Scientific note: mass transfer coefficient in the drying of soybean meal

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Scientific note: mass transfer coefficient in the drying of soybean meal"

Transcription

1 Braz. J. Food Technol., v. 12, n. 2, p , abr./jun DOI: /BJFT Nota científica: coeficiente de transferência de massa na secagem do farelo de soja Autores Authors Gianini Regina LUZ Nehemias Curvelo PEREIRA Cid Marcos Gonçalves ANDRADE Luiz Mário de Mattos JORGE Universidade Estadual de Maringá (UEM) Departamento de Engenharia Química Paulo Roberto PARAÍSO Universidade Estadual de Maringá (UEM) Departamento de Engenharia Química Av. Colombo, 5790, Edifice D90 CEP: Maringá/PR - Brasil Autor Correspondente Corresponding Author Recebido Received: 11/03/2008 Aprovado Approved: 01/04/2009 Summary The mass transfer coefficient is a basic parameter in the project and analysis of industrial soybean meal dryers. The aim of this work was to determine a model to estimate the soybean meal mass transfer coefficient (K). Experimental data on the drying kinetics were obtained in a bench scale tray dryer at different temperatures and air speeds. It was observed that the air temperature and moisture content of the soybean meal exerted a significant influence on the value for K and that the limiting step for mass transfer occurred in the interior of the particle. A model was developed to evaluate K, which could be used in the project, analysis, modeling, simulation, optimization and control of any soybean meal dryer on an industrial scale. Key words: Drying kinetics; Soybean meal; Mass transfer coefficient; Model. Resumo O coeficiente de transferência de massa é um parâmetro fundamental no projeto e análise de secadores industriais de farelo de soja. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar um modelo empírico para estimar o coeficiente de transferência de massa da secagem do farelo de soja. Para tanto, foram obtidos dados experimentais da cinética de secagem num secador de bandeja em escala de bancada em diversas temperaturas e velocidades. A análise destes dados revelou que tanto a temperatura quanto a umidade do farelo de soja exercem influência significativa sobre o coeficiente de transferência de massa. Além disso, constatou-se que a etapa limitante da transferência de massa encontra-se no interior da partícula. Devido a este fato, foi desenvolvido um modelo para o coeficiente de transferência de massa que pode ser utilizado diretamente no projeto, análise, modelagem, simulação, otimização e controle de qualquer secador de farelo de soja em escala industrial. Palavras-chave: Cinética de secagem; Farelo de soja; Coeficiente de transferência de massa; Modelo.

2 1 Introduction The basic objective of soybean meal production is to obtain a product with the best quality at the lowest possible cost. The operation is characterized by high energy consumption (JONGENEELEN, 1976) and there are energy losses to the environment, increasing production costs. In order to maintain the final quality of the soybean meal high, but at low cost, it is necessary to establish strategies to optimize the drying, which can be done using mathematical techniques. The mathematical modeling of a dryer is based on differential energy and mass equations, empirical and complementary equations. The numerical solution of the differential equations depends on knowledge of the mass transfer coefficient, which can be estimated according to the diffusion equation given by Fick s law, or using dimensionless numbers (STRUMILLO and KUDRA, 1986). Another alternative used to estimate this coefficient is from the models resulting from the fitting of experimental data (IGUAZ et al., 2003; KROKIDA et al., 2004). In order to contribute to the design and optimization of soybean meal dryers, the present work proposed to determine a model based on experimental the mass transfer coefficient in the soybean meal drying process. 2 Material and methods 2.1 Material The samples of desolventized soybean meal were collected at the inlet of the rotary dryer of a vegetable oil extraction industry located in the southern region of Brazil (Agroindustrial Cooperative, COAMO). The particles of soybean meal were laminated and presented a moisture content of 0.22 kg H 2 O/kg dry solid. The samples were dried in a tray dryer, as shown in Figure 1. The equipment consisted of an air blower, duct with electric resistances and a plenum. Temperature display Variable resistance Blower selector Air Butterfly valve Fixed resistance selector Thermocouple Air heater Sieves Electric resistances Figure 1. General schematics of the dryer. Soybean meal Tray The air was inserted into the system by the fan and the flow was controlled by a butterfly valve. Afterwards went through the heating system, through the plenum and through the sieves that supported the soybean meal. To ensure constant airflow during the drying process, measurements were realized periodically at the blower inlet and sieve outlets, using an anemometer. The air temperature was adjusted by controlling the power dissipated by electrical resistances, and measured manually using thermocouples. The upper part of the plenum was a perforated plate with the tray placed on it. Two sieves with meshes of 200 and 270 were used to support the soybean meal. A digital psychrometer was used to measure the relative humidity and the temperature of the ambient air. An analytical balance was used to weigh the sample until it reached constant weight. The time interval between successive weighings was measured using a chronometer and the sample was weighed quickly (about 3 s) to minimize moisture loss from the soybean meal to the environment. A hothouse was used to determine the dry weight of the soybean meal sample. Tyler sieves with meshes of 7, 8, 10, 14 and 20, plus a semi-analytical balance,,a chronometer and a mechanical shaker of the sieves containing the samples of soybean meal were used to determine the particle size distribution. 2.2 Experimental setup Data acquisition methodology to determine the particle size distribution of the soybean meal The average size of the particles in the soybean meal was determined using the particle-size distribution technique shown in Gomide (1983), Freire et al. (1986) and Luz (2006) Data acquisition methodology to obtain the soybean meal drying kinetics The procedure for data acquisition is described below: 1) Initial reading of the temperature and relative humidity of the air in the laboratory; 2) Adjustment of the air temperature to 50 C and the airflow speed to 1.1 m.s 1 ; 3) After weighing, a 30.0 g sample of wet soybean meal was placed on the sieves, giving a height of 5 mm; 4) Weighing of the samples during the drying process after 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 min, and then each 2 min until the material reached constant weight; Braz. J. Food Technol., v. 12, n. 2, p , abr./jun

