1 ISSN THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CASHEW JUICE AT DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS AND TEMPERATURES Renata Cristina Ferreira Bonomo1*, Rafael da Costa Ilhéu Fontan2, Tatiana Sant Anna de Souza3, Cristiane Martins Veloso2, Maycon Fagundes Teixeira Reis4, Sérgio de Souza Castro2 ABSTRACT Density and viscosity of commercial cashew juice were studied at a temperature range from (5 to 80) C and soluble solids contents between (0.8 to 11.2) ºBrix. Polynomial models fitted the experimental data very well, showing a linear relationship between temperature, soluble solids content and the thermophysical properties. The thermal expansion coefficient was computed from its thermodynamic definition at constant pressure. The effect of temperature was very well correlated with the Arrhenius-Guzman equation (R2 > 0.96). The values of activation energy (Ea) increased with soluble solids contents from ( to ) kj.mol-1. Keywords: density, viscosity, thermal expansion coefficient, activation energy. PROPRIEDADES TERMOFÍSICAS DO SUCO DE CAJÚ EM DIFERENTES CONCENTRAÇÕES E TEMPERATURAS RESUMO Densidade e viscosidade de suco de caju comercial foram avaliadas na faixa de temperatura de (5 a 80) ºC e teor de sólidos solúveis entre (0,8 e 11,2) ºBrix. Modelos polinomiais ajustaram-se satisfatoriamente aos resultados experimentais, sendo verificada uma relação linear entre a temperatura, sólidos solúveis e as propriedades termofísicas. O coeficiente de expansão térmica foi determinado a partir de sua definição termodinâmica em pressão constante. O efeito da temperatura na viscosidade foi bem descrito pela equação de Arrhenius-Guzman (R2 > 0,96). Os valores da Energia de ativação (Ea) aumentou com o aumento da concentração de sólidos solúveis a partir de (12,512 até 18,673) kj.mol-1. Palavras-chave: densidade, viscosidade, coeficiente de expansão térmica, energia de ativação. Protocolo 1137 de 22/08/ Professora Doutora Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia - Itapetinga BA, *Corresponding author: 2 Professor(a) Mestre Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia - Itapetinga BA, 3 Mestre em Engenharia de Alimentos Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia - Itapetinga BA, tati 4 Graduando em Engenharia de Alimentos Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia - Itapetinga BA, 35
2 36 INTRODUCTION MATERIAL AND METHODS Cashew juice is widely available in the Brazilian market. This juice, which is a complex mixture of vitamins, polyphenols, sugar, mineral salts, organic acids and amino acids is an excellent source of vitamin C and contains around six times more vitamin C than orange juice (da Silva et al., 2000; Azoubel et. al., 2005). Generally, food composition and temperature are the important factors which affect thermal properties and the knowledge of these properties is necessary for effective design of food processing equipment such as heat exchangers and other equipments which require pumping of the products (Tansakul & Chaisawang, 2006; Azoubel et. al., 2005; Zainal et. al., 2000). According to Zuritz et al. (2005) an adequate manufacturing process, a correct design of the concentrate plants and an appropriate evaluation of their performance will facilitate optimization of the concentrated juice quality parameters. The thermophysical properties of several juices have been reported, such as pink guava (Zainal et al., 2000), orange (Telis-Romero et al., 1998), grape (Zuritz et al., 2005), pomegranate and pear (Magerramov et al., 2007), cashew (Azoubel et al., 2005) and Malus floribunda (Cepeda & Villarán, 1999). Empirical models of thermal properties have been developed for each specific food material, in spite of the general models developed by Choi & Okos (1983) so that they would give a more accurate prediction. The thermal expansion coefficient is a physical property that represents density change in the material, due to an increase in its temperature at constant pressure. In spite of thermophysical properties of fruit juice as well as mathematical models for their calculation have been published, the majority of the available data for fruits are for sub-tropical ones. In an attempt to fill this gap, the objective of this work was to measure the density, viscosity and thermal expansion coefficient of cashew juice as a function of temperature and soluble solute content and to obtain simple equations to correlate experimental data. Materials Cashew juice with 11.2 Brix of soluble solids content was obtained at a local market in Itapetinga, Brazil. Dilutions from this juice were made with distilled water until obtain samples with (0.8, 1.4 and 2.6) Brix. All the juices prepared were filtered to remove particles in suspension using a 50 mesh sieve. The total soluble solids were measured using a portable refractometer (Atago, Brazil). Density and thermal expansion coefficient Cashew juice density was determined by applying the picnometric method (Constenla et al.,1989). The sample kept in a 25 ml standard volumetric picnometer was weighed using an analytical balance (precision of ± g, Gehaka). The picnometer was previously calibrated with distilled water at each temperature studied, (5, 20, 35, 50, 65 and 80) C, and kept constant through a thermostatic water bath (Quimis, Brazil). All of these determinations were carried out by three repetions. The thermal expansion coefficient was calculated from the thermodynamic expression (Equation 1), at constant pressure, using the best fitting polynomial to represent density (Zuritz et al., 2005). 