# Energy Saving systems for Induction motors.

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

4 Iron loss for Energy Efficient Motors Iron Loss (%) Motor Size (KW) Iron loss for Standard motors Iron Loss (%) Motor Size (KW) Very small motors, (particularly single phase motors) have a much lower efficiency, and a much higher iron loss and so the potential to save energy is considerably higher. Single phase motors KW eff pf Measurement techniques. To establish the energy saved in a given installation, it is important to ensure that the measurement techniques are appropriate and correct. Three phase Induction motors are a three wire circuit with a power factor which can vary between 0.1 and Three phase power measurement techniques must be employed in order to achieve meaningful results. The standard methods of measuring the input power on a three phase three wire circuit, are either to use the single phase watt meters, one per phase and sum the results, or use the two watt meter method, or a three phase watt meter. Measurements made on one phase, and multiplied by three can be extremely erroneous, especially under light load conditions. The Kilowatt loading on the three phases at light loads can be severely unbalanced even though the currents may not be unbalanced to the same degree. When using the two watt meter method, care with phasing is Page 4 of 9

6 Immediately there are some anomalies here: a) A three phase motor drawing 68 amps at a line voltage of 479 volts would be drawing P = V x A x pf x 3 = 479 x 68 x 1 x = 56KW Where did the 32 KW come from?? 32 = 479 x 68 x (line voltage times current times powerfactor) b) The KVA drawn by a three phase load is equal to V x A x 3. in this case, the KVA demand would be 479 x 68 x = 56KVA, not 33 KVA as quoted. c) Induction motors never have a power factor of 1.0 Even very large and very efficient motors do not very often exceed 0.95 power factor. With energy saving device fitted. volt 460 amp 68.8 kw 31 kva 32 pf 0.99 a) The power can not be calculated but would probably be as high as without the energy saving device, in fact it would probably be higher due to the losses with in the energy saver and the increase in i 2 R losses in the motor. The power quoted in this example appears to have been calculated on the basis of output current times output voltage times pf. (460 x 68.8 x 0.99 = 31.1KW) If we were to accept this calculation, then the power into the energy saver must be line volts times line current times pf, = x 68.8 x 0.99 = 32.7KW. This would be what the consumer was paying for as the supply metering is on the input side of the energy saver, and the net result is that the consumer is paying for more!! If we continue on the assumption that the measurements and calculations are in fact valid, then the energy saver is dissipating 32.7KW KW = 1.6KW and will there fore be operating at a very high temperature. I expect that if measurements were made in this installation, there would in fact be a net loss rather than a gain in overall efficiency. b) Likewise, the KVA will be a little higher than before, 479 x 68.8 x = 57KVA. c) The energy saver should work to improve the power factor, not reduce it. If the power factor reduced, the energy saving device, (provided it was working correctly) would reduce the voltage further until the power factor rose again. These results have definitely not been made with the correct instrumentation, or the instrumentation has not been used / interpreted correctly. It is obvious that some of these figures are not measured results, but would appear to be incorrectly calculated. I suspect that perhaps the voltage and current readings could be true representations of the installation, but the KW, KVA and pf with and without the energy saver can not be correct. A second quoted example is for a 10 ton roof top air conditioner. Tests quoted were: without energy saving device volt 485 amp 31.2 kw 24.8 pf 0.95 The quoted kw would appear correct based on the quoted voltage, current and power factor. With energy saving device fitted. volt 430 amp 26.4 kw 17.8 pf 0.91 a. The quoted power is equal to the calculated value based on a calculation using the reduced output voltage. This could not be a measured value, as a measured value would certainly not reduce by this amount. As described earlier, the metering is not affected by the reduced output voltage. Page 6 of 9

