Immune System A&P II

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1 Immune System A&P II

2 Lymphatic Outline Lymphatic System Defense Systems Innate Immune System Adaptive Defense System Immunodeficiencies Immune Responses

3 Lymphatic System: Overview Figure 21.1a, b

4 Lymphatic Capillaries & Transport Absorbtive role during inflammation Lymph nodes The lymphatic system lacks an organ that acts as a pump Uses the some of the same methods as veins to propel lymph

5 Lymphocytes T cells and B cells protect the body against antigens Antigen anything the body perceives as foreign T cells B cells

6 Other Lymphoid Cells Macrophages Dendritic cells Reticular cells

7 Lymph Node

8 Other Lymphoid Organs

9 Spleen

10 Thymus

11 Tonsils

12 Immune System Outline Innate Immunity Cells & Chemicals Phagocytosis Inflammation Adaptive Immunity Humoral Immunity Cells Humoral Response Antibodies Memory Cell-Mediated Immunity Antigen Recognition MHC Proteins T-Cells Cytokines Organ Transplants Immunodeficiency's Autoimmune Conditions

13 Immunity: Two Intrinsic Defense Systems Innate Immune System Non-specific Immune System Adaptive defense system Specific Immunity

14 Innate Immunity Skin, mucous membranes, and their secretions make up the first line of defense Keratin Epithelial Membranes

15 Innate Immunity: Cells and Chemicals Specific Cell Types

16 Mechanism of Phagocytosis

17 Specific Cell Types Innate Immunity: Cells and Chemicals

18 Specific Cell Types Innate Immunity: Cells and Chemicals Inflammation

19 Inflammatory Response The inflammatory response is triggered whenever body tissues are injured Stages Vasodilation and Increased Vessel Permeability Phagocyte Immigration Tissue Repair The four cardinal signs of acute inflammation are redness, heat, swelling, and pain

20 Inflammatory Response: Vasodilation & Edema Begins with a flood of inflammatory chemicals released into the extracellular fluid Toll-like receptors (TLRs) Inflammatory mediators Include histamine, kinins, prostaglandins (PGs), complement, and cytokines Edema

21 Inflammatory Response: Phagocytic Mobilization Four Phases: Leukocytosis Margination Diapedesis Chemotaxis

22

23 Abscess & Pus If infection is severe develop pus Sac of pus can be walled off forming an abscess Infectious granulomas can form

24 Antimicrobial Proteins Enhance the innate defenses by: Two important antimicrobial proteins are: Interferon Complement proteins

25 Interferon (IFN) Genes that synthesize IFN are activated when a host cell is invaded by a virus Interferon molecules leave the infected cell and enter neighboring cells IFN stimumulates the neighboring cells to produce antiviral proteins

26 Complement 20 or so proteins that circulate in the blood in an inactive form Provides a major mechanism for destroying foreign substances in the body Amplifies all aspects of the inflammatory response Enhances the effectiveness of both nonspecific and specific defenses

27 Fever Abnormally high body temperature in response to invading microorganisms The body s thermostat is reset upwards in response to pyrogens High fevers are dangerous as they can denature enzymes Moderate fever can be beneficial

28 Specific (Adaptive) Defenses Bodies built in defense system Must be primed by an initial exposure to an antigen The adaptive immune system is a functional system that: Recognizes specific foreign substances Is systemic Has memory

29 Adaptive Immunity: Summary Two-fisted defensive system that uses lymphocytes, APCs, and specific molecules to identify and destroy nonself particles Its response depends upon the ability of its cells to: Recognize foreign substances by binding to them Communicate with one another so that the whole system mounts a response specific to those antigens

30 Specific Immune Defenses It has two separate but overlapping arms Humoral, or antibody-mediated immunity Provided by antibodies that circulate freely Cellular, or cell-mediated immunity Protective factor is lymphocytes Targets are cellular Helper & Direct Killing

31 Antigens (Ags) Substances that can mobilize the immune system and provoke an immune response The ultimate targets of all immune responses are mostly large, complex molecules not normally found in the body Important functional properties: Complete antigens Haptens

32 Self-Antigens: MHC Proteins Our cells are dotted with protein molecules that are not antigenic to us but are strongly antigenic to others One type of these, major histocompatability complex (MHC) proteins, mark a cell as self Two classes of MHC proteins

33 Cells of the Specific Immune System Two types of lymphocytes B lymphocytes T lymphocytes Cytotoxic T-cells Helper T-cells Antigen-presenting cells (APCs): Do not respond to specific antigens

34 Immunocompetent B or T cells

35 Immunocompetent B or T cells Figure 22.8

36 Lymphocytes Figure 22.7

37 Antigen-Presenting Cells (APCs) Major rolls in immunity are: To engulf foreign particles To present fragment of antigens on their own surfaces, to be recognized by T cells Major APCs Macrophages Dendritic cells Langehrans cells Activated B cells

38 Humoral Immunity Response Antigen challenge If the lymphocyte is a B cell: The challenging antigen provokes a humoral immune response

39 Clonal Selection Figure 22.9

40 Figure 18.14

41 Antibodies (Ab)

42 Antibody Structure Figure 22.12

43 Classes of Antibodies IgD monomer attached to the surface of B cells, IgM pentamer released by plasma cells during the primary immune response IgG monomer that is the most abundant and diverse antibody in primary and secondary response IgA dimer that helps prevent attachment of pathogens to epithelial cell surfaces IgE monomer that binds to mast cells and basophils

44 Thought Question Why would you administer gamma globulin to patients suffering from specific diseases (ex. Hepatitis)?