1 1 T P T P (1) Viscosity Some authors have considered that the fruit juices present Newtonian behavior when pulp content is low, soluble solids content is lower than 30 Brix, or if the juices have been depectinised (Cepeda & Villarán, 1999; Saravacos, 1970; Zuritz et. al., 2005).
3 In order to determine the apparent viscosity, at first the kinematic viscosity was obtained in the studied temperatures. It was used a 75 cappilary Cannon-Fenske viscosimeter, immersed in a cinematic bath for temperature control. The kinematic viscosity value for each temperature was calculated by Equation 2. n t (2) Once the density and cinematic viscosity was known, the apparent viscosity could be calculated by Equation 3 (Bird et al., 1960). (3) From viscosity values ( ) as function of temperature, flow Activation Energy values for each studied concentration were calculated using the Arrhenius-Guzman equation (Cepeda & Villarán, 1999): exp Ea RT (4) Experimental design The experiments were carried out at 4 levels of soluble solute content, (0.8, 1.4, 2.6 and 11.2) Brix, and 6 levels of temperature, (5, 20, 35, 50, 65 and 80) C, in a factorial design. All statistical analysis was performed using the SAEG statistical package (Ribeiro Junior, 2001). The suitability of the fitted functions 37 was evaluated by the determination coefficient (R2), the level of significance and residual analysis. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Effect of temperature and concentration on density and thermal expansion coefficient In Table 1 values of density of clarified cashew juices are shown with different soluble solids content (concentration) measured at different temperatures. The statistical analysis showed that the concentration and temperature had a significant effect on density at a 95% confidence level. It was found from these results that density of cashew juice decreased linearly with the temperature increase and concentration decrease. This result is in agreement with depectined and clarified peach juice and orange juice (Ramos & Ibarz, 1998), guava juice (Shamsudin et al., 2005), Malus floribunda juice (Cepeda & Villarán, 1999) and Brazilian orange juice (Telis-Romero et al., 1998). The multiple regression of density as a function of concentration, Cs (ºBrix), and temperature, T (ºC), in the range studied is shown in Eq. (5). Figure 1 shows the response surface obtained from Eq. (5). Table 1. Density of cashew juices º Brix Temperature (ºC) T 0,0038T C R2 = 0, (5) s
4 38 Figure 1. Density as function of temperature and concentration. Calculated data from the equations of Constenla et al. (1989), Alvarado and Romero (1989) and the adjusted ones in this work are nearly coincident with the experimental data (Figure 2). For all equations the error was lower than 2%. Equation 3 was used in Eq. (1) to obtain the thermal expansion coefficient ( ). In Table 2, values of thermal expansion are shown for different concentrations at different temperatures. From these results was verified that thermal expansion coefficient of cashew juice increased linearly with the temperature increase and concentration decrease. Effect of temperature on viscosity Values of viscosity are shown in Table 3. It was observed that its values increase with concentration and decrease with temperature elevation. This decrease in apparent viscosity with increase in temperature and decrease in concentration has also been reported by Vitali and Rao (1984) (orange juice), Hernandez et al. (1995) (orange juice) and Shamsudin et al. (2005) (guava juice). According to Constenla et al. (1989) the solution viscosity is a function of the intermolecular forces and water-solute interactions that restrict the molecular motion. These forces depend upon intermolecular spacings and the strength of the hydrogen bonds, and are affected by changes in both concentration and temperature (Azoubel et. al., 2005). The model that best fitted with the experimental values was a polynomial type, where the viscosity varies with the square of the temperature and linearly with concentration. The equation obtained by the least squares method, with determination coefficient of 0.949, significant at a probability level of 99%, is presented in the Equation 6. Figure 3 shows the response surface obtained from Eq. (6).
