# A New Recursive Quadrature Oscillator

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1 A New Recursive Quadrature Oscillator Martin Vicanek 21. October Introduction Digital harmonic oscillators are standard devices used in sound synthesis, control systems, test and measurement equipment, heterodyning, frequency conversion, and many other DSP applications. A harmonic or sine wave oscillator generates a pure tone without any overtones. In additive synthesis, a number sine waves are added to generate timbre the Hammond organ is a prominent example of this principle. Methods for generating sine waves in the digital domain fall roughly into two categories: 1. Recursive oscillators, where the actual output value is computed from previous states 2. Direct evaluation as a function of a phase accumulator (= non bandlimited ramp) The scheme presented in this note belongs to the first category. There are many algorithms for recursive oscillators, with different characteristics in terms of accuracy (especially at low frequencies), stability, computational complexity, etc.[1, 2]. In this note I present a new quadrature oscillator as the only hyperstable, equi-amplitude quadrature oscillator that I am aware of. Recursive oscillators perform best at constant frequency. Modulation requires coefficient(s) updating and may often result in amplitude change. For 1

2 an equi-amplitude quadrature oscillator, the situation is less problematic. It is somewhat difficult to add phase modulation (it can be done for a quadrature oscillator, but it is not very efficient). 2 Recursion Scheme Let u n and v n denote the oscillator outputs. The goal is to provide recursion equations for a harmonic quadrature oscillation, i.e. u n = cos(nω), v n = sin(nω) (1) with a specified frequency ω in radians per sample. Given the state at some discrete point in time n, the next state may be found by a simple rotation. For reasons to become clear later, we will first advance from time n by half a sample to the intermediate time n + 1/2,: u n+1/2 = cu n sv n (2) v n+1/2 = su n + cv n (3) where we have used the abreviations c = cos(ω/2) and s = sin(ω/2). Advance another half step to time n + 1, u n+1 = cu n+1/2 sv n+1/2 (4) v n+1 = su n+1/2 + cv n+1/2 (5) Likewise, we may write down equations for the reverse transitions by half a sample frm n + 1 to n + 1/2, and from n + 1/2 to n: u n+1/2 = cu n+1 + sv n+1 (6) v n+1/2 = su n+1 + cv n+1 (7) u n = cu n+1/2 + sv n+1/2 (8) v n = su n+1/2 + cv n+1/2 (9) We will not make use of all eight equations (2)-(9), since they are redundant. It will be sufficient to use a selection of four, namely equations (2) and (6), 2

3 and equations (5) and (9). Thus, equation (2) provides an expression for the intermediate state u n+1/2. Then equation (6) advances u another half step to the time n + 1. To propagate v from n to n + 1, subtract equation (9) from equation (5) to obtain v n+1 = v n + 2su n+1/2 (10) Note that the intermediate state u n+1/2 is only an internal temporary variable, a stepstone to leapfrog from v n to v n+1. We may save two multiplies if we work with the auxiliary quantity w n := u n+1/2 /c. Then equations (2), (10) and (6) become where the two constants k 1 and k 2 are w n = u n k 1 v n (11.1) v n+1 = v n + k 2 w n (11.2) u n+1 = w n k 1 v n+1 (11.3) k 1 = tan(ω/2), k 2 = 2 sin(ω/2) cos(ω/2) = sin ω = 2k 1 /(1 + k 2 1) (12) Equations (11.1)-(11.3) constitute the main result of this paper. With initial values chosen as u 0 = 1, v 0 = 0 (13) the result of the recursion is a quadrature harmonic oscillation as in equation (1). Figure 1 shows the block diagram corresponding to equations (11). Below is a sample-by-sample processing algorithm in pseudocode. // initialize u and v at start do{ u = 1; v = 0; } // update coefficients if frequency changes do{ update w; 3

4 k1 = tan(0.5*w); k2 = 2*k1/(1 + k1*k1); } // iterate filter for every sample do{ tmp = u - k1*v; v = v + k2*tmp; u = tmp - k1*v; } 3 Stability For a stability analysis we take the z-transform of equations (11.1)-(11.3), w(z) = u(z) k 1 v(z) zv(z) = v(z) + k 2 w(z) zu(z) = w(z) zk 1 v(z) (14) Eliminating w(z) and rearranging, we obtain the following homogeneous system of equations for u(z) and v(z): k 2 u + [(1 k 1 k 2 ) z]v = 0 (z 1)u + (z + 1)k 1 v = 0. (15) Nontrivial solutions exist where the determinant vanishes, z 2 2(1 k 1 k 2 )z + 1 = 0 (16) For 0 < k 1 k 2 < 2, the roots z 1,2 of equation (16) are complex conjugate and lie exactly on the unit circle. We may write with the frequency ω given by z 1,2 = e ±iω (17) cos ω = 1 k 1 k 2. (18) 4

