Why It MATTERS. Religious Freedom

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1 netw rks Mass. N.H. There s More Online! Mass. Boston N.Y. R.I. Conn. Pa. Philadelphia N GRAPHIC ORGANIZER ATL ANTIC O CE AN N.J. Md. E W New York Del. Va. S Jamestown The Colonial Economy N.C. 2 miles 2 km Albers Equal-Area projection S.C. MAP Ga. Charles Town Colonial Economy, c. 175 GRAPH Indentured Servants VIDEO Lesson 2 Settlement, Culture, and Government of the Colonies ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS How does geography influence the development of communities? Why do people create, structure, and change governments? It Matters Because The reasons early settlers came to America and the economies and governments that grew helped to shape the new United States and continue to influence American culture today. SS.7.C.1.1 Recognize how Enlightenment ideas including Montesquieu s view of separation of power and John Locke s theories related to natural law and how Locke s social contract influenced the Founding Fathers. SS.7.C.1.3 Describe how English policies and responses to colonial concerns led to the writing of the Declaration of Independence. LA The student will use new vocabulary that is introduced and taught directly. LA The student will determine the main idea or essential message in grade-level or higher texts through inferring, paraphrasing, summarizing, and identifying relevant details. Settling the English Colonies GUIDING QUESTION Why did people settle in England s colonies in America? Where did the colonists who settled in England s American colonies come from? Most were from England. Others came from Scotland, Ireland, and Wales. Settlers also arrived from other parts of Europe, such as Germany. Over time, thousands of enslaved Africans were brought to the colonies against their will. They worked in the fields, shops, and homes of the European settlers. Some colonies along the Atlantic Coast were not founded by English people. The Dutch started a colony that England later took over and renamed New York. Sweden founded a colony that became part of the English colonies of Delaware and New Jersey. Economic Opportunity People came to America for several reasons. For many settlers, the chance to earn a living was the main one. America offered land for farming and other jobs too. Reading HELP DESK Taking Notes: Comparing LA As you read, create a graphic organizer. Compare the economies of the New England, Middle, and Southern Colonies. 92 The American Colonies and Their Government Region The Colonial Economy Economic Activities Content Vocabulary indentured servant dissenter economy cash crop plantation PHOTO: (tl) MPI/Archive Photos/Getty Images; (tcl) The Granger Collection, NYC All rights reserved.; (tr) Matt Purciel/Alamy NGSSS covered in Settling the English Colonies

2 PHOTO: MPI/Archive Photos/Getty Images Those too poor to pay for their trip to America came as indentured servants. Colonists in America agreed to pay the costs of bringing the servants to the colonies and promised to provide food and shelter in return for work. The servants worked from four to seven years, until their debt was paid. Then the workers were free to make better lives for themselves. Religious Freedom Other people wanted religious freedom. At this time, there was religious unrest in Europe, especially in England. Some groups were persecuted, or treated harshly, because of their religious beliefs. To find a place where they could worship in their own way, some groups decided to come to the English colonies. The Puritans founded Massachusetts for this reason. The Puritans got their name because they wanted to reform, or purify, the church in England. They also called themselves Pilgrims. It was a group of Pilgrims who founded Plymouth colony in 162. Soon after this, another group of Puritans started the Massachusetts Bay Colony nearby. The Puritans were religious dissenters. A dissenter is one who opposes official or commonly held views. The Puritans left England because they wanted to worship God in their own way. Yet, they did not allow others that freedom. Instead, the Puritans forced people to leave their colony if they did not wish to worship as the Puritans did. Some colonists who were forced to leave Massachusetts started the colonies of Rhode Island and Connecticut. Rhode Island became known for the freedoms its colonists enjoyed. Connecticut developed America s first written constitution in It was called the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut. This document said that the colonists would elect an assembly of representatives from each town to pass laws. The colonists also elected their governor and judges. PROGRESS CHECK Explaining Why did some people come to the colonies as indentured servants? Why It MATTERS Forms of Government in Your Life When people come together for a common purpose, they often draw up a list of rules to govern their actions. What organized clubs or organizations do you belong to? Find out if they have any rules or by-laws. The English colonies provided economic opportunity for many people. Small farms, like this one in Virginia, offered a way for many to improve their lives. CRITICAL THINKING Speculating What obstacles did new settlers overcome to begin a new life in America? indentured servant a worker who contracted with American colonists for food and shelter in return for his or her labor dissenter one who opposes official or commonly held views Lesson 2 93

