# CS:APP Chapter 4 Computer Architecture. Wrap-Up. William J. Taffe Plymouth State University. using the slides of

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1 CS:APP Chapter 4 Computer Architecture Wrap-Up William J. Taffe Plymouth State University using the slides of Randal E. Bryant Carnegie Mellon University

2 Overview Wrap-Up of PIPE Design Performance analysis Fetch stage design Exceptional conditions Modern High-Performance Processors Out-of-order execution 2 CS 4300 Computer Architecture

3 Performance Metrics Clock rate Measured in Megahertz or Gigahertz Function of stage partitioning and circuit design Keep amount of work per stage small Rate at which instructions executed CPI: cycles per instruction On average, how many clock cycles does each instruction require? Function of pipeline design and benchmark programs E.g., how frequently are branches mispredicted? 3 CS 4300 Computer Architecture

4 CPI for PIPE CPI 1.0 Fetch instruction each clock cycle Effectively process new instruction almost every cycle Although each individual instruction has latency of 5 cycles CPI > 1.0 Sometimes must stall or cancel branches Computing CPI C clock cycles I instructions executed to completion B bubbles injected (C = I + B) CPI = C/I = (I+B)/I = B/I Factor B/I represents average penalty due to bubbles 4 CS 4300 Computer Architecture

5 CPI for PIPE (Cont.) B/I = LP + MP + RP LP: Penalty due to load/use hazard stalling Typical Values Fraction of instructions that are loads 0.25 Fraction of load instructions requiring stall 0.20 Number of bubbles injected each time 1 LP = 0.25 * 0.20 * 1 = 0.05 MP: Penalty due to mispredicted branches Fraction of instructions that are cond. jumps 0.20 Fraction of cond. jumps mispredicted 0.40 Number of bubbles injected each time 2 MP = 0.20 * 0.40 * 2 = 0.16 RP: Penalty due to ret instructions Fraction of instructions that are returns 0.02 Number of bubbles injected each time 3 RP = 0.02 * 3 = 0.06 Net effect of penalties = 0.27 CPI = 1.27 (Not bad!) 5 CS 4300 Computer Architecture

6 Fetch Logic Revisited During Fetch Cycle 1. Select PC D icode ifun ra rb valc valp M_icode M_Bch M_valA W_icode W_valM 2. Read bytes from instruction memory 3. Examine icode to determine instruction length Instr valid Split Byte 0 Align Bytes 1-5 Need valc Need regids PC increment Predict PC 4. Increment PC Instruction memory Timing Steps 2 & 4 require significant amount of time F Select PC predpc 6 CS 4300 Computer Architecture

7 Standard Fetch Timing Select PC need_regids, need_valc Mem. Read Increment 1 clock cycle Must Perform Everything in Sequence Can t compute incremented PC until know how much to increment it by 7 CS 4300 Computer Architecture

8 A Fast PC Increment Circuit incrpc High-order 29 bits MUX 0 1 carry Low-order 3 bits Slow 29-bit incrementer 3-bit adder Fast High-order 29 bits Low-order 3 bits need_regids 0 need_valc PC 8 CS 4300 Computer Architecture

9 Modified Fetch Timing Select PC need_regids, need_valc 3-bit add Mem. Read MUX Incrementer Standard cycle 29-Bit Incrementer 1 clock cycle Acts as soon as PC selected Output not needed until final MUX Works in parallel with memory read 9 CS 4300 Computer Architecture

10 More Realistic Fetch Logic Other PC Controls Fetch Control Instr. Length Byte 0 Current Instruction Bytes 1-5 Fetch Box Instruction Cache Integrated into instruction cache Fetches entire cache block (16 or 32 bytes) Selects current instruction from current block Works ahead to fetch next block As reaches end of current block At branch target Current Block Next Block 10 CS 4300 Computer Architecture

11 Exceptions Conditions under which pipeline cannot continue normal operation Causes Halt instruction Bad address for instruction or data Invalid instruction Pipeline control error Desired Action Complete some instructions (Current) (Previous) (Previous) (Previous) Either current or previous (depends on exception type) Discard others Call exception handler Like an unexpected procedure call 11 CS 4300 Computer Architecture

12 Exception Examples Detect in Fetch Stage jmp \$-1 # Invalid jump target.byte 0xFF # Invalid instruction code halt # Halt instruction Detect in Memory Stage irmovl \$100,%eax rmmovl %eax,0x10000(%eax) # invalid address 12 CS 4300 Computer Architecture

13 Exceptions in Pipeline Processor #1 # demo-exc1.ys irmovl \$100,%eax rmmovl %eax,0x10000(%eax) # Invalid address nop.byte 0xFF # Invalid instruction code x000: irmovl \$100,%eax F D E M 0x006: rmmovl %eax,0x1000(%eax) F D E 0x00c: nop F D 0x00d:.byte 0xFF F Exception detected 5 W M E D Exception detected Desired Behavior rmmovl should cause exception 13 CS 4300 Computer Architecture

14 Exceptions in Pipeline Processor #2 # demo-exc2.ys 0x000: xorl %eax,%eax # Set condition codes 0x002: jne t # Not taken 0x007: irmovl \$1,%eax 0x00d: irmovl \$2,%edx 0x013: halt 0x014: t:.byte 0xFF # Target x000: xorl %eax,%eax F D E M W 0x002: jne t F D E M 0x014: t:.byte 0xFF F D E M W 0x???: (I m lost!) F D E M W 0x007: irmovl \$1,%eax F D E M W Desired Behavior No exception should occur Exception detected 14 CS 4300 Computer Architecture