3 5) Estimation of the drying rate, R w, from the data obtained in item 4, using Equation 1 ( GEANKOPLIS, 1993); Rw = X/ t (1) 6) Repetition of the steps above (1 to 5) using temperatures of 74, 85, and 97 C, maintaining the air speed constant at 1.1 m.s 1 ; 7) After changing the air speed to 2.5 m.s 1, the experimental data were obtained again for the drying of the soybean meal at 50, 74, 85 and 97 C; e 8) Determination of the dry weight of the soybean meal sample in a hothouse at 105 ± 2 C for 24 h Methodology used to calculate the soybean meal mass transfer coefficient The mass transfer coefficients, K, were calculated according to Equation 2 as presented by Welty et al. (2001), applying the data for moisture content, X s, and drying rate, R w, for each combination of air speed and air temperature. The equilibrium moisture content, X e, corresponds to the final value of the moisture content in the sample under each condition. K = R w (Xs X e) (2) 3 Results and discussion 3.1 Particle size distribution of the soybean meal Figure 2 presents the results for the particle size distribution of the soybean meal with the following average diameters: 3.4, 2.6, 2.0, 1.4 and <1.0 mm and the respective percents of the total mass: 18.2, 10.5, 30.9, 14.8, 19.2, 6.4. Figure 2 shows that the majority of the particles had a diameter of 2.0 mm. The size data were then fitted to Per cent by weight Average diameter (mm) Figure 2. Particle size distribution of the soybean meal. various distribution models such as GGS (GATES GAUDIN SCHUMANN), RRB ( ROSIN RAMMLER BENNET) and LOG NORMAL (LN), Freire et al. (1986). The best fit was obtained with the LOG-NORMAL model, yielding an average diameter of 1.5 mm and standard deviation of 0.04 mm. 3.2 Drying kinetics of the soybean meal The experimental drying and drying rate curves for the soybean meal with different air speeds and air temperatures, are presented in Figure 3. It is clear from Figures 3 and 4 that the air temperature exerted a significant influence on the drying rate, but that the influence of the airflow rate was minimum in the range of temperatures from 50 to 97 C. Moreover, two periods of decreasing drying rate can be observed, Moisture content O/kg dry solid) Tair = 50 C, vair = 1.1 m.s 1 Tair = 50 C, vair = 2.5 m.s 1 Tair = 74 C, vair = 1.1 m.s 1 Tair = 74 C, vair = 2.5 m.s 1 Time (min) Figure 3. Drying curves for the soybean meal. Drying rate O/kg dry matter.min) Tair = 50 C, vair = 1.1 m.s 1 Tair = 50 C, vair = 2.5 m.s 1 Tair = 74 C, vair = 1.1 m.s 1 Tair = 74 C, vair = 2.5 m.s Tair = 85 C, vair = 1.1 m.s 1 Tair = 85 C, vair = 2.5 m.s 1 Tair = 97 C, vair = 1.1 m.s 1 Tair = 97 C, vair = 2.5 m.s Moisture content Tair = 85 C, vair = 1.1 m.s 1 Tair = 85 C, vair = 2.5 m.s 1 Tair = 97 C, vair = 1.1 m.s 1 Tair = 97 C, vair = 2.5 m.s 1 Figure 4. Drying rate curves for the soybean meal Braz. J. Food Technol., v. 12, n. 2, p , abr./jun