5 Even if k 1 and k 2 are subject to quantization in a real implementation, the poles still lie exactly on the unit circle hence preventing exponential runaway: the presented oscillator is hyperstable, as opposed to the well-known coupled form quadrature oscillator. Futrhermore, by virtue of equation (15), ( ) u/v = ±i sin ω/k 2 = ±ik 1 / tan(ω/2) = ±i k 1 k 1, (19) 2k2 i.e. the eigenmodes exhibit a phase lag between u and v of exactly π/2, regardless of coefficient quantization. The ratio of the corresponding amplitudes is unity if k 2 = 2k 1 /(1 + k1) 2 (20) In practice, equation (20) will be valid only within machine precision, resulting in slightly different amplitudes. 4 Modulation An interesting question is how the system responds to frequency modulation, i.e. coefficient changes while running freely. Neglect for a moment roundoff errors introduced by finite precision arithmetics, then the trajectory in u-vspace will be an ellipse. A deviation from a circular trajectory occurs because equation (20) is fulfilled only to machine precision. Now if we change the values of k 1 and k 2, the system s trajectory will simply switch to another ellipse, possibly moving at a different speed. As long as equation (20) remains approximately valid, the new ellipse will be close to circular. If coefficients are changed frequently, the deviations may accumulate in the long run, ultimately resulting in an altered amplitude. Whether or not this is a concern depends on the application. For sound generation in a musical context, this is not an issue at all. 5

6 5 Roundoff Error A rigorous analysis of the effect of roundoff errors on the iteration equation (11) is beyond the scope of this note. Quantization is often modelled as additive noise, without taking into account a possible correlation to the signal itself. Such a model would result in a slow drift with the accumulated error increasing as the square root of the number of iterations. However, this behavior is not supported by empirical findings, which suggest that the system rather locks in into a limiting cycle. The oscillator has been run at 44.1 khz sample rate for days, with varying initial conditiona and coefficient values. In no case has there been an unbounded drift. Again, this is in harsh contrast with the coupled form oscillator, which shows systematic deviations already in the first few seconds, and ultimately terminates in an exponential runaway. 6

7 Appendix: Some Common Oscillators Table 1 lists some recursive oscillators with their respective properties. For each listed oscillator tyxpe we give the governing equations below. Biquad Oscillator The biquad oscillator is a direct form I realization, and is the most used oscillator form. With one multiply and one add it is a very economic scheme, however accuracy is bad at low frequencies. Recurrence Parameter Initialization Output u n+1 = ku n u n 1 k = 2 cos ω u 1 = 0 u 0 = sin ω u n = sin(nω) Reinsch Oscillator This is another CPU friendly oscillator, with good accuracy at low frequencies. It is the ideal static oscillator. Recurrence Parameter Initialization Output u n+1 = u n + v n k = 4 sin 2 ( 1ω) 2 u 0 = 0 v n+1 = v n ku n+1 v 0 = sin ω u n = sin(nω) v n = A cos[(n )ω] A = 2 sin( 1 2 ω) Digital Waveguide Oscillator Another one-multiply oscillator with quadrature output, however with bad accuracy at low frequencies. 7

8 Recurrence Parameter Initialization Output s n = k(u n + v n ) t n = s n + u n u n+1 = s n v n v n+1 = t n k = cos ω u 0 = 0 v 0 = 1 u n = A sin(nω) v n = cos(nω) A = tan( 1 2 ω) Quadrature Oscillator with Staggered Update Recurrence Parameter Initialization Output v n+1 = u n + kv n k = cos ω u 0 = 0 u n+1 = kv n+1 v n v 0 = 1 u n = A sin(nω) v n = cos(nω) A = sin ω Magic Circle Oscillator A popular almost quadrature oscillator. The outputs have equal amplitudes and a phase difference of 90 degrees plus half a sample. Recurrence Parameter Initialization Output u n+1 = u n kv n k = 2 sin( 1ω) 2 u 0 = cos( 1ω) 2 v n+1 = v n + ku n+1 v 0 = 0 u n = cos[(n 1 2 )ω] v n = sin(nω) Coupled Form Oscillator The standard quadrature, equal amplitudes oscillator. Unfortunaltely it is not numerically stable: if left run freely, amplitudes will grow or decay exponentially because the poles generally do not lie exactly on the unit circle. Therefore, some sort of automatic gain control has to be applied. Updating the parameters, i.e. frequency modulation, is somewhat CPU-demanding. 8

9 Recurrence Parameters Initialization Output u n+1 = k 1 u n k 2 v n v n+1 = k 2 u n + k 1 v n k 1 = cos ω k 2 = sin ω u 0 = 1 v 0 = 0 u 0 = cos(nω) v 0 = sin(nω) Present Work A stable quadrature oscillator with equal amplitudes, good accuracy at low frequencies, and reasonable CPU load. Recurrence Parameters Initialization Output w n = u n k 1 v n v n+1 = v n + k 2 w n k 1 = tan( 1 2 ω) k 2 = sin ω u 0 = 1 v 0 = 0 u 0 = cos(nω) v 0 = sin(nω) u n+1 = w n k 1 v n+1 References [1] P. Symons, Digital Waveform Generation, Cambridge University Press 2013, pp [2] Clay Turner, Recursive Discrete Time Sinusoidal Oscillators, IEEE Signal Processing Mag, May 2003, p [3] J. W. Gordon and J. O. Smith, A Sine Generation Algorithm for VLSI Applications, in Proc. Int. Computer Music Conf. (1985), pp [4] J. O. Smith and P. R. Cook, The Second-Order Digital Waveguide Oscillator, in Proc. Int. Computer Music Conf. (1992), pp

10 Figure 1: Block diagram of the oscillator corresponding to equations (11) Oscillator type Stable Biquad yes no yes no Reinisch no nearly yes yes Digital Waveguide no yes yes no Quad Staggered Update no yes yes no Magic Circle yes nearly yes yes Coupled Quad yes yes no yes This work yes yes yes yes Table 1: Some common oscillators and their properties Equal amplitudes Quadrature Lowfrequency accurate 10

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