3 The economy of the New England Colonies was tied to the sea. Shipbuilding, shown above, and fishing were important industries. CRITICAL THINKING Making Connections How did the geographic features of New England affect the economy that developed there? SS.7.G.2.3 NGSSS covered in Colonial Life SS.7.G.2.3 Explain how major physical characteristics, natural resources, climate, and absolute and relative location have influenced settlement, economies, and intergovernmental relations in North America. LA The student will use new vocabulary that is introduced and taught directly. LA The student will listen to, read, and discuss familiar and conceptually challenging text. Reading HELPDESK PHOTO: The Granger Collection, NYC. All rights reserved. The New England Colonies Colonial Life GUIDING QUESTION How was life in the colonies shaped by where people lived? As you have read, the colonists came to America from many places and for a variety of reasons. They lived in different ways depending on where they settled. By 1733 England had 13 colonies along the Atlantic Coast of North America. The features of its geography influenced each colony s economy. These factors shaped how people lived. Over time, three economic regions developed. Each had its own way of life. The New England Colonies were located farthest north. They were Massachusetts Bay, New Hampshire, Connecticut, and Rhode Island. Most people in this region lived in towns. The cold climate and rocky soil made large-scale farming difficult. So farms were small and located near towns. Most farmers lived in town and went out to the countryside to work in their fields. Many colo nists in New England were Puritans. The Puritan religion stressed the values of thrift and hard work. A number of New Englanders worked as shopkeepers or in other small businesses. Others were employed in shipbuilding and fishing. The region s forests provided wood for boats. Fur-bearing animals were another important natural resource. Colonists hunted and trapped these animals. They also traded with Native Americans for furs. Then they shipped the furs to Europe. There the furs were made into coats and hats. The Middle Colonies New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware were English colonies located south of New England. These colonies were known as the Middle Colonies. The climate and soil in this region were better for agriculture. Farmers raised wheat and other cash crops. Cash crops are grown in large quantities to be sold rather than to feed the farmer s family. Cash crops were often sold overseas. This trade helped turn New York City and Philadelphia into busy port cities. Many of 94 The American Colonies and Their Government economy a system for making choices about ways to use scarce resources to make and distribute goods and services to fulfill people s needs and wants cash crop a crop produced mainly for sale plantation a large estate

4 the port businesses, as well as the region s farms, were owned by hardworking colonists from Germany, Holland, and other European countries. The Middle Colonies were also rich in natural resources. Sawmills, mines, ironworks, and other businesses grew in the region. The colonists here depended upon such resources as lumber, metals, and natural harbors. The Southern Colonies The English colonies farthest south along the Atlantic Coast were Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. A warm climate, a long growing season, and rich soil made large-scale agriculture successful in the Southern Colonies. Tobacco became the main cash crop in some of these colonies. In others it was rice. Both crops grew best on the low, flat coastal plains of the region. Large farms called plantations developed on the coastal plains. Many workers were needed to plant, tend, and harvest the large fields of crops. At first, indentured servants did much of this work. Over time, however, plantation owners came to depend on the labor of enslaved Africans. Colonial Economy, Florida CONNECTION The Spanish Colony in Florida Spanish explorers first came to Florida in the early 15s. Their efforts to found settlements failed because of resistance from Native Americans and damage from hurricanes. When the French established Fort Caroline in 1562, near present-day Jacksonville, the Spanish renewed their settlement efforts. They destroyed Fort Caroline, and in 1565 founded St. Augustine. St. Augustine is the oldest European settlement still inhabited. C. 175 New England Colonies Middle Colonies Southern Colonies Mass. Products Cattle N.H. Mass. N.Y. Philadelphia W Grain Indigo ATL ANTIC O CE AN New York N.J. Md. E Fur trapping Boston R.I. Conn. Pa. N Fish Rum Shipbuilding Jamestown Tobacco 2 miles 2 km Albers Equal-Area projection N.C. Naval stores Whaling GEOGRAPHY CONNECTION S.C. Ga. Lumber Rice Del. Va. S Ironworks Geography influenced the economy of the English colonies. Charles Town 1 2 LOCATION In which colonies were ironworks concentrated? CRITICAL THINKING Making Connections How might New England s lumber and shipbuilding industries be related? SS.7.G.2.3 Lesson 2 95