15 Maintaining Exception Ordering W exc icode vale valm dste dstm M exc icode Bch vale vala dste dstm E exc icode ifun valc vala valb dste dstm srca srcb D exc icode ifun ra rb valc valp F predpc Add exception status field to pipeline registers Fetch stage sets to either AOK, ADR (when bad fetch address), or INS (illegal instruction) Decode & execute pass values through Memory either passes through or sets to ADR Exception triggered only when instruction hits write back 15 CS 4300 Computer Architecture

16 Side Effects in Pipeline Processor # demo-exc3.ys irmovl \$100,%eax rmmovl %eax,0x10000(%eax) # invalid address addl %eax,%eax # Sets condition codes x000: irmovl \$100,%eax F D E M 0x006: rmmovl %eax,0x1000(%eax) F D E 0x00c: addl %eax,%eax F D 5 W M E Exception detected Desired Behavior rmmovl should cause exception Condition code set No following instruction should have any effect 16 CS 4300 Computer Architecture

17 Avoiding Side Effects Presence of Exception Should Disable State Update When detect exception in memory stage Disable condition code setting in execute Must happen in same clock cycle When exception passes to write-back stage Disable memory write in memory stage Disable condition code setting in execute stage Implementation Hardwired into the design of the PIPE simulator You have no control over this 17 CS 4300 Computer Architecture

18 Rest of Exception Handling Calling Exception Handler Push PC onto stack Either PC of faulting instruction or of next instruction Usually pass through pipeline along with exception status Jump to handler address Usually fixed address Defined as part of ISA Implementation Haven t tried it yet! 18 CS 4300 Computer Architecture

19 Modern CPU Design Register Updates Retirement Unit Register File Prediction OK? Instruction Control Fetch Control Instruction Decode Address Instruction Instructions Cache Operations Integer/ Branch General Integer FP Add FP Mult/Div Load Store Functional Units Operation Results Addr. Addr. Data Data Execution Data Cache 19 CS 4300 Computer Architecture

20 Instruction Control Retirement Unit Register File Instruction Control Address Fetch Control Instruction Instructions Cache Instruction Decode Operations Grabs Instruction Bytes From Memory Based on Current PC + Predicted Targets for Predicted Branches Hardware dynamically guesses whether branches taken/not taken and (possibly) branch target Translates Instructions Into Operations Primitive steps required to perform instruction Typical instruction requires 1 3 operations Converts Register References Into Tags Abstract identifier linking destination of one operation with sources of later operations 20 CS 4300 Computer Architecture

21 Execution Unit Register Updates Prediction OK? Operations Integer/ Branch General Integer FP Add FP Mult/Div Load Store Functional Units Operation Results Addr. Addr. Data Data Execution Execution Data Cache Multiple functional units Each can operate in independently Operations performed as soon as operands available Not necessarily in program order Within limits of functional units Control logic Ensures behavior equivalent to sequential program execution 21 CS 4300 Computer Architecture

22 CPU Capabilities of Pentium III Multiple Instructions Can Execute in Parallel 1 load 1 store 2 integer (one may be branch) 1 FP Addition 1 FP Multiplication or Division Some Instructions Take > 1 Cycle, but Can be Pipelined Instruction Latency Cycles/Issue Load / Store 3 1 Integer Multiply 4 1 Integer Divide Double/Single FP Multiply 5 2 Double/Single FP Add 3 1 Double/Single FP Divide CS 4300 Computer Architecture

23 PentiumPro Block Diagram P6 Microarchitecture PentiumPro Pentium II Pentium III Microprocessor Report 2/16/95

24 PentiumPro Operation Translates instructions dynamically into Uops Uops 118 bits wide Holds operation, two sources, and destination Executes Uops with Out of Order engine Uop executed when Operands available Functional unit available Execution controlled by Reservation Stations Keeps track of data dependencies between uops Allocates resources 24 CS 4300 Computer Architecture

25 PentiumPro Branch Prediction Critical to Performance cycle penalty for misprediction Branch Target Buffer 512 entries 4 bits of history Adaptive algorithm Can recognize repeated patterns, e.g., alternating taken not taken Handling BTB misses Detect in cycle 6 Predict taken for negative offset, not taken for positive Loops vs. conditionals 25 CS 4300 Computer Architecture

26 Example Branch Prediction Branch History Encode information about prior history of branch instructions Predict whether or not branch will be taken NT NT NT T Yes! Yes? No? No! NT State Machine T T T Each time branch taken, transition to right When not taken, transition to left Predict branch taken when in state Yes! or Yes? 26 CS 4300 Computer Architecture

27 Pentium 4 Block Diagram Intel Tech. Journal Q1, 2001 Next generation microarchitecture 27 CS 4300 Computer Architecture

28 Pentium 4 Features Trace Cache L2 Cache IA32 Instrs. Instruct. Decoder uops Trace Cache Operations Replaces traditional instruction cache Caches instructions in decoded form Reduces required rate for instruction decoder Double-Pumped ALUs Simple instructions (add) run at 2X clock rate Very Deep Pipeline 20+ cycle branch penalty Enables very high clock rates Slower than Pentium III for a given clock rate 28 CS 4300 Computer Architecture

29 Processor Summary Design Technique Create uniform framework for all instructions Want to share hardware among instructions Connect standard logic blocks with bits of control logic Operation State held in memories and clocked registers Computation done by combinational logic Clocking of registers/memories sufficient to control overall behavior Enhancing Performance Pipelining increases throughput and improves resource utilization Must make sure maintains ISA behavior 29 CS 4300 Computer Architecture

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