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1 CSCE 310J Data Structures & Algorithms P, NP, and NP-Complete Dr. Steve Goddard CSCE 310J Data Structures & Algorithms Giving credit where credit is due:» Most of the lecture notes are based on slides created by Dr. Cusack and Dr. Leubke.» I have modified them and added new slides Tractability Some problems are intractable: as they grow large, we are unable to solve them in reasonable time What constitutes reasonable time? Standard working definition: polynomial time» On an input of size n the worst-case running time is O(n k ) for some constant k» Polynomial time: O(n 2 ), O(n 3 ), O(1), O(n lg n)» Not in polynomial time: O(2 n ), O(n n ), O(n!) Polynomial-Time Algorithms Are some problems solvable in polynomial time?» Of course: every algorithm we ve studied provides polynomial-time solution to some problem Are all problems solvable in polynomial time?» No: Turing s Halting Problem is not solvable by any computer, no matter how much time is given Most problems that do not yield polynomial-time algorithms are either optimization or decision problems. 3 4 Optimization/Decision Problems Optimization Problems:» An optimization problem is one which asks, What is the optimal solution to problem X?» Examples: 0-1 Knapsack Fractional Knapsack Minimum Spanning Tree Decision Problems» An decision problem is one which asks, Is there a solution to problem X with property Y?» Examples: Does a graph G have a MST of weight W? Optimization/Decision Problems An optimization problem tries to find an optimal solution A decision problem tries to answer a yes/no question Many problems will have decision and optimization versions.» Eg: Traveling salesman problem optimization: find hamiltonian cycle of minimum weight decision: find hamiltonian cycle of weight < k Some problems are decidable, but intractable: as they grow large, we are unable to solve them in reasonable time» What constitutes reasonable time?» Is there a polynomial-time algorithm that solves the problem? 5 6 Page 1

2 The Class P P: the class of decision problems that have polynomial-time deterministic algorithms.» That is, they are solvable in O(p(n)), where p(n) is a polynomial on n» A deterministic algorithm is (essentially) one that always computes the correct answer Sample Problems in P Fractional Knapsack MST Single-source shortest path Sorting Others? Why polynomial?» if not, very inefficient» nice closure properties» machine independent in a strong sense 7 8 The class NP NP: the class of decision problems that are solvable in polynomial time on a nondeterministic machine (or with a non-deterministic algorithm) (A determinstic computer is what we know) A nondeterministic computer is one that can guess the right answer or solution» Think of a nondeterministic computer as a parallel machine that can freely spawn an infinite number of processes Thus NP can also be thought of as the class of problems» whose solutions can be verified in polynomial time; or» that can be solved in polynomial time on a machine that can pursue infinitely many paths of the computation in parallel Note that NP stands for Nondeterministic Polynomialtime Nondeterminism Think of a non-deterministic computer as a computer that magically guesses a solution, then has to verify that it is correct» If a solution exists, computer always guesses it» One way to imagine it: a parallel computer that can freely spawn an infinite number of processes Have one processor work on each possible solution All processors attempt to verify that their solution works If a processor finds it has a working solution»so: NP = problems verifiable in polynomial time 9 10 Sample Problems in NP Fractional Knapsack MST Single-source shortest path Sorting Others?» Hamiltonian Cycle (Traveling Sales Person)» Satisfiability (SAT)» Conjunctive Normal Form (CNF) SAT»3-CNF SAT Hamiltonian Cycle A hamiltonian cycle of an undirected graph is a simple cycle that contains every vertex The hamiltonian-cycle problem: given a graph G, does it have a hamiltonian cycle? Describe a naïve algorithm for solving the hamiltonian-cycle problem. Running time? The hamiltonian-cycle problem is in NP:» No known deterministic polynomial time algorithm» Easy to verify solution in polynomial time (How?) Page 2

3 The Satisfiability (SAT) Problem Satisfiability (SAT):» Given a Boolean expression on n variables, can we assign values such that the expression is TRUE?»Ex: ((x 1 x 2 ) (( x 1 x 3 ) x 4 )) x 2» Seems simple enough, but no known deterministic polynomial time algorithm exists» Easy to verify in polynomial time! Conjunctive Normal Form (CNF) and 3-CNF Even if the form of the Boolean expression is simplified, no known polynomial time algorithm exists» Literal: an occurrence of a Boolean or its negation» A Boolean formula is in conjunctive normal form, or CNF, if it is an AND of clauses, each of which is an OR of literals Ex: (x 1 x 2 ) ( x 1 x 3 x 4 ) ( x 5 )» 3-CNF: each clause has exactly 3 distinct literals Ex: (x 1 x 2 x 3 ) ( x 1 x 3 x 4 ) ( x 5 x 3 x 4 ) Notice: true if at least one literal in each clause is true Example: CNF satisfiability This problem is in NP. Nondeterministic algorithm:» Guess truth assignment» Check assignment to see if it satisfies CNF formula Example: (A B C ) ( A B) ( B D F ) (F D) Truth assignments: A B C D E F (how many more?) Checking phase: Θ(n) Review: P And NP Summary P = set of problems that can be solved in polynomial time» Examples: Fractional Knapsack, NP = set of problems for which a solution can be verified in polynomial time» Examples: Fractional Knapsack,, Hamiltonian Cycle, CNF SAT, 3-CNF SAT Clearly P NP Open question: Does P = NP?» Most suspect not NP-complete problems A decision problem D is NP-complete iff 1. D NP 2. every problem in NP is polynomial-time reducible to D Cook s theorem (1971): CNF-sat is NP-complete Other NP-complete problems obtained through polynomial-time reductions of known NPcomplete problems Review: Reduction A problem P can be reduced to another problem Q if any instance of P can be rephrased to an instance of Q, the solution to which provides a solution to the instance of P» This rephrasing is called a transformation Intuitively: If P reduces in polynomial time to Q, P is no harder to solve than Q Page 3