5 39 Figure 2. Density of cashew juice at 5 ºC. Table 2. Thermal expansion coefficient of cashew juices ºBrix x x x X X X X X10-04 Temperature (ºC) X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X10-04 Table 3. Viscosity of cashew juices ºBrix Temperature (ºC) T T C s TC s (6)
6 40 Figure 3. Viscosity as function of temperature and concentration. The effect of temperature on the viscosity follows the Arrhenius-Guzman equation with R2 values greater than Magnitudes of activation energy for flow related to apparent viscosity and temperature ranged from ( to ) kj.mol-1, while the corresponding magnitudes of constant ranged from (5.337x10-6 to 1.057x10-3) mpa.s (Table 4). The R2 for all cases were greater than This increase in activation energy with increase in concentration has also been reported by Nindo et al. (2007) (blueberry puree), Cepeda & Villarán (1999) (Malus floribunda juice). Table 4. Fitting parameters for the Arrhenius-Guzman equation to predict the variation of viscosity of cashew juice with absolute temperature. ºBrix Ea (kj.mol-1) Ea/R (K) R2 (mpa.s) x x x x CONCLUSIONS From this study, it was found that the physical properties of cashew juice were concentration and temperature dependent. The effect of temperature and concentration on density and viscosity can be described by a linear equation that could be useful for preliminary equipment design. The activation energy Ea increased with total solids content. These results can be applied in process with cashew juice which involves flow and heat transfer.
7 BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCES Alvarado, J. D., Romero, C. H. Physical properties of fruits: I density and viscosity of juices as functions of soluble solids and content and temperature. Latin American Applied Research, v.19 n.15, p , Azoubel, P. M., Cipriani, D. C., El-Aouar, A. A., Antonio, G. C., Murr, F. E. X. Effect of concentration on the physical properties of cashew juice. Journal of Food Engineering, v.66, p , Bird, R. B., Stewart, W. E., Lightfoot, E. N. Transport phenomena p John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York Cepeda, E., Villarán, M. C. Density and viscosity of Malus floribunda juice as a function of concentration and temperature. Journal of Food Engineering, v.41, p , Choi, Y., Okos, M. R.. The thermal properties of tomato juice concentrate. Transactions of the ASAE, v.26, p , Constenla, D. T., Lozano, J. E., Crapiste, G. H.. Thermophysical properties of clarified apple juice as a function of concentration and temperature. Journal of Food Science, v.54, p , Silva, K. D. da, Collares, F. P., Finzer, J. R. D.. A simple and rapid method for estimating the content of solids in industrialized cashew juice. Food Chemistry, v.50, p , Hernandez, E., Chen, C. S., Johnson, J., Carter, R. D.. Viscosity changes in orange juice after ultrafiltration and evaporation. Journal of Food Engineering, v.25, n.3, p ,1995. Magerramov, M. A., Abdulagatov, A. I., Azizov, N. D., Abdulagatov, I. M. Effect of temperature, concentration, and pressure on the viscosity of pomegranate and pear juice concentrates. Journal of Food Engineering, v.80, p , Nindo, C. I., Tang, J., Powers, J. R., Takhar, P. S. Rheological properties of blueberry puree 41 for processing applications. Food Science and Technology /LebensmittelWissenschaft + Technologie, v.40, p , Ramos, A. M., Ibarz, A. Density of juice and fruit puree as a function of soluble solids content and temperature. Journal of Food Engineering, v.35, p , Ribeiro Júnior, J. I. (2001). Análises estatísticas no