4 Table 1. Kinetic data and mass transfer coefficients of the soybean meal. T air = 50 C T air = 74 C T air = 85 C T air = 97 C t X av K which varied with the air temperature, indicating that the limiting step for mass transfer occurred in the interior of the particle. 3.3 Mass transfer coefficient It is crucial to find a mathematical model to estimate K, which can be used to resolve the set of equations developed for the rotary industrial dryer of soybean meal. As observed previously, only the air temperature influenced the mass transfer process in the soybean meal and therefore soybean meal drying is only controlled by diffusion. Thus one can consider that the coefficient is only related to the moisture content of the solid and the air temperature. So the average moisture content of the product and the average drying rate were calculated for each temperature and the coefficients calculated according to Equation 2 and presented in Table 1. Initially, the experimental values for K were fitted to the polynomial models using the software Statistica, considering only the moisture content data for a given air temperature. The best fit was obtained with the quadratic equation represented by Equation 3. K= ax 2 1 s + bx 1 s + c 1 (3) The fitting and correlation parameters calculated for Equation 3, are shown in Table 2 and Figure 5 presents the graphical results. Equation 4 was used to evaluate the fitting for the K values. Mass transfer coefficient (s 1 ) Moisture content Tair=50 C Tair=74 C Tair=85 C Tair=97 C Fitting (tair = 50 C) Fitting (tair = 74 C) Fitting (tair = 85 C) Fitting (tair = 97 C) Figure 5. Polynomial fitting for K at 50, 74, 85 and 97 C. Table 2. Coefficients for the polynomial equation as a function of the air temperature. Temperature a 1 b 1 c 1 R 2 φ ( C) x x x x 10 7 n 2 exp cal i= 1 Φ= (K K ) (4) However, it was necessary to find a model that also included the air temperature in order to estimate the mass transfer coefficient. In the fitting process, several models were tested and the model that showed the best result was represented by Equation 5. Further details can be verified in Luz (2006). K = ( T )X + (0.0022T )X exp( / T ) 2 air s air s air The quality of the fitted empirical model represented by Equation 5 is shown in Figure 6, making it evident that this model satisfactorily represented (R 2 = 0.98) the experimental data K in the range of conditions explored. (5) Braz. J. Food Technol., v. 12, n. 2, p , abr./jun

5 Mass transfer coefficient (s 1 ) 4 Conclusions There are two periods of decreasing drying rate during the industrial drying of soybean meal, and the air temperature significantly influences this rate. The air temperature and the moisture content of the soybean meal exerted significant influences on the mass transfer coefficient. The limiting step for mass transfer during the drying of soybean meal is in the interior of the particles. Equation 5 satisfactorily represented (R 2 = 0.98) the experimental data for K in the range of experimental conditions explored. Nomenclature a 1, b 1, c 1 Fitting parameters of the equation for the mass transfer coefficient K as a function of X s K Mass transfer coefficient (s 1 ) K cal Calculated mass transfer coefficient (s 1 ) K exp Experimental mass transfer coefficient (s 1 ) R w R 2 t T air Moisture content O/kg dry solid) K-experimental 50 C K-experimental 74 C K-experimental 85 C Figure 6. Fitting of K as a function of X s and T air. K-experimental 97 C Fitting (Equation 5) Average drying rate of the soybean meal sample O/kg dry matter.s) Drying rate of the soybean meal O/kg dry matter.s) Correlation coefficient Time (s) Air temperature ( C) X av X ini X s X e v air t X Φ References Average moisture content in the soybean meal Initial moisture content in the soybean meal Moisture content in the soybean meal Equilibrium moisture in the soybean meal Air Speed (m/s) Variation of time (s) Variation of moisture content Summation of the average quadratic deviations FREIRE, J. T.; GUBULIN, J. C. Tópicos especiais em sistemas particulados. São Carlos: EdUFSCar, GEANKOPLIS, C. J. Transport Processes and Unit Operations. 3 ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall International, Inc., p. GOMIDE, R. Operações unitárias: operações com sistemas sólidos granulares. São Paulo: Edição do Autor, JONGENEELEN, H. P. J. Energy conservation in solvent extraction plants. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, Heidelberg, v. 53, n. 1, p , IGUAZ, A.; ESNOZ, A.; MARTÍNEZ, G.; LÓPEZ, A.; VÍRSEDA, P. Mathematical modeling and simulation for the drying of vegetable wholesale by products in a rotary dryer. Journal of Food Engineering, New York, v. 59, n. 2-3, p , KROKIDA, M. K.; MAROULIS, Z. B.; MARINOS-KOURIS, D. Heat and mass transfer coefficients in drying: compilation of literature data. Drying Technology, New York, v. 20, n. 1, p. 1-18, LUZ, G. R. Modelagem matemática e análise do secador rotativo de farelo de soja p. Dissertação (Mestrado em Engenharia Química) Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Maringá, STRUMILLO, C.; KUDRA, T. Drying: principles, applications and design. Topics in chemical engineering. Montreux: Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, p. WELTY, J. R.; WICKS, C. E.; WILSON, R. E.; RORRER, G. Fundamentals of Momentum, Heat and Mass Transfer. 4 ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., p. Braz. J. Food Technol., v. 12, n. 2, p , abr./jun

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY 3, CE 427 DRYING OF SOLIDS

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY 3, CE 427 DRYING OF SOLIDS Revised 10/00 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY 3, CE 427 DRYING OF SOLIDS Introduction Material covered here pertains to Chapter 24 of M,S&H. Please read relevant sections of this chapter. Drying involves

More information

ESCOAMENTO DO AR EM ARMAZÉM GRANELEIRO DE GRANDE PORTE COM SISTEMA DE AERAÇÃO SIMULATION OF AIR FLOW IN LARGE AERATED GRAIN STORAGE