4 NP-Hard and NP-Complete If P is polynomial-time reducible to Q, we denote this P p Q Definition of NP-Hard and NP-Complete:» If all problems R NP are reducible to P, then P is NP- Hard»We say P is NP-Complete if P is NP-Hard and P NP If P p Q and P is NP-Complete, Q is also NP-Complete Proving NP-Completeness What steps do we have to take to prove a problem Q is NP-Complete?» Pick a known NP-Complete problem P» Reduce P to Q Describe a transformation that maps instances of P to instances of Q, s.t. yes for Q = yes for P Prove the transformation works Prove it runs in polynomial time» Oh yeah, prove Q NP (What if you can t?) Directed Hamiltonian Cycle Undirected Hamiltonian Cycle Directed Hamiltonian Cycle Undirected Hamiltonian Cycle What was the hamiltonian cycle problem again? For my next trick, I will reduce the directed hamiltonian cycle problem to the undirected hamiltonian cycle problem before your eyes» Which variant am I proving NP-Complete? Given a directed graph G,» What transformation do I need to effect? x u y v x 1 x 2 x 3 y 1 y 2 y 3 v 1 v 2 u 1 u 2 u 3 v Transformation: Directed Undirected Ham. Cycle Transform graph G = (V, E) into G = (V, E ):» Every vertex v in V transforms into 3 vertices v 1, v 2, v 3 in V with edges (v 1,v 2 ) and (v 2,v 3 ) in E» Every directed edge (v, w) in E transforms into the undirected edge (v 3, w 1 ) in E (draw it)» Can this be implemented in polynomial time?» Argue that a directed hamiltonian cycle in G implies an undirected hamiltonian cycle in G» Argue that an undirected hamiltonian cycle in G implies a directed hamiltonian cycle in G Undirected Hamiltonian Cycle Thus we can reduce the directed problem to the undirected problem What s left to prove the undirected hamiltonian cycle problem NP-Complete? Argue that the problem is in NP Page 4

5 Hamiltonian Cycle TSP The well-known traveling salesman problem:» Optimization variant: a salesman must travel to n cities, visiting each city exactly once and finishing where he begins. How to minimize travel time?» Model as complete graph with cost c(i,j) to go from city i to city j How would we turn this into a decision problem?» A: ask if a TSP with cost < k Hamiltonian Cycle TSP The steps to prove TSP is NP-Complete:» Prove that TSP NP (Argue this)» Reduce the undirected hamiltonian cycle problem to the TSP So if we had a TSP-solver, we could use it to solve the hamilitonian cycle problem in polynomial time How can we transform an instance of the hamiltonian cycle problem to an instance of the TSP? Can we do this in polynomial time? The TSP Random asides:» TSPs (and variants) have enormous practical importance E.g., for shipping and freighting companies Lots of research into good approximation algorithms» Recently made famous as a DNA computing problem Review: P and NP What do we mean when we say a problem is in P?» A: A solution can be found in polynomial time What do we mean when we say a problem is in NP?» A: A solution can be verified in polynomial time What is the relation between P and NP?»A: P NP, but no one knows whether P = NP Review: NP-Complete What, intuitively, does it mean if we can reduce problem P to problem Q?» P is no harder than Q How do we reduce P to Q?» Transform instances of P to instances of Q in polynomial time s.t. Q: yes iff P: yes What does it mean if Q is NP-Hard?» Every problem P NP p Q What does it mean if Q is NP-Complete?» Q is NP-Hard and Q NP Review: Proving Problems NP-Complete How do we usually prove that a problem R is NP-Complete?» A: Show R NP, and reduce a known NP-Complete problem Q to R Page 5

6 Other NP-Complete Problems K-clique» A clique is a subset of vertices fully connected to each other, i.e. a complete subgraph of G» The clique problem: how large is the maximum-size clique in a graph?» No turn this into a decision problem?» Is there a clique of size k? Subset-sum: Given a set of integers, does there exist a subset that adds up to some target T? 0-1 knapsack: when weights not just integers Hamiltonian path: Obvious Graph coloring: can a given graph be colored with k colors such that no adjacent vertices are the same color? Etc General Comments Literally hundreds of problems have been shown to be NP-Complete Some reductions are profound, some are comparatively easy, many are easy once the key insight is given Page 6

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