5 Farther inland, away from the coast, the soil was poorer and farms were smaller. Farmers here mainly grew only what they needed to feed their families. They also depended less on enslaved labor. Small farmers outnumbered plantation owners, but the plantation owners had greater wealth and power. As a result, they were able to sway the decisions of the representative assemblies. They also controlled the region s economy. Due in part to the influence of plantation owners, few large towns and little industry developed in the Southern Colonies. PROGRESS CHECK Completed in 1722, the Capitol in Williamsburg was the seat of royal power in the Virginia colony. CRITICAL THINKING Analyzing How did the actions of colonial legislatures toward colonial governors show weakening ties to England in the colonies? SS.7.C.1.3 Explaining Who controlled the elected assemblies in the Southern Colonies and why? Colonial Government GUIDING QUESTION What factors weakened the ties between England and its colonies? The colonies developed different economies and ways of life. But one thing they shared was their English heritage. Most colonists were loyal to England. They valued their rights as English subjects. But England was far away. Messages took weeks to arrive. Over the years, the colonists began to depend on their own governments and their elected legislatures for leadership. They began to see themselves as Americans rather than English subjects. R eading HELPDESK Academic Vocabulary benefit to be useful or profitable to PHOTO: Matt Purciel/Alamy 96 The American Colonies and Their Government

6 Governing the Colonies When the colonies were first founded, England s government paid little attention to them. One reason was political unrest in England. Members of Parliament were in a power struggle with the king. Nevertheless, English leaders always believed that the main purpose of the colonies was to benefit England. Therefore, in the 165s Parliament began passing laws to regulate the colonies trade. But these laws were hard to enforce. In the colonies south of New England, few people lived along the coast. So colonists ships could secretly load or unload goods without being seen. In this way, colonial traders ignored English trade laws intended to control their actions. Most colonies eventually had a governor who had been appointed by the king. The royal governor took orders from the English king and Parliament. He enforced England s laws in his colony. But local laws were usually passed by the colony s elected assembly. A Time of Change As time passed, the colonists elected assemblies grew strong. Assemblies and governors sometimes fought for control of the colonies. The assemblies had the power to tax and to decide how the money would be spent. They used these powers to weaken the royal governors. By the mid 17s, the colonies had become used to governing themselves through their elected legislatures. Colonists knew of the writings of John Locke. He said that governments existed to serve the people. Many colonists felt that their governor put British interests ahead of their own. They began to resent the fact that they had fewer rights than people living in Great Britain. NGSSS covered in Colonial Government SS.7.C.1.1 Recognize how Enlightenment ideas including Montesquieu s view of separation of power and John Locke s theories related to natural law and how Locke s social contract influenced the Founding Fathers. SS.7.C.1.3 Describe how English policies and responses to colonial concerns led to the writing of the Declaration of Independence. PROGRESS CHECK Evaluating How did the distance between England and America influence colonists ideas about leadership? LESSON 2 REVIEW Review Vocabulary 1. What reasons did dissenters and indentured servants have for coming to the American colonies? LA Use the terms plantation and cash crop in a sentence about the colonies economy. LA Answer the Guiding Questions 3. Explaining How did the writings of people like John Locke lead colonists to resent the British government? SS.7.C Analyzing How did geographic features influence life in the colonies? SS.7.G Identifying How do John Locke s ideas help explain why the colonists looked to their legislatures for leadership instead of to the colony s governor? SS.7.C NARRATIVE WRITING You have decided to move from Great Britain to America in the 17s. Write a letter to a friend explaining which colony you have chosen to settle in and why. SS.7.G.2.3, LA Lesson 2 97

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