ESCOAMENTO DO AR EM ARMAZÉM GRANELEIRO DE GRANDE PORTE COM SISTEMA DE AERAÇÃO SIMULATION OF AIR FLOW IN LARGE AERATED GRAIN STORAGE ESCOAMENTO DO AR EM ARMAZÉM GRANELEIRO DE GRANDE PORTE COM SISTEMA DE AERAÇÃO Oleg Khatchatourian 1 Antonio Rodrigo Delepiane de Vit 2 João Carlos Cavalcanti da Silveira 3 Luciano Ferreira 4 RESUMO Foi

More information

INFLUENCE OF AIR PARAMETERS ON SPRAY DRYING ENERGY CONSUMPTION

INFLUENCE OF AIR PARAMETERS ON SPRAY DRYING ENERGY CONSUMPTION 45 ISSN 1517-8595 INFLUENCE OF AIR PARAMETERS ON SPRAY DRYING ENERGY CONSUMPTION Tatumi Kajiyama 1, Kil Jin Park 2 ABSTRACT The objective of this present research was to simulate and evaluate the performance

More information

Experimental Study on Super-heated Steam Drying of Lignite

Experimental Study on Super-heated Steam Drying of Lignite Advanced Materials Research Vols. 347-353 (2012) pp 3077-3082 Online available since 2011/Oct/07 at www.scientific.net (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/amr.347-353.3077

More information

Reproducibility of radiant energy measurements inside light scattering liquids

Reproducibility of radiant energy measurements inside light scattering liquids Artigo Original Revista Brasileira de Física Médica.2011;5(1):57-62. Reproducibility of radiant energy measurements inside light scattering liquids Reprodutibilidade de medidas de energia radiante dentro

More information

MATHEMATICAL MODELING Of THE DRYING KINETICS OF SUGARCANE SLICES

MATHEMATICAL MODELING Of THE DRYING KINETICS OF SUGARCANE SLICES 117 ISSN 1517-8595 MATHEMATICAL MODELING Of THE DRYING KINETICS OF SUGARCANE SLICES Nahia Agote Goyalde 1, Evandro de Castro Melo 2, Ronicely Pereira Rocha 3, André Luis Duarte Goneli 4, Fabiana Lana Araújo

More information

SUITABILITY OF RELATIVE HUMIDITY AS AN ESTIMATOR OF LEAF WETNESS DURATION

SUITABILITY OF RELATIVE HUMIDITY AS AN ESTIMATOR OF LEAF WETNESS DURATION SUITABILITY OF RELATIVE HUMIDITY AS AN ESTIMATOR OF LEAF WETNESS DURATION PAULO C. SENTELHAS 1, ANNA DALLA MARTA 2, SIMONE ORLANDINI 2, EDUARDO A. SANTOS 3, TERRY J. GILLESPIE 3, MARK L. GLEASON 4 1 Departamento

More information

Integration of a fin experiment into the undergraduate heat transfer laboratory

Integration of a fin experiment into the undergraduate heat transfer laboratory Integration of a fin experiment into the undergraduate heat transfer laboratory H. I. Abu-Mulaweh Mechanical Engineering Department, Purdue University at Fort Wayne, Fort Wayne, IN 46805, USA E-mail: mulaweh@engr.ipfw.edu

More information

Performance Test of Solar Assisted Solid Desiccant Dryer

Performance Test of Solar Assisted Solid Desiccant Dryer Performance Test of Solar Assisted Solid Desiccant Dryer S. MISHA 1,2,*, S. MAT 1, M. H. RUSLAN 1, K. SOPIAN 1, E. SALLEH 1, M. A. M. ROSLI 1 1 Solar Energy Research Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia,

More information

Simulation of Water-in-Oil Emulsion Flow with OpenFOAM using Validated Coalescence and Breakage Models

Simulation of Water-in-Oil Emulsion Flow with OpenFOAM using Validated Coalescence and Breakage Models Simulation of Water-in-Oil Emulsion Flow with OpenFOAM using Validated Coalescence and Breakage Models Gabriel G. S. Ferreira*, Jovani L. Favero*, Luiz Fernando L. R. Silva +, Paulo L. C. Lage* Laboratório

More information

A software for calculation of optimum conditions for cotton, viscose, polyester and wool based yarn bobbins in a hot-air bobbin dryer

A software for calculation of optimum conditions for cotton, viscose, polyester and wool based yarn bobbins in a hot-air bobbin dryer A software for calculation of optimum conditions for cotton, viscose, polyester and wool based yarn bobbins in a hot-air bobbin dryer H. Kuşçu, K. Kahveci, U. Akyol and A. Cihan Abstract In this study,

More information

HEAT TRANSFER AUGMENTATION THROUGH DIFFERENT PASSIVE INTENSIFIER METHODS

HEAT TRANSFER AUGMENTATION THROUGH DIFFERENT PASSIVE INTENSIFIER METHODS HEAT TRANSFER AUGMENTATION THROUGH DIFFERENT PASSIVE INTENSIFIER METHODS P.R.Hatwar 1, Bhojraj N. Kale 2 1, 2 Department of Mechanical Engineering Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar College of Engineering & Research,