8 Conclusions There is no doubt that the basic technology of reducing the voltage on a motor which is operating at less than maximum efficiency, can result in a reduction of the iron loss of the motor. In a case where the motor has a very high magnetizing current, and it is operating at essentially open shaft conditions, there can be a reduction in copper loss also. In practice, with a partially loaded motor, a reduction in the voltage applied to the motor will reduce the iron loss, but the corresponding increase in the load current can cause an increase in copper loss that is greater than the reduction in the iron loss, resulting in a net increase in motor losses. -Worthwhile power savings are only achievable where the iron loss is an appreciable portion of the total power consumed by the motor, and where the amount of the iron loss is significant relative to the motor rating. This technology only achieves useful results on small, inefficient and predominantly single phase motors. Unfortunately, once again we have examples where a lack of knowledge about basic motor characteristics and a poor understanding of power metering on three phase systems have resulted in extrapolations and estimations which totally misrepresent the achievable results from the application of this technology. Only energy that is being wasted, can be saved. Large motors do have a much higher efficiency than small motors, and this basic fact seems to be missed in creating examples of potential energy savings. Proper tests would demonstrate that energy savings per kw motor rating are much higher for small motors than large, and the potential market for this technology is really confined to the small single phase applications. I can find no evidence of a technological advancement which can result in increased energy savings over and above the energy wasted by the motor. According to current laws of physics, this would be considered an impossibility. Worked examples based on energy costs, motor losses and quoted energy saver pricing yield payback periods in the 10 to 40 year range, nowhere near the quoted figures of less than two years! In many cases, the return on investment is well below standard bank interest rates. To borrow the money to purchase the equipment would be a loss situation. Putting the cash into a savings account would be a higher yielding investment than the purchase of some of these energy saving devices. In summary, I would like to note the following points: The basic concept of reducing the voltage on induction motors operating at less than full load, and thereby reducing the energy consumed, works provided that several constraints are applied. a. The motor efficiency can only be improved when it has dropped considerably below the maximum efficiency for that motor. b. As the maximum energy that can be saved is a portion of the iron loss, the best savings are going to be on motors with a very high iron loss. Typically, these will be small motors, operating above their design voltage, or below their design frequency. c. Where payback periods are a consideration, the savings need to be related, not to the power consumed while the unit is running, but to the power saved relative to the cost of the unit, which is dependent on the motor rating. d. Tests need to be carried out using rotating disk kwh meters, and care must be taken that the operating conditions are the same with and without the energy saver connected. Tests under open shaft conditions, yield a high percentage saving, but the actual savings in kwh is indicative of the maximum dollar saving that can be achieved with that motor. As the load increases, the kwh savings will reduce as will the percentage energy savings. e. In many situations where energy savings can be made, greater energy savings can be achieved by either altering the operation of the machine to minimize the time operating at idle, or replacing the motor with a more efficient motor. This can yield an improved payback period relative to the use of an energy saving device. f. Partially loaded motors fitted with energy saving devices can dissipate more energy than without the energy saving device. g. Experience gained with this type of technology indicated that there was no significant improvement to be made on motors operating with a power factor greater than 0.4. h. Experience has shown that the best results are on small single phase motors operating continuously, and predominantly under no load conditions. Small motors operating at a voltage well above their design voltage (i.e. 440Volt motor operating on 485Volt) will exhibit a much higher iron loss and therefore achieve much increased savings. Page 8 of 9

9 i. Real payback periods of less than two years are rare, requiring a very good application, a very lossy motor and a very cheap energy saver. Only energy that is being wasted, can be saved. Page 9 of 9

### 8 Speed control of Induction Machines

8 Speed control of Induction Machines We have seen the speed torque characteristic of the machine. In the stable region of operation in the motoring mode, the curve is rather steep and goes from zero torque

### 3-Phase AC Calculations Revisited

AN110 Dataforth Corporation Page 1 of 6 DID YOU KNOW? Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) came to the United States in 1884 from Yugosiavia. He arrived during the battle of the currents between Thomas Edison, who

### Power Factor The Basics

Power Factor The Basics OK. I ve heard a lot about this power factor stuff. What exactly is it? We hope to give you an easy explanation of what power factor is, and to answer the following most asked questions:

### WHITEPAPER CABLE CONDUCTOR SIZING

WHITEPAPER CABLE CONDUCTOR SIZING FOR MINIMUM LIFE CYCLE COST Bruno De Wachter, Walter Hulshorst, Rodolfo di Stefano July 2011 ECI Available from www.leonardo-energy.org/node/156451 Document Issue Control

### Explaining How Voltage Optimisation Can Save Energy and Protect Your Site

Explaining How Voltage Optimisation Can Save Energy and Protect Your Site Introduction Voltage optimisation (VO) is a proven and effective technology that has been saving industry millions of pounds in