SAEG (pp ). UFV, Viçosa. Saravacos, G. D. Effect of temperature on viscosity of fruit juices and purees. Journal of Food Science, v.35, p ,1970. Shamsudin, R., Mohamed, I. O., Yaman, N. K. M. Thermophysical properties of Thai seedless guava juice as affected by temperature and concentration. Journal of Food Engineering, v.66, p ,2005. Tansakul, A., Chaisawang, P. Thermophysical properties of coconut milk. Journal of Food Engineering, v.73, p , Telis-Romero, J., Telis, V. R. N., Gabas, A. L., Yamashita, F. Thermophysical properties of Brazilian orange juice as affected by temperature and water content. Journal of Food Engineering, v.38, p , Vitali, A. A., Rao, M. J. Flow concentrated of low-pulp concentrated orange juice: effect of temperature and concentration. Journal of Food Science, v.49, p , Zainal, B. S., Rahman, R. A., Ariff, A. B., Saari, B. N., Asbi, B. A. Effects of temperature on the physical properties of pink guava juice at two different concentrations. Journal of Food Engineering, v.43, p , Zuritz, C. A., Puntes, E. M., Mathey, H. H., Pérez, E. H., Gascón, A., Rubio, L. A., Crullo, C. A., Chernikoff, R. E., Cabeza, M. S. Density, viscosity and coefficient of thermal expansion of clear grape juice at different soluble solid concentrations and temperatures. Journal of Food Engineering, v.71, p , 2005.
8 42 Nomenclature Ea activation energy (kj.mol-1) P pressure (Pa) T temperature (ºC) t the flow off time of the sample (s) n viscosimeter characteristic constant (m2 s-2) R gas constant (kj.mol-1.k-1) Greek letters thermal expansion coefficient density (kg.m-3) cinematic viscosity (m2 s-1) apparent viscosity (mpa.s) constant (mpa.s)
Field Estimation of Soil Water Content A Practical Guide to Methods, Instrumentation and Sensor Technology VIENNA, 2008 TRAINING COURSE SERIES30 TRAINING COURSE SERIES No. 30 Field Estimation of Soil Water
J. Phys. Chem. B 1998, 102, 10347-10358 10347 Precision Relative Aggregation Number Determinations of SDS Micelles Using a Spin Probe. A Model of Micelle Surface Hydration Barney L. Bales,* Luis Messina,
i Acid-base Chemistry of Aquatic Systems An introduction to the chemistry of acid-base equilibria with emphasis on the carbon dioxide system in natural waters eith A. Hunter Professor in Chemistry Department
Page 1 Energy Savings in Methanol Synthesis : Use of Heat Integration Techniques and Simulation Tools. François Maréchal a, Georges Heyen a, Boris Kalitventzeff a,b a L.A.S.S.C., Université de Liège, Sart-Tilman
Unit 8 Chemical Equilibrium Focusing on Acid-Base Systems unit 8Chemical Equilibrium Chemical Equilibrium Focusing on Acid Base Systems Equilibrium describes any condition or situation of balance. We recognize
Acid-base Equilibria and Calculations A Chem1 Reference Text Stephen K. Lower Simon Fraser University Contents 1 Proton donor-acceptor equilibria 4 1.1 The ion product of water... 4 1.2 Acid and base strengths...
GE Healthcare High-throughput Process Development with PreDictor Plates Principles and Methods imagination at work Handbooks from GE Healthcare GST Gene Fusion System Handbook 18-1157-58 Affinity Chromatography
A-Z of quantitative PCR (Editor: SA Bustin) Chapter3. Quantification strategies in real-time PCR 87 Quantification strategies in real-time PCR Michael W. Pfaffl Chaper 3 pages 87-112 in: A-Z of quantitative
Reaction of Aluminum with Water to Produce Hydrogen A Study of Issues Related to the Use of Aluminum for On-Board Vehicular Hydrogen Storage U.S. Department of Energy Page 1 of 26 CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY..