More information

HARVESTING AND WOOD TRANSPORT PLANNING WITH SNAP III PROGRAM (Scheduling and Network Analysis Program) IN A PINE PLANTATION IN SOUTHEAST BRAZIL 1

HARVESTING AND WOOD TRANSPORT PLANNING WITH SNAP III PROGRAM (Scheduling and Network Analysis Program) IN A PINE PLANTATION IN SOUTHEAST BRAZIL 1 Harvesting and Wood Transport Planning with SNAP III... 831 HARVESTING AND WOOD TRANSPORT PLANNING WITH SNAP III PROGRAM (Scheduling and Network Analysis Program) IN A PINE PLANTATION IN SOUTHEAST BRAZIL

More information

Drying Parawood with Superheated Steam

Drying Parawood with Superheated Steam Drying Parawood with Superheated Steam Surachai Bovornsethanan and Somchai Wongwises Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Mongkut s University of Technology Thonburi (KMUTT) Bangmod, Bangkok 10160,

More information

Effect of Rack Server Population on Temperatures in Data Centers

Effect of Rack Server Population on Temperatures in Data Centers Effect of Rack Server Population on Temperatures in Data Centers Rajat Ghosh, Vikneshan Sundaralingam, Yogendra Joshi G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta,

More information

HVAC Efficiency Definitions

HVAC Efficiency Definitions HVAC Efficiency Definitions Term page EER - 2 SEER - 3 COP - 4 HSPF - 5 IPLV - 6 John Mix May 2006 Carrier Corporation 1 Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) The energy efficiency ratio is used to evaluate the

More information

CFD SIMULATION OF SDHW STORAGE TANK WITH AND WITHOUT HEATER

CFD SIMULATION OF SDHW STORAGE TANK WITH AND WITHOUT HEATER International Journal of Advancements in Research & Technology, Volume 1, Issue2, July-2012 1 CFD SIMULATION OF SDHW STORAGE TANK WITH AND WITHOUT HEATER ABSTRACT (1) Mr. Mainak Bhaumik M.E. (Thermal Engg.)

More information

A simple application of the implicit function theorem

A simple application of the implicit function theorem Boletín de la Asociación Matemática Venezolana, Vol. XIX, No. 1 (2012) 71 DIVULGACIÓN MATEMÁTICA A simple application of the implicit function theorem Germán Lozada-Cruz Abstract. In this note we show

More information

Study of the Natural Circulation Phenomenon for Nuclear Reactors

Study of the Natural Circulation Phenomenon for Nuclear Reactors Study of the Natural Circulation Phenomenon for Nuclear Reactors Thadeu das Neves Conti, Gaianê Sabundjian, Walmir M. Torres, Luiz A. Macedo, Delvonei A. Andrade, Pedro E. Umbehaun and Roberto N. Mesquita

More information

Modeling Rack and Server Heat Capacity in a Physics Based Dynamic CFD Model of Data Centers. Sami Alkharabsheh, Bahgat Sammakia 10/28/2013

Modeling Rack and Server Heat Capacity in a Physics Based Dynamic CFD Model of Data Centers. Sami Alkharabsheh, Bahgat Sammakia 10/28/2013 Modeling Rack and Server Heat Capacity in a Physics Based Dynamic CFD Model of Data Centers Sami Alkharabsheh, Bahgat Sammakia 1/28/213 2 ES2 Vision To create electronic systems that are self sensing and

More information

Experimental Evaluation Of The Frost Formation

Experimental Evaluation Of The Frost Formation Purdue University Purdue e-pubs International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference School of Mechanical Engineering 2014 Experimental Evaluation Of The Frost Formation Yusuke Tashiro Mitsubishi

More information

Benefits of Cold Aisle Containment During Cooling Failure

Benefits of Cold Aisle Containment During Cooling Failure Benefits of Cold Aisle Containment During Cooling Failure Introduction Data centers are mission-critical facilities that require constant operation because they are at the core of the customer-business

More information

CHEMICAL ABSORPTION OF H 2 S FOR BIOGAS PURIFICATION

CHEMICAL ABSORPTION OF H 2 S FOR BIOGAS PURIFICATION Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering ISSN 14-6632 Printed in Brazil Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 415-422, July - September 24 CHEMICAL ABSORPTION OF H 2 S FOR BIOGAS PURIFICATION M.S. Horikawa 1, F. Rossi

More information

New Method For The Mathematical Determination Of Drying Rates Of Fig Fruits Depending On Empirical Data Under Conditions Suiting Solar Drying

New Method For The Mathematical Determination Of Drying Rates Of Fig Fruits Depending On Empirical Data Under Conditions Suiting Solar Drying 1 New Method For The Mathematical Determination Of Drying Rates Of Fig Fruits Depending On Empirical Data Under Conditions Suiting Solar Drying Amer, B.A.*; M.A. Morcos**; M. A. Sabbah*** * Assis. Lecturer