### VFD 101 Lesson 4. Application Terminology for a VFD

VFD 101 Lesson 4 Application Terminology for a VFD This lesson covers the application terminology associated with a Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) and describes each term in detail. When applying a Variable

### Basic Electrical Technology Dr. L. Umanand Department of Electrical Engineering Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. Lecture - 33 3 phase System 4

Basic Electrical Technology Dr. L. Umanand Department of Electrical Engineering Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore Lecture - 33 3 phase System 4 Hello everybody. So, in the last class we have been

### Three phase circuits

Three phase circuits THREE PHASE CIRCUITS THREE-PHASE ADVANTAGES 1. The horsepower rating of three-phase motors and the kva rating of three-phase transformers are 150% greater than single-phase motors

### Understanding Power Factor, Crest Factor, and Surge Factor. White Paper #17

Understanding Power Factor, Crest Factor, and Surge Factor White Paper #17 Executive Summary This paper explains the technical terms of Power Factor, Crest Factor, and Surge Factor. The use of these terms

### Calculating Total Power Requirements for Data Centers

Calculating Total Power Requirements for Data Centers By Richard Sawyer White Paper #3 Executive Summary Part of data center planning and design is to align the power and cooling requirements of the IT

### PowerFlex Dynamic Braking Resistor Calculator

Application Technique PowerFlex Dynamic Braking Resistor Calculator Catalog Numbers 20A, 20B, 20F, 20G, 22A, 22B Important User Information Solid-state equipment has operational characteristics differing

### Induction Motor Theory

PDHonline Course E176 (3 PDH) Induction Motor Theory Instructor: Jerry R. Bednarczyk, P.E. 2012 PDH Online PDH Center 5272 Meadow Estates Drive Fairfax, VA 22030-6658 Phone & Fax: 703-988-0088 www.pdhonline.org

### Drive circuit basics + V. τ e. Industrial Circuits Application Note. Winding resistance and inductance

ndustrial Circuits Application Note Drive circuit basics For a given size of a stepper motor, a limited space is available for the windings. n the process of optimizing a stepper motor drive system, an

### NO LOAD & BLOCK ROTOR TEST ON THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR

INDEX NO. : M-142 TECHNICAL MANUAL FOR NO LOAD & BLOCK ROTOR TEST ON THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR Manufactured by : PREMIER TRADING CORPORATION (An ISO 9001:2000 Certified Company) 212/1, Mansarover Civil

### ENERGY TRANSFER SYSTEMS AND THEIR DYNAMIC ANALYSIS

ENERGY TRANSFER SYSTEMS AND THEIR DYNAMIC ANALYSIS Many mechanical energy systems are devoted to transfer of energy between two points: the source or prime mover (input) and the load (output). For chemical

white paper Energy Cost Reduction through Load Balancing & Load Shedding SCR controllers firing in phase angle degrade the power factor while increasing harmonics and electrical noise. A poor power factor

### Motor Efficiency and Power Factor ME 416/516

Motor Efficiency and Power Factor Motivation More than half of all electric energy generated goes to power electric motors. Electric motor converts electric power into shaft power. In thermodynamics terms,

### Survey of Harmonics Measurements in Electrical Distribution System of a Technical Institution

Survey of Harmonics Measurements in Electrical Distribution System of a Technical Institution Nandita Dey, Dr.A.K.Chakraborty Lecturer, Electrical Engineering Department, Tripura University Suryamaninagar

### Electric Motor Brake Horsepower Calculations

Electric Motor Brake Horsepower Calculations By Norm Christopherson These motor calculations are contained here as they apply to the changing conditions of the blower motor when pulley adjustments are

### Line Reactors and AC Drives

Line Reactors and AC Drives Rockwell Automation Mequon Wisconsin Quite often, line and load reactors are installed on AC drives without a solid understanding of why or what the positive and negative consequences

### Chen. Vibration Motor. Application note

Vibration Motor Application note Yangyi Chen April 4 th, 2013 1 Table of Contents Pages Executive Summary ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 1. Table

### EFFICIENCY COMPARISON OF MODERN VARIABLE SPEED DRIVE TECHNOLOGIES

EFFICIENCY COMPARISON OF MODERN VARIABLE SPEED DRIVE TECHNOLOGIES JUNE 1993 BY EDWARD C. LEE POWERTEC INDUSTRIAL CORPORATION Abstract: Brushless D.C. technology is new to the general industrial maketplace

### The Polyphase Induction Motor

Experiment No. 4 The Polyphase Induction Motor The polyphase induction motor is the most commonly used industrial motor, finding application in many situations where speed regulation is not essential.

