# Dynamic Programming. Applies when the following Principle of Optimality

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1 Dynamic Programming Applies when the following Principle of Optimality holds: In an optimal sequence of decisions or choices, each subsequence must be optimal. Translation: There s a recursive solution. Steps in designing a dynamic programming algorithm: 1. Characterize the solution structure. 2. Recursively define the solution. 3. Solve sub-problems in bottom-up fashion. 4. Construct final solution from sub-problem solutions. Subproblem results usually are stored in an array January 2000

2 Examples of Dynamic Programming Fibonacci Numbers F (n) = F (n 1) + F (n 2) F (0) = F (1) = 1 Binomial Coefficients ( ) ( ) ( ) n k = n 1 k 1 + n 1 k ( ) ( ) n 0 = n n = January 2000

3 Dynamic Programming The Subset-Sum problem is the following: Input: An array A[1... n] of positive integers, and a target integer T > 0. Output: True iff there is a subset of the A values that sums to T. If so, would also like to know what the subset is. Can solve as follows: Let S[i, j] be defined as true iff there is a subset of elements A[1... i] that sums to j. Then S[n, T ] is the solution to our problem. In general: S[i, j] = S[i 1, j A[i]] S[i 1, j] Initial conditions are S[i, 0] = True, and S[0, j] = False, for j > January 2000

4 Subset-Sum Problem Translating to C/C++ code, looks like: for (i = 0; i <= n; i ++) S [i] [0] = TRUE; for (j = 1; j <= T; j ++) S [0] [j] = FALSE; for (i = 1; i <= n; i ++) for (j = 1; j <= T; j ++) S [i] [j] = S [i - 1] [j] (A [i] <= j && S [i - 1] [j - A [i]]); Time complexity is Θ(nT ). Can find the actual values by stepping back through the array as follows: j = T; for (i = n; i >= 1; i --) if (! S [i - 1] [j]) printf ("Use item %d = %d\n", i, A [i]); j -= A [i]; } 4 26 January 2000

5 All-Pairs Shortest Paths Let D[i, j, k] be the shortest distance from vertex i to vertex j without passing through a vertex numbered higher than k. Floyd-Warshall Algorithm: Set D[i, j, 0] to the adjacency matrix of G. for (k = 1 to n) for (i = 1 to n) for (j = 1 to n) D[i, j, k] = min D[i, j, k 1], D[i, k, k 1] + D[k, j, k 1] Time complexity is Θ(n 3 ). The third subscript of D can be ignored January 2000

6 Knapsack Problem The Knapsack problem is the following: Input: An array S[1... n] of positive integers, an array V [1... n] of positive integers, and an integer K > 0. Output: The maximum sum of a subset of V [i] s subject to the constraint that the sum of the corresponding S[i] s is not larger than K. Would also like to know what elements are in the subset. Can solve in a similar manner to the Subset- Sum problem: Let A[i, j] be defined as the maximum sum of a subset of elements V [1... i] whose corresponding S[i] s sum to exactly j. Then maxa[n, j] 1 j K} is the solution to our problem. In general: A[i, j] = 6 26 January 2000

7 Knapsack Problem Initial conditions? Code? Time complexity? What happens if we allow each object to be used more than once? I.e., we wish to maximize c 1 V [1] + c 2 V [2] + + c n V [n] where each c i is a non-negative integer, subject to the constraint that c 1 S[1] + c 2 S[2] + + c n S[n] K 7 26 January 2000

8 Matrix-Chain Multiplication Input: Dimensions d 0,..., d n of matrices M 1,..., M n to be multiplied, where M i is d i 1 d i. Output: Best way to parenthesize the product so as to minimize the cost of the multiplications, where the cost of multiplying a p q matrix times a q r matrix is pqr January 2000