More information

International Telecommunication Union SERIES L: CONSTRUCTION, INSTALLATION AND PROTECTION OF TELECOMMUNICATION CABLES IN PUBLIC NETWORKS

International Telecommunication Union SERIES L: CONSTRUCTION, INSTALLATION AND PROTECTION OF TELECOMMUNICATION CABLES IN PUBLIC NETWORKS International Telecommunication Union ITU-T TELECOMMUNICATION STANDARDIZATION SECTOR OF ITU Technical Paper (13 December 2013) SERIES L: CONSTRUCTION, INSTALLATION AND PROTECTION OF TELECOMMUNICATION CABLES

More information

Calculate Available Heat for Natural Gas Fuel For Industrial Heating Equipment and Boilers

Calculate Available Heat for Natural Gas Fuel For Industrial Heating Equipment and Boilers For Industrial Heating Equipment and Boilers Prepared for California Energy Commission (CEC) Prepared By: Southern California Gas Company (A Sempra Energy Utility) E3M Inc. May 2012 i Disclaimer The CEC

More information

Determination of Moisture Content

Determination of Moisture Content Determination of Moisture Content 1. Introduction: Drying, storage, marketing, and roasting are four important aspects of coffee handling in which moisture plays an important role: Drying: moisture measurement

More information

Equilibrium moisture isotherms of textiles materials

Equilibrium moisture isotherms of textiles materials Equilibrium moisture isotherms of textiles materials Luiza Helena Costa Dutra Sousa*, Nehemias Curvelo Pereira, Oswaldo Curty da Motta Lima and Erica Vagetti Fonseca Departamento de Engenharia Química,

More information

The University of Toledo Soil Mechanics Laboratory

The University of Toledo Soil Mechanics Laboratory 1 Grain Size Distribution Sieve Analysis The University of Toledo Soil Mechanics Laboratory Introduction The grain size distribution is a representation of the approximate distribution of soil grain sizes

More information

CFD SIMULATION OF IPR-R1 TRIGA SUBCHANNELS FLUID FLOW

CFD SIMULATION OF IPR-R1 TRIGA SUBCHANNELS FLUID FLOW 2013 International Nuclear Atlantic Conference - INAC 2013 Recife, PE, Brazil, November 24-29, 2013 ASSOCIAÇÃO BRASILEIRA DE ENERGIA NUCLEAR - ABEN ISBN: 978-85-99141-05-2 CFD SIMULATION OF IPR-R1 TRIGA

More information

Brewer s Spent Grain (BSG) is the granular byproduct from beer brewing. It mainly consists of barley as this is the major raw material used in the

Brewer s Spent Grain (BSG) is the granular byproduct from beer brewing. It mainly consists of barley as this is the major raw material used in the Evaluation of Pilot Scale Drying of Brewer s Spent Grain in a Keith Rotary Superheated Steam Dryer - a Preliminary Investigation Lise-Lott Ström Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund Institute of Technology,

More information

A CASE STUDY: PERFORMANCE AND ACCEPTANCE TEST OF A POWER AND DESALINATION PLANT. Keywords : Power Plant, Boiler Capacity, Electrical Power

A CASE STUDY: PERFORMANCE AND ACCEPTANCE TEST OF A POWER AND DESALINATION PLANT. Keywords : Power Plant, Boiler Capacity, Electrical Power A CASE STUDY: PERFORMANCE AND ACCEPTANCE TEST OF A POWER AND DESALINATION PLANT Atef M Al Baghdadi Water and Electricity Authority Abu Dhabi, U.A.E Keywords : Power Plant, Boiler Capacity, Electrical Power

More information

FLUID FLOW Introduction General Description

FLUID FLOW Introduction General Description FLUID FLOW Introduction Fluid flow is an important part of many processes, including transporting materials from one point to another, mixing of materials, and chemical reactions. In this experiment, you

More information

CE-QUAL-W2 Version 3.7 Workshop March XX-YY, 2012 Brasília, Brazil University of Brasilia

CE-QUAL-W2 Version 3.7 Workshop March XX-YY, 2012 Brasília, Brazil University of Brasilia CE-QUAL-W2 Version 3.7 Workshop March XX-YY, 2012 Brasília, Brazil University of Brasilia Sponsored by Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Maseeh College of Engineering and Computer Science

More information

MODELLING AND OPTIMIZATION OF DIRECT EXPANSION AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM FOR COMMERCIAL BUILDING ENERGY SAVING

MODELLING AND OPTIMIZATION OF DIRECT EXPANSION AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM FOR COMMERCIAL BUILDING ENERGY SAVING MODELLING AND OPTIMIZATION OF DIRECT EXPANSION AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM FOR COMMERCIAL BUILDING ENERGY SAVING V. Vakiloroaya*, J.G. Zhu, and Q.P. Ha School of Electrical, Mechanical and Mechatronic Systems,

More information

The Solar Radio Burst Activity Index (I,) and the Burst Incidence (B,) for 1968-69