### Power measurement in balanced 3 phase circuits and power factor improvement. 1 Power in Single Phase Circuits. Experiment no 1

Experiment no 1 Power measurement in balanced 3 phase circuits and power factor improvement 1 Power in Single Phase Circuits Let v = m cos(ωt) = cos(ωt) is the voltage applied to a R-L circuit and i =

### Transformer Basics Information Guide

Property of Motion Laboratories, Inc. Transformer Basics Information Guide 2014 Motion Laboratories, Inc. Created By: Jim Herrick / Michael Shaw Approved By: Peter Herrmann Page: 1 Transformer Definition

### TRANSFORMER LOSS COMPENSATION FOR METERMEN PRESENTED BY: MICHAEL K. BEARDEN

TRANSFORMER LOSS COMPENSATION FOR METERMEN PRESENTED BY: MICHAEL K. BEARDEN WHAT are transformer losses? TRANSFORMER LOSS COMPENSATION THE WHAT, WHEN, WHO, WHERE AND HOW Transformer losses can be viewed

### Section 10. Application Manual for NEMA Motors. Special Applications

Special Applications 1 Power Factor Correction 1 Methods of Starting 3AC Induction Motors 5 3 Duty Cycles and Inertia 3 4 Horsepower Determination 30 5 Formulas and General Data 34 Power Factor Correction

### AC generator theory. Resources and methods for learning about these subjects (list a few here, in preparation for your research):

AC generator theory This worksheet and all related files are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, version 1.0. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0/,

### GENERATORS AND MOTORS

GENERATORS AND MOTORS A device that converts mechanical energy (energy of motion windmills, turbines, nuclear power, falling water, or tides) into electrical energy is called an electric generator. The

### RESIDENTIAL SERVICE SCHEDULE R

SOUTH CENTRAL POWER COMPANY Lancaster, Ohio RESIDENTIAL SERVICE SCHEDULE R AVAILABILITY AND APPLICABILITY: This South Central Power Company (Cooperative) rate schedule is available and applicable for electric

### TAN δ (DELTA) CABLE TESTING OVERVIEW AND ANSWERS TO FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS. What Is Tan δ, Or Tan Delta?

TAN δ (DELTA) CABLE TESTING OVERVIEW AND ANSWERS TO FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS What Is Tan δ, Or Tan Delta? Tan Delta, also called Loss Angle or Dissipation Factor testing, is a diagnostic method of testing

### Linear DC Motors. 15.1 Magnetic Flux. 15.1.1 Permanent Bar Magnets

Linear DC Motors The purpose of this supplement is to present the basic material needed to understand the operation of simple DC motors. This is intended to be used as the reference material for the linear

### Energy savings in commercial refrigeration. Low pressure control

Energy savings in commercial refrigeration equipment : Low pressure control August 2011/White paper by Christophe Borlein AFF and l IIF-IIR member Make the most of your energy Summary Executive summary

### Power Electronics. Prof. K. Gopakumar. Centre for Electronics Design and Technology. Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore.

Power Electronics Prof. K. Gopakumar Centre for Electronics Design and Technology Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore Lecture - 1 Electric Drive Today, we will start with the topic on industrial drive

### At Load Power Factor Correction Phase 2: Refrigerated Vending Machines

At Load Power Factor Correction Phase 2: Refrigerated Vending Machines A Pilot Project to determine the feasibility and economics of small scale At Load Power Factor Correction Richard Ellenbogen, MEE

### Direct Current Motors

Direct Current Motors DC MOTORS The DC machine can operate as a generator and as a motor. Chap 5. Electrical Machines by Wildi, 6 e Lecturer: R. Alba-Flores Alfred State College Spring 2008 When a DC machine

