# Experiment P-6 Friction Force

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1 1 Experiment P-6 Friction Force Objectives To learn about the relationship between force, normal force and coefficient. To observe changes in the force within different surfaces and different masses. To calculate the coefficients (static and kinetic) in these different conditions. Modules and Sensors PC + NeuLog application USB-200 module NUL-211 Force logger sensor Equipment and Accessories Rough and smooth wooden block with hook 20 cm of thread 1000 g mass 500 g mass The items above are included in the NeuLog Mechanics kit, MEC-KIT.

2 2 Introduction Friction force is created when two surfaces move or try to move against each other. The direction of the force is always opposite to the direction of motion (or motion attempt) and parallel to the surface, therefore it resists the relative motion of the surfaces. Friction force depends on the roughness of the surfaces, and the "normal force" which presses the surfaces together. It can be described by the following equation: When the object is on a horizontal surface and there are not any other force components acting on it perpendicular to the surface, then the normal force equals the object's weight, thus: The coefficient of is the ratio between the force of and the normal force that presses the surfaces together. Because it is a force divided by a force, does not have any units. Friction force depends on the object's mass (part of the normal force), however the coefficient is not a function of mass; it depends only on the properties of the surfaces. When an object is at rest, the amount of force required to move it is usually greater than the force required to keep it moving. Therefore, typically there is a difference between the coefficient of static (before motion starts) and the kinetic (in motion). The static coefficient is calculated at the threshold of motion while the kinetic coefficient is calculated during motion ( force is constant). In this experiment we will use a force sensor to study the al force of different surfaces and different weights.

3 3 Procedure Experiment setup 1. Set up the experiment as shown in the picture below. 2. Place a block with one smooth side and one rough side on the table. The rough side should be in contact with the table. 3. Attach the block to the force sensor's hook with a thread. There should be around 10 cm between the block and the force sensor. 4. Place the 1 kg mass (1000 g) on the block. We add weight to the block in order to see the different types of forces.

4 4 Sensor setup 5. Connect the USB module to the PC. 6. Connect the force sensor to the USB-200 module. Note: The following application functions are explained in short. It is recommended to practice the NeuLog application functions (as described in the user manual) beforehand. 7. Run the NeuLog application and check that the force sensor is identified.

5 5 Settings 8. Click on the On-line Experiment icon in the NeuLog main icon bar. 9. Click on the Sensor's Module box. 10. Click on the Push=Negative button to get positive values when pulling the hook.

6 11. Click on the Range button. 12. Select the +/- 10 N button to change the sensor's mode Click on the Experiment setup icon and set the: Experiment duration to 5 seconds Sampling rate to 50 per second

7 7 Testing and measurements Note: The orientation of the sensor is very important. Before each measurement, hold the sensor in the same position you will use for the specific experiment and zero it. 14. Sensor Zeroing: hold the sensor in its proper position (on the table) and press the button in the sensor s box for about 3 seconds. Alternatively, you can click on the Reset button in the Module Setup box menu. 15. Click on the Run experiment icon to start the measurement. 16. Hold the force sensor on the table and slowly pull the block horizontally while increasing the force (the direction should be in a straight line); when you reach a certain force the block will start to move, keep the block moving at a about the same velocity until the end of the measurement. The part in which you increase the applied force should be done in around one second. Practice this until you see a relatively smooth motion in your graph.

8 8 17. If needed, click on the Zoom fit icon (or click on the Zoom icon and locate the mouse cursor at a point above the graph and press its left button; keep it pressed and create a rectangle that includes the whole graph). 18. Your graph should be similar to the following: Static Kinetic Transition point Before applying force on the bock 19. Save your graph. 20. The sensor measures the resistance of the block to motion i.e. the force. At the beginning of the graph, the force is zero because the block does not move and there isn't any applied force on it. As we apply force on the block by pulling it, the block resists and do not move, at this part, the force equals the applied force and is considered static. The highest possible static value is called the transition point. We can use this value in order to calculate the static coefficient:

9 9 After this point the block starts moving as we pull it, the force decreases and then becomes constant. We can use the value at this range to calculate the kinetic coefficient: 21. It is recommended to repeat every measurement three times. 22. In each graph, click on the Select Zone icon and select the part between the transition point static force and the other one to the point where the force becomes constant. 23. In the sample experiment, the force at the transition point is 5.42 N. In order to calculate the static coefficient, we should place this value in the following equation:

10 10 The force at motion is 4.11 N. In order to calculate the kinetic coefficient, we should place this value in the following equation: In our case the total mass is 1.24 kg, therefore mg = 1.24 kg x 9.8 m/s 2 (g, gravitational acceleration) = kg x m/s 2 = N. To find the coefficients we divide each force value by mg (total weight). Surface Block's mass [kg] Mass on the block [kg] Total mass [kg] Max. static force [N] Static coefficie nt Kinetic force [N] Kinetic coefficie nt Rough N / N= N / N = Fill the first row in the following table with your results and calculations. If you repeated the measurement, use the average values. Surface Block's mass [kg] Mass on the block [kg] Total mass [kg] Max. static force [N] Static coefficie nt Kinetic force [N] Kinetic coefficie nt Rough 1 Smooth 1 Rough 1.5 Smooth 1.5

11 Proceed in this way with the smooth side on the table (will the force be different? Will the coefficients be different?): 26. Fill the second row of the table with your results and calculations. 27. Proceed in this way with each side of the block, but now put also the 500 g mass on the block. 28. Fill the third and forth rows of the table with your results and calculations.

12 12 Summary questions 1. Compare the following values you received. If there is a difference between the values, explain it: a. Static vs. kinetic coefficients in each measurement. b. Friction coefficients of the rough surface vs. the smooth surface (with the 1000 g). c. Friction coefficients of the rough surface with the 1000 g mass vs. the same surface with the 1500 g mass. 2. Think about what would happen in a world without. What would happen if you tried to walk? What would happen if you slide an object across the ground?

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