# Computer Architecture

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1 Computer Architecture Having studied numbers, combinational and sequential logic, and assembly language programming, we begin the study of the overall computer system. The term computer architecture is just a fancy word for the way the computer is put together. It includes: How logic circuits (gates, ff s, and more complex devices like adders, registers, counters, etc.) are arranged in a modern central processor unit (CPU). The relation of the CPU to memory, and how CPU/memory interaction occurs. How the computer communicates to the user via peripheral devices such as the keyboard, CRT, printer, scanner, etc. 1

2 Course of Study We will spend most of the remaining lectures discussing the internals of the CPU. We will devote some attention to the architecture of the modern computer (with emphasis on the MIPS-style architecture, the predominant approach today). Major topics of study will be: Design of the simple arithmetic-logic unit or datapath. Design of the CPU control unit. Multicycle implementation, a step toward pipeline architecture. Overview of pipelining Memory management and design in a modern computer. 2

3 The ALU or path The major components of a computer include: The CPU Memory CPU Computer Memory Peripheral Devices Peripherals that make the computer useful, such as the disk, printer, and mouse. Control Input The CPU consists of a control unit and the arithmetic/logic unit (ALU). ALU Output We first study the ALU. 3

4 The Central Processor Unit (CPU) ALU Instruction Fetch/Decode Registers Control Unit The major components of the CPU are: A unit to load instructions from memory to the CPU. The arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) or datapath, to process data. Registers to hold arguments and results of ALU processing. A control unit to decode instructions and initiate ALU action. 4

5 The ALU The ALU (Arithmetic-Logic Unit, or Patterson and Hennessy s datapath) is the figuring unit of the computer, providing the calculation capability. The ALU is connected to storage elements (registers for holding data to be processed and the results of the processing) by data buses. The ALU processor is normally composed of singleelement (one-bit) processors (primarily adders), which are assembled together to form a -bit processor, in the case of the MIPS R2000. It also includes some other processing elements (such as a shifter).

6 The MIPS Computer: An Example of Bit-Slicing AND OR 1-Bit Full Add/ Sub. Carry/Borrow Out Sum/Difference Out 1-Bit Processor MIPS -Bit Processor Just as, in Lecture 4, we saw how we could use 1-bit adders to compose a -bit adder, the MIPS -bit ALU processing unit is simply an amalgam of 1-bit processors. 6

7 ALU Components As noted above, the ALU needs other components as well: Registers to store arguments and results. Buses to carry data from registers to the ALU and results back to the register unit. Two memory access units, with associated buses: An instruction fetch unit to get instructions from computer memory as needed. This includes a program counter, which always points to the address of the next instruction to be accessed. A second path to memory to obtain data to be used in the program and to store data back into memory as required. A control unit that tells the ALU what to do (covered later). 7

8 ALU Components We will use new symbols in the design of the MIPS computer over the next three lectures. Keep in mind that these are symbols for items you already understand. For instance, the MIPS register block is simply a group of -bit registers, and the registers are, in turn, collections of D Flip-Flops. Thus while the symbols are new, they represent, in general, digital logic with which we are by now quite familiar. In most cases, the MIPS illustrations shown are from the Patterson and Hennessy book.* Such illustrations are credited as they occur. * David A. Patterson and John L. Hennessy, Computer Organization and Design, 2nd Edition 8

9 ALU Components (3) Instruction (-bit) Instruction Memory Instruction bits 0-31 New PC Current ADD Instruction memory* Program counter Adder After David A. Patterson and John L. Hennessy, Computer Organization and Design, 2nd Edition Shown above are a number of the symbols for components of the computer that we will be designing. * We note that there is really only a single memory in modern computers, and the terms data memory or instruction memory refer only to the channel or pathway into the common memory unit. 9

10 Program Counter Architecture 10 The program counter (PC) is a register that addresses the next instruction in memory. Since the PC always points to the next instruction, this address must be readily updated. The usual method is to add 4 to the current address (since the instruction is a -bit word and each -bit word has an address 4 bytes higher than the last word). PC New instr. address After David A. Patterson and John L. Hennessy, Computer Organization and Design, 2nd Edition 4 Instruction Memory Current instr. address ADD -bit instruction

11 More ALU Components Source Reg. 1 Source Reg. 2 Dest. Reg. In 1 Out 2 Out Register Block Input Operands ALU Compare 1 Result 11 After David A. Patterson and John L. Hennessy, Computer Organization and Design, 2nd Edition For the ALU, we need some more components: (1) a register block (group of registers) in which to store operands and results, and (2) the ALU itself, which is primarily combinational logic, as mentioned earlier. Since the ALU is largely an adder plus other logic, we use the adder symbol.