### Single-Phase. Three-Phase

Three-Phase Transformers When more power is needed - three transformers can be tied together. This is called three-phase. Here s a simple way of comparing single-phase to threephase power. Single-Phase

### Selecting Current Transformers Part 1 By Darrell G. Broussard, P.E.

By Darrell G. Broussard, P.E. Introduction: As engineers, we are aware that electrical power systems have grown. How much have they grown? When was the last time you specified a 2400-volt system, a 4160-volt

### Understanding Power Factor and How it Affects Your Electric Bill. Presented by Scott Peele PE

Understanding Power Factor and How it Affects Your Electric Bill Presented by Scott Peele PE Understanding Power Factor Definitions kva, kvar, kw, Apparent Power vs. True Power Calculations Measurements

### DIRECT CURRENT GENERATORS

DIRECT CURRENT GENERATORS Revision 12:50 14 Nov 05 INTRODUCTION A generator is a machine that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy by using the principle of magnetic induction. This principle

### ATTACHMENT F. Electric Utility Contact Information Utility Name. For Office Use Only

ATTACHMENT F CATEGORY 2 GENERATOR INTERCONNECTION APPLICATION FOR ALL PROJECTS WITH AGGREGATE GENERATOR OUTPUT OF MORE THAN 20 KW BUT LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO 150 KW Also Serves as Application for Category

### MICRO HYDRO FOR THE FARM AND HOME

MICRO HYDRO FOR THE FARM AND HOME How much can I expect to save? This depends entirely on the available flow, available head (fall) and the duration that the flow is available. Some farms struggle to maintain

### OJ L 191, 23.7.2009, p. 26. OJ L 2, 7.1.2014, p. 1.

Table of Contents 1. Purpose of the guidelines and disclaimer... 2 1.1. The Regulations... 2 2. Scope... 2 3. Historic developments... 4 4. Scope and Requirements... 5 4.1. Scope... 5 4.2. Requirements...

### Energy, Work, and Power

Energy, Work, and Power This worksheet and all related files are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, version 1.0. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0/,

### Principles of Adjustable Frequency Drives

What is an Adjustable Frequency Drive? An adjustable frequency drive is a system for controlling the speed of an AC motor by controlling the frequency of the power supplied to the motor. A basic adjustable

### DC GENERATOR THEORY. LIST the three conditions necessary to induce a voltage into a conductor.

DC Generators DC generators are widely used to produce a DC voltage. The amount of voltage produced depends on a variety of factors. EO 1.5 LIST the three conditions necessary to induce a voltage into

### Errors Related to Cable Resistance Imbalance in Three Wire RTDs

Errors Related to Cable Resistance Imbalance in Three Wire RTDs 1.0 Introduction There are multiple sources of error that can impact the accuracy of an RTD measurement. The cable incorporated into the

### Energy Audit as A Tool for Improving System Efficiency in Industrial Sector

Energy Audit as A Tool for Improving System Efficiency in Industrial Sector Gopi Srinath, N. Uday Kumar Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

### Design Guide. Managing Peak Energy Demand In Live Performance Venues

Design Guide Managing Peak Energy Demand In Live Performance Venues Peak demand; the highest amount of electricity consumed at any one time, has a major impact on network charges and has a considerable

### Application Note #49 RF Amplifier Output Voltage, Current, Power, and Impedance Relationship

Application Note #49 RF Amplifier Output Voltage, Current, Power, and Impedance Relationship By: Jason Smith; Manager Applications Engineer and Pat Malloy; Sr. Applications Engineer How much output voltage,

### Module 7. Transformer. Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur

Module 7 Transformer Version EE IIT, Kharagpur Lesson 4 Practical Transformer Version EE IIT, Kharagpur Contents 4 Practical Transformer 4 4. Goals of the lesson. 4 4. Practical transformer. 4 4.. Core

### GENERATOR DATA FEBRUARY 01, 2016

Page 1 of 9 GENERATOR DATA FEBRUARY 01, 2016 For Help Desk Phone Numbers Click here Spec Information Generator Specification Frame: LC5024L Type: LC No. of Bearings: 1 Winding Type: RANDOM WOUND Flywheel:

### 2. A conductor of length 2m moves at 4m/s at 30 to a uniform magnetic field of 0.1T. Which one of the following gives the e.m.f. generated?