45 Immunological Memory Figure 22.10

46 Acquired Immunity Figure 22.11

47 Thought Question Why is vaccine development for certain viral diseases, (dengue fever, HIV, Ebola) difficult? What was the first disease that a vaccine was developed for?

48 Mechanisms of Antibody Action Figure 22.13

49 Cell-Mediated Immune Response Two major populations of T cells mediate cellular immunity CD4 cells (T4cells) are primarily helper T cells (T H ) CD8 cells (T8cells) are cytotoxic T cells (T C ) that destroy cells harboring foreign antigens Other types of T cells are: Delayed hypersensitivity T cells (T DH ) Suppressor T cells (T S ) Memory T cells

50 Antigen Recognition

51 MHC Proteins Both types of MHC proteins are important to T cell activation Class I MHC proteins Always recognized by CD8 (cytotoxic) T-cells Display peptides from endogenous antigens

52 Class I MHC Proteins Figure 22.14a

53 Class II MHC Proteins Class II MHC proteins Exogenous Antigens

54 Class II MHC Proteins Figure 22.14b

55 Thought Question Why is it important to try to get a good MHC match prior to an organ transplantation?

56 T-cell Activation Antigen Binding Costimulation

57 Figure 18.18

58 Figure 18.18

59 Cytokines Chemical mediators that enhance the immune response Some are costimulators of T cells and T cell proliferation Interleukin 1 (IL-1) released by macrophages costimulates bound T cells to: Release interleukin 2 (IL-2) Synthesize more IL-2 receptors

60 T H Helper T-cells

61 Helper T Cells

62 Cytotoxic T Cells (T C ) T C cells, or killer T cells, are the only T cells that can directly attack and kill other cells They circulate throughout the body in search of body cells that display the antigen to which they have been sensitized

63 Mechanisms of T C Action In some cases, T C cells: Bind to the target cell and release perforin into its membrane Figure 22.17a

64 Mechanisms of T C Action Other T C cells induce cell death by: Secreting lymphotoxin Releasing tumor necrosis factor (TNF) Secreting gamma interferon

65 Summary Table

66 Autografts Organ Transplants Isografts Allografts ABO & blood group antigens must match MHC antigen match Xenografts

67 Immunodeficiencies Congenital and acquired conditions in which the function or production of immune cells, phagocytes, or complement is abnormal SCID severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndromes; genetic defects that produce: SCID is fatal if untreated; treatment is with bone marrow transplants

68

69 Acquired Immunodeficiencies Hodgkin s disease cancer of the lymph nodes leads to immunodeficiency by depressing lymph node cells AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

70 Thought Questions Which cells does AIDS target that causes individuals to become susceptible to opportunistic infections? Is there another disease that caused the body to become susceptible to opportunistic infections?

71

72

73

74

75 Autoimmune Diseases Loss of the immune system s ability to distinguish self from nonself Examples include Multiple sclerosis, Myasthenia gravis Graves disease Type I (juvenile) diabetes mellitus Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) Glomerulonephritis Rheumatoid arthritis

76 Hypersensitivity Immune responses that cause tissue damage Immune complex-mediated allergies are immediate and subacute hypersensitivities

77 Immediate Hypersensitivity Reactions include runny nose, itching reddened skin, and watery eyes Antihistamines counteract these effects

78 Immediate Hypersensitivity Systemic Response: Anaphylactic Shock Response to allergen that directly enters the blood (e.g., insect bite, injection) Systemic histamine releases may result in: Constriction of bronchioles Sudden vasodilation and fluid loss from the bloodstream Hypotensive shock and death

79 Immune-Complex Hypersensitivity Immune complex hypersensitivity Antigens are widely distributed through the body or blood Insoluble antigen-antibody complexes form Intense inflammation, local cell lysis, and death may result

80 Onset is slow (1 3 days) Delayed Hypersensitivities Mediated by mechanisms involving delayed hypersensitivity T cells (T DH cells) and cytotoxic T cells (T C cells) Cytokines from activated T C are the mediators of the inflammatory response

81

82 Immune System Outline Innate Immunity Cells & Chemicals Phagocytosis Inflammation Adaptive Immunity Humoral Immunity Cells Humoral Response Antibodies Memory Cell-Mediated Immunity Antigen Recognition MHC Proteins T-Cells Cytokines Organ Transplants Immunodeficiency's Autoimmune Conditions

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