12 ALU Architecture for Processing In the MIPS CPU, all arguments used in processing are stored in registers. This requires two buses to route data to the ALU. All registers are tied to both output buses. A single input bus carries results back to all registers. Op code Rs Rt Rd Sh amt Fn code Instruction Storage Register Source Reg. 1 Source Reg. 2 Dest. Reg. In 1 Out 2 Out Register Block ALU Compare 1 Result After David A. Patterson and John L. Hennessy, Computer Organization and Design, 2nd Edition 12

13 More ALU Components Memory In addition to instruction memory, we need data memory. Now in reality, memory is memory, so when we say memory, we simply mean we need a path to the single computer working memory to load/store data in load/store instructions. We color code data memory blue, like instruction memory, to remind us that it is the same memory, only accessed along a different path or bus. After David A. Patterson and John L. Hennessy, Computer Organization and Design, 2nd Edition data data Memory 13

14 The Sign Extender We remember from studying MIPS instructions and SPIM that many instructions have immediate parts that are 16 bits in length. The immediate is added to a -bit operand (register or PC contents) to create an operand or perhaps a new address, for instance in a branch instruction. Since the immediate may be + or, then to add it to a -bit argument, we must sign extend it to -bits (as we discussed in the MIPS/SPIM lectures). The sign extension unit performs this function. 16 Sign extend After David A. Patterson and John L. Hennessy, Computer Organization and Design, 2nd Edition 14

15 Bus Connection in a Load Instruction Op code Instruction Register After David A. Patterson and John L. Hennessy, Computer Organization and Design, 2nd Edition Rs Rt 16- bit imm Source Reg. 1 Dest. Reg. In 1 Out 2 Out Register Block 16 Sign extend ALU Compare 1 data data Memory 1 Note that in a load instruction, the ALU performs the address calculation.

16 Bus Connection in a Store Instruction Op code Instruction Register After David A. Patterson and John L. Hennessy, Computer Organization and Design, 2nd Edition Rs Rt 16- bit imm Source Reg. 1 Source Reg. 2 In 1 Out 2 Out Register Block 16 Sign extend ALU Compare 1 data data Memory In store instructions, the ALU also calculates the memory address. 16

17 Branch Instructions A branch instruction will have one of two results: (1) the branch is not taken, in which case the next instruction is executed (i.e., instruction at address [PC]+4), or (2) the branch is taken, in which case the program counter gets an entirely new address (new address = [PC] + 16-bit immediate from instruction [±,768]). In the first case, we simply use the PC update scheme shown on slide 10 of this lecture. In the second case, the current PC contents (next instruction address, that is, [PC]+4), is added to the 16-bit immediate contents of the instruction to form the new address. Not only do we need an add function, but also a left shift 2 places (since memory is addressed as bytes, but the 16-bit immediate in the branch instruction is a word address). This scheme is shown on the next slide. 17

18 Conditional Branch Circuit 18 Op code Rs Rt 16- bit imm Branch instruction Source Reg. 1 Source Reg. 2 Next instruction address (PC+4) from program counter 1 Out 2 Out Register Block 16 Sign extend Shift left 2 ALU ADD Branch address Compare (To branch control) 1 If branch is taken, 16-bit immediate in the branch instruction is (1) signextended to bits, (2) shifted left 2 places, and (3) added to current PC contents. After David A. Patterson and John L. Hennessy, Computer Organization and Design, 2nd Edition

19 Jump Instruction Modifications A jump instruction unconditionally transfers program control to a new location in the program. The ALU must therefore use the 26-bit immediate address in the instruction to create a new PC address. This is done by (1) shifting left 2 (to create a proper 28- bit byte address), and (2) adding the upper four PC bits to complete the new -bit address. This new address is then loaded into the program counter as the address of the next instruction to be executed. 19

20 Jump ALU Path Jump instruction Op code 26- bit imm 26 Source Reg. 1 Source Reg. 2 Upper 4 bits of current PC address PC 1 Out 2 Out Register Block Shift left 2 ALU PC loaded with jump destination address After David A. Patterson and John L. Hennessy, Computer Organization and Design, 2nd Edition 20

21 Combining the Elements to Make a Complete ALU Over the last ten or so slides, we have designed many of the elements that, when assembled, will make up the ALU of our MIPS computer. We now connect the various sections of the ALU together to produce a final single cycle ALU; an ALU that executes one instruction each time the clock ticks. Note that up to now, we have NOT considered any of the Control elements of the ALU; that is, the circuits that interpret the instructions and direct the ALU as to (1) which operation to execute, and (2) what operands or variables to process. We will cover the so-called Control elements and a multi-cycle implementation in the next lecture. 21

22 Buses and ALU Register/Register Functions Instruction bits 0-31 Register address buses, each bits wide (Rs & Rt = source registers, Rd = dest. register). Rs Rt Rd 16 (Bits 0-1) Reg. Block 1 2 Sign Extend 1 is one of R/R operands; 2 may be a second operand in many R/R instructions (or immediate may be used). M U X ALU Input bus not used. MUX selects register contents or immediate for R/R instruction process. ALU processes register data for R/R instruction (math, logical, shift, etc.). M U X ALU calculation result bypasses memory for R/R instructions (MUX chooses result). Result writeback (results of R/R ALU calculation). 22 After David A. Patterson and John L. Hennessy, Computer Organization and Design, 2nd Edition