Extra Questions - 2 1. A straight length of wire moves through a uniform magnetic field. The e.m.f. produced across the ends of the wire will be maximum if it moves: a) along the lines of magnetic flux

### 1 Temperature Derating Guide

VLT HVAC Drive FC 02 Application Note Temperature Derating Guide Temperature Derating Guide.. Abstract This paper provides detailed data regarding the operation of the VLT HVAC Drive FC02 at varying ambient

### Equipment: Power Supply, DAI, Split-phase/Capacitor start motor (8251), Electrodynamometer (8960), timing belt.

Lab 10: Split-phase induction motor. Objective: to examine the construction of the split-phase motor; to learn its wiring connections; to observe its starting and running operations; to measure its starting

### Iron Powder Cores for Switchmode Power Supply Inductors. by: Jim Cox

HOME APPLICATION NOTES Iron Powder Cores for Switchmode Power Supply Inductors by: Jim Cox Purpose: The purpose of this application note is to cover the properties of iron powder as a magnetic core material

### EuP Lot 30: Electric Motors and Drives

EuP Lot 30: Electric Motors and Drives Task 7: Improvement Potential ENER/C3/413-2010 June 2014 Final Anibal De Almeida Hugh Falkner João Fong Contents 3 Task 7: Policy and Impact Analysis... 3 3.1 Options...

### The output signal may be of the same form as the input signal, i.e. V in produces V out

What is an amplifier? Operational Amplifiers A device that takes an input (current, voltage, etc.) and produces a correlated output Input Signal Output Signal Usually the output is a multiple of the input

### Power Factor Correction for Power Systems First Semester Report Spring Semester 2007

Power Factor Correction for Power Systems First Semester Report Spring Semester 2007 by Pamela Ackerman Prepared to partially fulfill the requirements for EE401 Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

### OPTIMIZING CONDENSER WATER FLOW RATES. W. A. Liegois, P.E. Stanley Consultants, Inc. Muscatine, Iowa

OPTIMIZING CONDENSER WATER FLOW RATES W. A. Liegois, P.E. Stanley Consultants, Inc. Muscatine, Iowa T.A. Brown, P.E. Thermal Energy Corporation Houston, Texas ABSTRACT Most chillers are designed for a

### GENERATOR SELECTION. a. Three phase - 120/208V, 3 phase, 4W wye; 277/408, 3 phase, 4W wye; * 120/240V 3 phase, 4W Delta

GENERATOR SELECTION Generators must be sized to handle their load based on the continuous KW, kilowatt load, and KVA, kilovoltamp load, and the worst case starting load KW + KVA. They must be derated for

### Dynamic Power Variations in Data Centers and Network Rooms

Dynamic Power Variations in Data Centers and Network Rooms By Jim Spitaels White Paper #43 Revision 2 Executive Summary The power requirement required by data centers and network rooms varies on a minute

### AND8008/D. Solid State Control Solutions for Three Phase 1 HP Motor APPLICATION NOTE

Solid State Control Solutions for Three Phase 1 HP Motor APPLICATION NOTE INTRODUCTION In all kinds of manufacturing, it is very common to have equipment that has three phase motors for doing different

### Figure 1 - Crydom 3RHP Three-phase Hybrid Solid State Contactor. Crydom Inc.

Crydom RHP Series 3 Phase Hybrid Solid State Contactor By Paul Bachman Fellow Engineer, Crydom, Inc. ABSTRACT Solid State Relays and Contactors (SSRs) have been available in one form or the other for over

### Three-phase AC circuits

Three-phase AC circuits This worksheet and all related files are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, version 1.0. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0/,

### The Second Law of Thermodynamics

Objectives MAE 320 - Chapter 6 The Second Law of Thermodynamics The content and the pictures are from the text book: Çengel, Y. A. and Boles, M. A., Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, McGraw-Hill,

### PV (photovoltaic) Basics There are generally two types of PV systems. The first and easiest (though the least flexible) is a grid tie system where

PV (photovoltaic) Basics There are generally two types of PV systems. The first and easiest (though the least flexible) is a grid tie system where the power generated by the solar panel (panels) runs an

### DHANALAKSHMI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING EE2302 - ELECTRICAL MACHINES II UNIT-I SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR

1 DHANALAKSHMI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING Constructional details Types of rotors EE2302 - ELECTRICAL MACHINES II UNIT-I SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR PART A 1.