A General Correlation for Saturated Two-Phase Flow Boiling Heat Transfer Inside Horizontal and Vertical Tubes S. G. Kandlikar 1 Mechanical Engineering Department, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester,
PREDICTION OF TRANSMISSION LOSS FOR CYLINDRICAL EXPANSION CHAMBER HAVING CENTRAL-OUTLET AND SIDE-OUTLET CONFIGURATION BY TRANSFER MATRIX METHOD Amit Kumar Gupta 1*, Neha Mathur 2 1* Mechanical Engineering
Correlations and path analysis in peanut Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology 5:105-112, 2005 Brazilian Society of Plant Breeding. Printed in Brazil Correlations and path analysis in peanut Regina Lucia
Quality by Design for ANDAs: An Example for Modified Release Dosage Forms Introduction to the Example This is an example pharmaceutical development report illustrating how ANDA applicants can move toward
Available online at http://www.anpad.org.br/bar BAR, Rio de Janeiro, v. 9, n. 1, art. 3, pp. 44-65, Jan./Mar. 2012 IT Business Value Model for Information Intensive Organizations Antonio Carlos Gastaud
Where the Bugs Are Thomas J. Ostrand AT&T Labs - Research 180 Park Avenue Florham Park, NJ 07932 email@example.com Elaine J. Weyuker AT&T Labs - Research 180 Park Avenue Florham Park, NJ 07932 firstname.lastname@example.org
When Poor Solubility Becomes an Issue: From Early Stage to Proof of Concept S. Stegemann a, F. Leveiller b, D. Franchi c, H. de Jong d, H. Lindén e,* a Capsugel, Rijksweg 11, 2880 Bornem, Belgium b AstraZeneca,
Sedimentation, Péclet number, and hydrodynamic screening Kiley Benes, 1 Penger Tong, 2 and Bruce J. Ackerson 1 1 Department of Physics, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078, USA 2 Department
Exclusive On-Line Article PHARMACEUTICAL ENGINEERING The Official Magazine of ISPE November/December 2006, Vol. 26 No. 6 The Product Quality Research Institute (PQRI) is collaborative effort between the
OWEN W. RICHARDSON Thermionic phenomena and the laws which govern them Nobel Lecture, December 12, 1929 In its broadest aspect this subject may be summarized as the branch of Physics which deals with the
Benefits, results and barriers to interaction to industry: the perspective of academic research groups Autores: Renato Garcia, economista e professor do IE/Unicamp. Veneziano Araújo, doutor em Engenharia
Chapter The fluorescence 25 transient as a tool to characterize and screen photosynthetic samples 445 The fluorescence transient as a tool to characterize and screen photosynthetic samples R.J. Strasser,
The Other CO 2 -Problem Eight Experiments for Students and Teachers introduction Ocean Acidification - The Other CO 2 Problem The oceans cover more than two-thirds of the planet earth. This vast body of
Chapter 4 High-Dimensional Image Warping John Ashburner & Karl J. Friston The Wellcome Dept. of Imaging Neuroscience, 12 Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK. Contents 4.1 Introduction.................................
T H I R D E D I T I O N Investigating Matter Through Inquiry A project of the American Chemical Society Education Division Office of K 8 Science American Chemical Society American Chemical Society Inquiry
WP/15/6 The Global Trade Slowdown: Cyclical or Structural? Cristina Constantinescu, Aaditya Mattoo, and Michele Ruta 1 2015 International Monetary Fund WP/15/6 IMF Working Paper Strategy, Policy and Review
INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON HARMONISATION OF TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF PHARMACEUTICALS FOR HUMAN USE ICH HARMONISED TRIPARTITE GUIDELINE VIRAL SAFETY EVALUATION OF BIOTECHNOLOGY PRODUCTS