23 Load/Store Functions ( or ) Instruction bits 0-31 Register address buses, each bits wide (Rs & Rt = source registers, Rd = dest. register). Rs Rt Rd 16 (Bits 0-1) Reg. Block 1 2 Sign Extend 1 is part of address (added to sign-ext. immediate); 2 is data to be stored in a store instruction. M U X ALU Input bus for data stores. MUX selects immediate for address calculation in memory access instruction. Result writeback (memory data to be loaded in Rd on load instruction). ALU calculates memory address. M U X Bypass not used if read/write instruction (MUX chooses memory output for loads). 23 After David A. Patterson and John L. Hennessy, Computer Organization and Design, 2nd Edition

24 Adding the Instruction Fetch Circuit P C +4 ADD Memory Instruction Instruction register is not shown. Inst Instruction bits 0-31 Normal PC update ([PC]+4 [PC]) Rs Rt Rd 16 (Bits 0-1) Reg. Block 1 2 Sign Extend Result writeback M U X Note: This is the SAME memory! ALU Memory bypass for R/R results M U X 24 After David A. Patterson and John L. Hennessy, Computer Organization and Design, 2nd Edition

25 Completing ALU Design P C Normal program counter update ([PC]+4 [PC]) +4 ADD Memory Instruction Inst Instruction bits 0-31 NOTE: Design is complete except for jump instruction path. Rs Rt Rd 16 (Bits 0-1) Reg. Block 1 2 Sign Extend Left shift 2 Result writeback M U X ADD ALU M U X Branch address MUX chooses new PC contents depending on whether branch is taken Memory bypass for R/R results M U X 2 After David A. Patterson and John L. Hennessy, Computer Organization and Design, 2nd Edition

26 The Single Cycle ALU What we have accomplished in this ALU design is to come up with all the processing hardware necessary to implement the MIPS instruction set. Note that we have NOT considered the control circuits (that tell the ALU what to do), and will cover those next lecture. This basic MIPS processor design is referred to as the single cycle ALU (or sometimes the single cycle CPU ). Why is this? The reason is that this MIPS CPU (more or less the original implementation of the MIPS instructions) is designed so that ANY instruction can be processed in one cycle of the CPU clock. Lets consider how this single cycle CPU works. 26

27 27 The Single Cycle ALU (2) Since the ALU is basically combinational logic, the tick of the clock governs ALU register behavior, which times the process. A single clock cycle is from rising to rising or falling to falling edge of the clock. Let us use falling to falling as the reference (remember: a master-slave ff s output changes on the falling edge of the clock). Consider what happens when the clock ticks. The PC is already updated. The instruction at memory location [PC] is retrieved. [PC] [PC+4] Instruction is decoded/registers are identified (operands). Register output buses send data into ALU; ALU function is identified. Register data flows through the ALU and is processed. (In loads/stores, data memory is accessed for load or store.) The memory or ALU results are stored back in a register, if necessary.

28 Time 1 clock cycle Single Cycle Timing 1. (Start of cycle) Instruction retrieved into instruction register. 2. (PC contents updated.) 3. Instruction decoded and registers accessed. 4. Register contents gated onto ALU input bus (immediate operands sign-extended and input to ALU).. ALU function identified and ALU result obtained. 6. ALU results used to access memory location if required. 7. Memory data written (store) or retrieved (load) if memory access instruction. 8. gated onto register input bus. 9. (End of cycle) Instruction result stored in designated register if required. 28

29 Single-Cycle Timing P C +4 ADD Memory Instruction PC update occurs early in cycle. Inst Normal program counter update ([PC]+4 [PC]) ~20% of cycle ~40% of cycle Instruction bits 0-31 Rs Rt Rd 16 (Bits 0-1) Reg. Block 1 2 Sign Extend Left shift 2 M U X ADD 100% of cycle ALU M U X Branch address MUX chooses new PC contents depending on whether branch is taken ~60% of cycle ~80% of cycle Memory bypass for R/R results M U X Result writeback 29 After David A. Patterson and John L. Hennessy, Computer Organization and Design, 2nd Edition

30 30 ALU Design Summary We have now seen how the common elements we studied earlier are combined to make the MIPS ALU. This design is a solid, single-cycle implementation that supports the MIPS instruction set we studied in our lectures on assembly language programming. We will study the control logic for this in the next lecture. The single-cycle implementation has a few drawbacks, however, and we will also discuss in the next lecture how to improve on this design to speed it up considerably.

31 Single-Cycle ALU Quiz Why is this architecture called the single-cycle architecture? What is the difference in instruction and data memory? Why does the CPU need a sign extender? How is the branch address calculated? How is the ALU used in load and store instructions? Why is a MUX needed on one of the ALU inputs? Why is the jump address field shifted left two bits? 31

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