### VOLTAGE REGULATOR AND PARALLEL OPERATION

VOLTAGE REGULATOR AND PARALLEL OPERATION Generator sets are operated in parallel to improve fuel economy and reliability of the power supply. Economy is improved with multiple paralleled generators by

### Phase-Control Alternatives for Single-Phase AC Motors Offer Smart, Low-Cost, Solutions Abstract INTRODUCTION

Phase-Control Alternatives for Single-Phase AC Motors Offer Smart, Low-Cost, Solutions by Howard Abramowitz, Ph.D EE, President, AirCare Automation Inc. Abstract - Single Phase AC motors continue to be

### Selecting IHLP Composite Inductors for Non-Isolated Converters Utilizing Vishay s Application Sheet

VISHAY DALE www.vishay.com Magnetics Selecting IHLP Composite Inductors for Non-Isolated Converters INTRODUCTION This application note will provide information to assist in the specification of IHLP composite

### AUTOMATED, FULL LOAD MOTOR TESTING AT PRODUCTION SPEEDS

AUTOMATED, FULL LOAD MOTOR TESTING AT PRODUCTION SPEEDS Abstract: Revolutionary test method coupled with innovative automation yields superior motor performance measurement data without sacrifice of production

### Basics of Electricity

Basics of Electricity Generator Theory PJM State & Member Training Dept. PJM 2014 8/6/2013 Objectives The student will be able to: Describe the process of electromagnetic induction Identify the major components

### Direct versus Alternating Current Things We Can Measure

Phil Sherrod W4PHS Direct versus Alternating Current Things We Can Measure Direct Current (DC) Alternating Current (AC) Voltage Voltage (peak, RMS) Current Current (peak, effective) Power True power, Apparent

### The Effects of Airgap Flux Density on Permanent Magnet Brushless Servo Motor Design

The Effects of Airgap Flux Density on Permanent Magnet Brushless Servo Motor Design Lowell Christensen VP Engineering TruTech Specialty Motors Magnetics 2013 Orlando Florida Feb 8 & 9, 2013 This presentation

### The Basics of Digital Multimeters

IDEAL INDUSTRIES INC. The Basics of Digital Multimeters A guide to help you understand the basic Features and Functions of a Digital Multimeter. Author: Patrick C Elliott Field Sales Engineer IDEAL Industries,

### BUYING AN ENERGY-EFFICIENT ELECTRIC MOTOR

F A C T S H E E T a Program of the U.S. Department of Energy BUYING AN ENERGY-EFFICIENT ELECTRIC MOTOR Efficiency is an important factor to consider when buying or rewinding an electric motor. This fact

### BENEFIT-COST ANALYSIS Financial and Economic Appraisal using Spreadsheets

BENEFIT-COST ANALYSIS Financial and Economic Appraisal using Spreadsheets Ch. 3: Decision Rules Harry Campbell & Richard Brown School of Economics The University of Queensland Applied Investment Appraisal

### HARMONICS - Understanding the Facts - Part 3 Richard P. Bingham

HARMONICS - Understanding the Facts - Part 3 Richard P. Bingham Abstract Understanding what is important to know about harmonics can be challenging for those without extensive electrical engineering backgrounds.

### Transformer Calculations

Transformer Calculations Transformers Transformers are one of the most basic yet practical devices used today. No matter where you are there is always a transformer nearby. They are used throughout alternating-current

### Assumptions Total Assets = 50,000,000 Net Surpluses Received = 480,000 Net Surpluses Received in one Month = 40,000

GAP ANALYSIS SACCO savers have an inherent preference for short-term liquid accounts, even when the interest rate in these accounts is subject to changes. Furthermore, borrowers have an inherent preference

### 101 BASICS SERIES LEARNING MODULE 2: FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICITY. Cutler-Hammer

101 BASICS SERIES LEARNING MODULE 2: FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICITY Cutler-Hammer WELCOME Welcome to Module 2, Fundamentals of Electricity. This module will cover the fundamentals of electricity in a practical

