# Cpt S 223. School of EECS, WSU

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1 The Shortest Path Problem 1

2 Shortest-Path Algorithms Find the shortest path from point A to point B Shortest in time, distance, cost, Numerous applications Map navigation Flight itineraries Circuit wiring Network routing 2

3 Shortest Path Problems Weighted graphs: Input is a weighted graph where each edge (v i,v j ) has cost c i,j to traverse the edge N 1 c i Cost of a path v 1 v 2 v N is, i 1 i 1 Goal: to find a smallest cost path Unweighted graphs: Input is an unweighted graph i.e., all edges are of equal weight Goal: to find a path Cpt S 223. with School smallest of EECS, WSUnumber of hops 3

4 Shortest Path Problems Single-source shortest path problem Given a weighted graph G=(V,E), and a source vertex s, find the minimum weighted path from s to every other vertex in G Some algorithms: Weighted: Dijkstra s algo s: source Unweighted: Simple BFS 4

5 Point to Point SP problem Given G(V,E) and two vertices A and B, find a shortest path from A (source) to B (destination). Solution: 1) Run the code for Single Source Shortest Path using source as A. 2) Stop algorithm when B is reached. 5

6 All Pairs Shortest Path Problem Given G(V,E), find a shortest path between all pairs of vertices. Solutions: (brute-force) Solve Single Source Shortest Path for each vertex as source There are more efficient ways of solving this problem (e.g., Floyd-Warshall algo). 6

7 Negative Weights Graphs can have negative weights E.g., arbitrage Shortest positive-weight path is a net gain Path may include individual losses Problem: Negative weight cycles Allow arbitrarily-low low path costs Solution Detect presence of negative-weight g cycles 7

8 Unweighted Shortest Paths No weights on edges Find shortest length paths Same as weighted shortest path with all weights equal Breadth-first search 1 2 O( E + V ) source

9 Unweighted Shortest Paths For each vertex, keep track of Whether we have visited it (known) Its distance from the start vertex (d v ) Its predecessor vertex along the shortest path from the start vertex (p v ) 9

10 Unweighted Shortest Paths Solution 1: Repeatedly iterate through vertices, looking for unvisited vertices at current distance from start vertex s. Running time: O( V 2 ) 10

11 Unweighted Shortest Paths Solution: Ignore vertices that have already been visited by keeping only unvisited vertices (distance = ) on the queue. Running time: O( E + V ) source Queue: v 3 v 1, v 6 v 2, v 4 v 7, v 5 11

12 Unweighted Shortest Paths 12

13 Weighted Shortest Paths Dijkstra s algorithm GREEDY strategy: Always pick the next closest vertex to the source Use priority queue to store unvisited vertices by distance from s After deletemin v, update distances of remaining vertices adjacent to v using decreasekey Does not work with negative weights 13

14 Dijkstra s Algorithm 14

15 source Dijkstra 15

16 BuildHeap: O( V ) DeleteMin: O( V log V ) DecreaseKey: O( E log V ) Total running time: O( E log V ) 16

17 Why Dijkstra Works 100 A D Hypothesis This is called the Optimal Substructure property Aleast-cost path from X to Y contains least-cost paths from X to every city on the path to Y E.g., if X C1 C2 C3 Y is the least-cost path from X to Y, then B C 10 X C1 C2 C3 is the least-cost path from X to C3 X C1 C2 is the least-cost path from X to C2 X C1 is the least-cost path from X to C1 17

18 Why Dijkstra Works PROOF BY CONTRADICTION: Assume hypothesis is false I.e., Given a least-cost path P from X to Y that goes through C, there is a better path P from X to C than the one in P Show a contradiction adcto But we could replace the subpath from X to C in P with this lesser-cost path P The path cost from C to Y is the same Thus we now have a better path from X to Y But this violates the assumption that P is the least-cost path from X to Y Therefore, the original hypothesis must be true X P C Y 18

19 Printing Shortest Paths 19

20 What about graphs with negative edges? Will the O( E log V ) Dijkstra s algorithm work as is? deletemin Updates to dist source 3 v 2 v V 1 V 2.dist = 3 V 2 V 4.dist = 4, V 3.dist = 5 V 4 No change V No change and so v dist will remain 4. V 3 No change and so v 4. dist will v 4 v Solution: Do not mark any vertex as known. Instead allow multiple updates. Correct answer: v 4.dist should be updated to -5 20

21 Negative Edge Costs Running time: O( E V ) source v v 2 2 v4-10 v 3 Queue V 1 V 2 V 4, V 3 V 3 V 4 Dequeue V 1 V 2 V 4 V 3 V 4 Updates to dist V 2.dist = 3 V 4.dist = 4, V 3.dist = 5 No updates V 4.dist = -5 No updates 21

22 Negative Edge Costs Running time: O( E V ) Negative weight cycles? 22

23 Shortest Path Problems Unweighted shortest-path problem: O( E + V ) Weighted shortest-path problem No negative edges: O( E log V ) Negative edges: O( E V ) Acyclic graphs: O( E + V ) No asymptotically faster algorithm for singlesource/single-destination shortest path problem 23

24 Course Evaluation Site in now Open! 92ad-cbc26bde3b53.srv 24

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