The Solar Radio Burst Activity Index (I,) and the Burst Incidence (B,) for 1968-69 Revista Brasileira de Física, Vol. 1, N." 2, 1971 The Solar Radio Burst Activity Index (I,) and the Burst Incidence (B,) for 1968-69 D. BASU Centro de Rádio Astronomia e Astrofisica, Universidade Mackenzie*,

More information

The Effects of Drying Air Temperature and Humidity on the Drying Kinetics of Seaweed

The Effects of Drying Air Temperature and Humidity on the Drying Kinetics of Seaweed The Effects of Drying Air Temperature and Humidity on the Drying Kinetics of Seaweed A. Fudholi, M. Y. Othman, M. H. Ruslan, M. Yahya, A. Zaharim and K. Sopian Abstract A Low Temperature and Humidity Chamber

More information

Keywords: Fuzzy Logic, Control, Refrigeration Systems and Electronic Expansion Valves.

Keywords: Fuzzy Logic, Control, Refrigeration Systems and Electronic Expansion Valves. POTENTIALITIES OF FUZZY LOGIC CONTROL APPLIED TO SMALL VAPOR COMPRESSION REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS Oscar S. H. Mendoza Fábio A. Carvajal José A. Tumialán Gustavo Luiz C. M. de Abreu Universidade Federal de

More information

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN AERONAUTICAL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN AERONAUTICAL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERING ISSN (ONLINE): 2321-3051 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN AERONAUTICAL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Study of forced convection heat transfer With DAQ & ANSYS First Authors Moopanar karthikeyan 1, Raote

More information

Trace Gas Exchange Measurements with Standard Infrared Analyzers

Trace Gas Exchange Measurements with Standard Infrared Analyzers Practical Environmental Measurement Methods Trace Gas Exchange Measurements with Standard Infrared Analyzers Last change of document: February 23, 2007 Supervisor: Charles Robert Room no: S 4381 ph: 4352

More information

LABORATORY DETERMINATION OF CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO

LABORATORY DETERMINATION OF CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO LABORATORY DETERMINATION OF CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO STANDARD IS: 2720 (Part 16) 1979. DEFINITION California bearing ratio is the ratio of force per unit area required to penetrate in to a soil mass with

More information

Thermal Mass Availability for Cooling Data Centers during Power Shutdown

Thermal Mass Availability for Cooling Data Centers during Power Shutdown 2010 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org). Published in ASHRAE Transactions (2010, vol 116, part 2). For personal use only. Additional reproduction,

More information

Validation of Modeling Tools for Detection Design in High Airflow Environments

Validation of Modeling Tools for Detection Design in High Airflow Environments Validation of Modeling Tools for Detection Design in High Airflow Environments Joshua B. Dinaburg Dr. Jason Floyd, Ph.D. Dr. Sai Thumuluru, Ph.D FM Global MODELING DETECTION RESPONSE Establish validated

More information

Externally Heated Desiccant Compressed Air Dryers PNEUMATIC PRODUCTS. PHD Series. pneumaticproducts-spx.com

Externally Heated Desiccant Compressed Air Dryers PNEUMATIC PRODUCTS. PHD Series. pneumaticproducts-spx.com PNEUMATIC PRODUCTS pneumaticproducts-spx.com Externally Heated Desiccant Compressed Air Dryers PHD Series PHD Series Dryers Reduce Purge Air Energy Costs PHD Series Dryers Reduce Purge Air Energy Costs

More information

Optimizing a mixed water heating system (solar and electric) for rural areas

Optimizing a mixed water heating system (solar and electric) for rural areas Acta Scientiarum http://www.uem.br/acta ISSN printed: 1806-2563 ISSN on-line: 1807-8664 Doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i1.11998 Optimizing a mixed water heating system (solar and electric) for rural areas

More information

Experimental results and modeling of poultry carcass cooling by water immersion

Experimental results and modeling of poultry carcass cooling by water immersion Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos ISSN 0101-2061 Experimental results and modeling of poultry carcass cooling by water immersion Resultados experimentais e modelagem do resfriamento de carcaças de frango

More information

Experimental Evaluation of the Discharge Coefficient of a Centre-Pivot Roof Window

Experimental Evaluation of the Discharge Coefficient of a Centre-Pivot Roof Window Experimental Evaluation of the Discharge Coefficient of a Centre-Pivot Roof Window Ahsan Iqbal #1, Alireza Afshari #2, Per Heiselberg *3, Anders Høj **4 # Energy and Environment, Danish Building Research

More information

CHAPTER 6 THERMAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS. page. Introduction 6-2. Thermal resistance 6-2. Junction temperature 6-2. Factors affecting R th(j-a) 6-2

CHAPTER 6 THERMAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS. page. Introduction 6-2. Thermal resistance 6-2. Junction temperature 6-2. Factors affecting R th(j-a) 6-2 CHAPTER 6 THERMAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS page Introduction 6-2 Thermal resistance 6-2 Junction temperature 6-2 Factors affecting 6-2 Thermal resistance test methods 6-3 Test procedure 6-3 Forced air factors

More information

Effect of Self-Heat Circulation on VOCs Decomposition in Regenerative Thermal Oxidizer