### The function of a power station is to deliver

CHAPTER CHAPTER 3 Variable Load on Power Stations 3.1 Structure of Electric Power System 3.2 Variable Load on Power Station 3.3 Load Curves 3.4 Important Terms and Factors 3.5 Units Generated per Annum

### Server Technology Intl.

Server Technology, Inc. 3-Phase Power in the Data Center White Paper STI-100-005 North America/ASIA EMEA Server Technology, Inc. Server Technology Intl. 1040 Sandhill Drive Sienna Court Reno, NV 89521

### The Basics of Solar Power for Producing Electricity An excellent place to start for those just beginning. The basics of solar power: 1000 W/m²

The Basics of Solar Power for Producing Electricity Learn the essential basics of using solar power so you can understand your project. Planning your project begins with understanding the basics found

### The generation and supply of electricity within the U.K is achieved through the use of a 3-phase system.

Three Phase Electricity Supplies and Systems The generation and supply of electricity within the U.K is achieved through the use of a 3-phase system. This consists of 3 separate phase conductors along

### Current Transformers

Tyco Electronics Corporation Crompton Instruments 1610 Cobb International Parkway, Unit #4 Kennesaw, GA 30152 Tel. 770-425-8903 Fax. 770-423-7194 Current Transformers Current transformers (CT's) provide

### Dynamic Power Variations in Data Centers and Network Rooms

Dynamic Power Variations in Data Centers and Network Rooms White Paper 43 Revision 3 by James Spitaels > Executive summary The power requirement required by data centers and network rooms varies on a minute

### Application Information

Moog Components Group manufactures a comprehensive line of brush-type and brushless motors, as well as brushless controllers. The purpose of this document is to provide a guide for the selection and application

### Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) Drives. AC Drives Using PWM Techniques

Drives AC Drives Using PWM Techniques Power Conversion Unit The block diagram below shows the power conversion unit in Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) drives. In this type of drive, a diode bridge rectifier

### HVAC Efficiency Definitions

HVAC Efficiency Definitions Term page EER - 2 SEER - 3 COP - 4 HSPF - 5 IPLV - 6 John Mix May 2006 Carrier Corporation 1 Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) The energy efficiency ratio is used to evaluate the

### FREQUENCY CONTROLLED AC MOTOR DRIVE

FREQUENCY CONTROLLED AC MOTOR DRIVE 1.0 Features of Standard AC Motors The squirrel cage induction motor is the electrical motor motor type most widely used in industry. This leading position results mainly

### Commercial Energy Savings Guide. www.touchstoneenergy.coop

Commercial Energy Savings Guide www.touchstoneenergy.coop NRECA Pocket Savings Guide Pag.indd 1-3 2/7/05 4:19:07 PM Commercial Energy Saving Tips Notes: This guide provides basic hints on ways to reduce

### POWER SYSTEM HARMONICS. A Reference Guide to Causes, Effects and Corrective Measures AN ALLEN-BRADLEY SERIES OF ISSUES AND ANSWERS

A Reference Guide to Causes, Effects and Corrective Measures AN ALLEN-BRADLEY SERIES OF ISSUES AND ANSWERS By: Robert G. Ellis, P. Eng., Rockwell Automation Medium Voltage Business CONTENTS INTRODUCTION...

### Optimization of Water - Cooled Chiller Cooling Tower Combinations

Optimization of Water - Cooled Chiller Cooling Tower Combinations by: James W. Furlong & Frank T. Morrison Baltimore Aircoil Company The warm water leaving the chilled water coils is pumped to the evaporator

### Using simulation to calculate the NPV of a project

Using simulation to calculate the NPV of a project Marius Holtan Onward Inc. 5/31/2002 Monte Carlo simulation is fast becoming the technology of choice for evaluating and analyzing assets, be it pure financial

### 7 Testing of Transformers

7 Testing of Transformers The structure of the circuit equivalent of a practical transformer is developed earlier. The performance parameters of interest can be obtained by solving that circuit for any

### Application Note Noise Frequently Asked Questions

: What is? is a random signal inherent in all physical components. It directly limits the detection and processing of all information. The common form of noise is white Gaussian due to the many random