meets all the nutrient requirements. 2. Linear Programming (LP). This is a method of determining the least-cost combination of ingredients using a series of mathematical equations. There are many possible solutions to each series of equations, but when the factor of cost is applied, there can only be one least cost combination. An electronic computer is capable of making thousands of calculations in a very short time. However, the machine is incapable of correcting errors resulting from incorrect data and errors in setting up of the program. Therefore, the resultant rations obtained from linear programming will be no better than the information and values which are entered into the programming. Before using the LP approach to ration formulation, the user should be familiar with the LP program or software package to be used. Numerous companies market computer software for feed formulation. The software varies from very simple and straight-forward to very complex packages intended for large feed manufacturers. Examples of these softwares are Winfeed stochastic and linear programming feed formulation (Mirza, 2004). Others include Myfeed and Autofeed.These approach requires: 1. Available feed ingredients. It is necessary that all the available ingredients are listed along with the unit cost, as long as the number does not exceed some practical figure. 2. Nutrient composition of feed ingredients. Tables of feed composition using average or typical values may be used but chemical analysis of a representative sample should be used if available. 3. Ration specifications. This generally represents the nutrient requirements and ingredient limits. In each case, the formulator specifies either a lower limit and/or an upper limit for each item. 4. Information production. After providing all the necessary information, the computer produces formular that will meet the desired specifications at the lowest possible cost. However, the formula should be feasible, both from a mathematical standpoint and from a nutritional standpoint (Shouq, 2008). Many intensive livestock industries have since developed simulation models that can provide optimum nutrient levels based on individual production conditions. Affordable computing technology has also introduced concepts such as "least cost", "total amino acid" and even "profit maximisation". Other popular concepts include digestible formulation, precision feeding, ideal proteins and modelling, all of which have been adapted to some extent in livestock sectors worldwide (Shapiro, 2008). Excel Feed Formulation and Feeding Models These models as developed requires: 1. Feed ingredints, their protein and energy contributions Co-Published By: Human Resource Management Academic Research Society 197

7 2. Manipulations of these ingredients which changes the protein and nergy levels as you click (Table 1). The ingreient levels is the only thing the formulator should vary to get the protein/energy lvels required. 3. Feed consumption model requires the formulator to input: a. Number of birds housed b. The environmental temperature c. Daily/weekly weight gains, and d. Feed energy level e. Then, a click will give you the quantity of feed to be fed per day/week This excel assisted model has been developed to suite our environment and elsewhere as the ingredients are drawn locally and from elsewhere. This allows for fleasibility in the use of ingredients. It also allows any person that has access to a computer with excel package to formulate his feed without additional cost. The cost of feed is also reduced as feed wastage can be avoided. The farmers knows from this model what quantity of feed is required by the birds. REFERENCES Shouq, K.M., (2008). Least cost feed formulation for Poultry.Veterinary News and Views, Pakistan. Food and Fertilizer Technology Centre (2007). Low cost technologies developed by Asian farmers. Mirza, Y.B., (2004) Winfeed 2.8. Winfeed (UK) LTD., Cambridge. Shapiro, L.S., Feed formulation ingredients for change. Livestock farm e-book. Co-Published By: Human Resource Management Academic Research Society 198

8 Co-Published By: Human Resource Management Academic Research Society 199

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