9 Matrix-Chain Multiplication m[i, j] def = the minimum cost of multiplying matrices M i M j s[i, j] def = the last multiplication used to achieve m[i, j], In other words, s[i, j] = k iff the min-cost parenthesization of M i M j has the form (M i M k ) (M k+1 M j ). m[i, i] = 0 m[i, j] = min i k<j m[i, k] + m[k + 1, j] + d i 1 d k d j } s[i, j] = k that achieves the above min } 9 26 January 2000

10 Matrix-Chain Multiplication for (i = 1; i <= n; i ++) m [i] [i] = 0; for (d = 1; d < n; d ++) for (i = 1; i <= n - d; i ++) j = i + d; m [i, j] = m [i, i] + m [i + 1] [j] + d [i - 1] * d [i] * d [j]; s [i, j] = i; for (k = i + 1; k < j; k ++) Cost = m [i, k] + m [k + 1] [j] + d [i - 1] * d [k] * d [j]; if (Cost < m [i] [j]) m [i] [j] = Cost; s [i] [j] = k; } } } printf ("Min Cost = %d\n", m [1] [n]); Complexity is Θ(n 3 ) January 2000

11 Matrix-Chain Multiplication int Print_Expression (s, i, j) // Print the optimal parenthesization for // M [i]... M [j] based on the information // in s. int k = s [i] [j]; if (i == j) printf ("M%d", i); return 0; } if (k!= i) printf ("("); Print_Expression (s, i, k); if (k!= i) printf (")"); printf (" * "); if (k + 1!= j) printf ("("); Print_Expression (s, k + 1, j); if (k + 1!= j) printf (")"); return 0; } January 2000

12 Minimum Edit Distance Input: Two strings: s[1... m] and t[1... n]. Output: The minimum number of operations to transform s into t. An operation is: insert a character; delete a character; or substitute a character. c[i, j] def = the minimum cost to transform s[1... i] into t[1... j]. c[0, 0] = 0 c[i, j] = min c[i 1][j 1] if s[i] = t[j] 1 + c[i 1, j 1] otherwise (subst) 1 + c[i 1, j] (delete) 1 + c[i, j 1] (insert) January 2000

13 Minimum Edit Distance Example: Here is the c array for strings s = ababbab and t = babbbaaba t[j] s[i] b a b b b a a b a a b a b b a b January 2000

14 Minimum Edit Distance The code looks like this: for (i = 0; i <= m; i ++) c [i] [0] = i; for (j = 1; j <= n; j ++) c [0] [j] = j; for (i = 1; i <= m; i ++) for (j = 1; j <= n; j ++) Best = c [i - 1] [j - 1]; if (s [i]!= t [j]) Best ++; if (1 + c [i - 1] [j] < Best) if Best = 1 + c [i - 1] [j]; (1 + c [i] [j - 1] < Best) Best = 1 + c [i] [j - 1]; c [i] [j] = Best; } Can get the minimum sequence of edit operations by tracing back through the c array January 2000

15 Travelling Salesperson Problem Input: A complete directed graph G = (V, E) with non-negative edge weights. Output: A directed cycle with the smallest possible sum of edge weights that passes through all vertices of G. For u V, S V, u, v 1 S, define D(u, S) to be the minimum-weight path starting at vertex u, passing through each vertex in S and ending at vertex v 1. The solution to the entire problem is then D(v 1, V \ v 1 }). Let w u,v denote the weight of edge u v. Then in general we have D(u, S) = min v S w u,v + D(v, S \ u})} D(u, ) = w u,v January 2000

16 Other Dynamic Programming Problems Longest Common Subsequence Given two sequences S = s 1, s 2,..., s m and T = t 1, t 2,..., t n, find the longest sequence that is a subsequence of both. Longest Ascending Subsequence Given a sequences S = s 1, s 2,..., s n of numbers, find the longest subsequence of it in which every number is at least as great as its predecessor. Bitonic Travelling Salesperson Given a set of points in the plane, find the minimum-distance cycle that hits every point and has the property that, if we start at the leftmost point, the cycle goes strictly to the right until it hits the rightmost point, and then it goes strictly to the left back to the leftmost point January 2000

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