Effect of Self-Heat Circulation on VOCs Decomposition in Regenerative Thermal Oxidizer Effect of Self- Circulation on VOCs Decomposition in Regenerative Thermal Oxidizer Shinsuke Iijima 1, Katsuya Nakayama 1, Koichi Ushiroebisu 1 Mitsuhiro Kubota 2 and Hitoki Matsuda 2 1. Engineering Division,

More information

UNDERFLOOR AIR DISTRIBUTION

UNDERFLOOR AIR DISTRIBUTION FINAL REPORT NCEMBT-080801 UNDERFLOOR AIR DISTRIBUTION AN EXPERIMENTAL COMPARISON OF AIR DIFFUSION PERFORMANCE BETWEEN UNDERFLOOR AIR DISTRIBUTION AND CONVENTIONAL OVERHEAD AIR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS AUGUST

More information

Kompressoren. Adsorption Dryer AD

Kompressoren. Adsorption Dryer AD Kompressoren Adsorption Dryer AD Adsorption Drying: why? Modern industries require compressed air that is increasingly filtered with low dew point and condensate. Today, the equipment is more sophisticated

More information

CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF LAYOUT CONCEPTS: FUNCTIONAL LAYOUT, CELL LAYOUT, PRODUCT LAYOUT, MODULAR LAYOUT, FRACTAL LAYOUT, SMALL FACTORY LAYOUT.

CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF LAYOUT CONCEPTS: FUNCTIONAL LAYOUT, CELL LAYOUT, PRODUCT LAYOUT, MODULAR LAYOUT, FRACTAL LAYOUT, SMALL FACTORY LAYOUT. CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF LAYOUT CONCEPTS: FUNCTIONAL LAYOUT, CELL LAYOUT, PRODUCT LAYOUT, MODULAR LAYOUT, FRACTAL LAYOUT, SMALL FACTORY LAYOUT. Alessandro Lucas da Silva (UNESP) als@sc.usp.br Edwin Cardoza

More information

(This report is endorsed) Industrivej 20, 9900 Frederikshavn, Danmark

(This report is endorsed) Industrivej 20, 9900 Frederikshavn, Danmark Spectrum Laboratories Ltd is accredited by International Accreditation New Zealand (formerly Telarc). The tests reported herein have been performed in accordance with the terms of our accreditation. This

More information

DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH SPEED RESPONSE LAMINAR FLOW METER FOR AIR CONDITIONING

DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH SPEED RESPONSE LAMINAR FLOW METER FOR AIR CONDITIONING DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH SPEED RESPONSE LAMINAR FLOW METER FOR AIR CONDITIONING Toshiharu Kagawa 1, Yukako Saisu 2, Riki Nishimura 3 and Chongho Youn 4 ABSTRACT In this paper, we developed a new laminar flow

More information

ME6130 An introduction to CFD 1-1

ME6130 An introduction to CFD 1-1 ME6130 An introduction to CFD 1-1 What is CFD? Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is the science of predicting fluid flow, heat and mass transfer, chemical reactions, and related phenomena by solving numerically

More information

Lecture 6 - Boundary Conditions. Applied Computational Fluid Dynamics

Lecture 6 - Boundary Conditions. Applied Computational Fluid Dynamics Lecture 6 - Boundary Conditions Applied Computational Fluid Dynamics Instructor: André Bakker http://www.bakker.org André Bakker (2002-2006) Fluent Inc. (2002) 1 Outline Overview. Inlet and outlet boundaries.

More information

Construction Planning, Equipment, and Methods

Construction Planning, Equipment, and Methods CHAPTER Construction Planning, Equipment, and Methods Sixth Edition GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS, COMPACTION, AND STABILIZATION A. J. Clark School of Engineering Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

More information

Injective Mappings and Solvable Vector Fields

Injective Mappings and Solvable Vector Fields Ciências Matemáticas Injective Mappings and Solvable Vector Fields José R. dos Santos Filho Departamento de Matemática Universidade Federal de São Carlos Via W. Luis, Km 235-13565-905 São Carlos SP Brazil

More information

A RELAP5 STUDY TO IDENTIFY FLOW REGIME IN NATURAL CIRCULATION PHENOMENON

A RELAP5 STUDY TO IDENTIFY FLOW REGIME IN NATURAL CIRCULATION PHENOMENON 2011 International Nuclear Atlantic Conference - INAC 2011 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, October 24-28, 2011 ASSOCIAÇÃO BRASILEIRA DE ENERGIA NUCLEAR - ABEN ISBN: 978-85-99141-04-5 A RELAP5 STUDY TO IDENTIFY

More information

Refrigeration Compressed Air Dryer Buran Ultrapulse

Refrigeration Compressed Air Dryer Buran Ultrapulse Refrigeration Compressed Air Dryer Buran Ultrapulse There is more to compressed air than just compressing air Compressed air is an indispensable source of operating and processing power in all areas of

More information

ENERGETIC EFFICIENCY OF AN AGRICULTURAL TRACTOR IN FUNCTION OF TIRE INFLATION PRESSURE

ENERGETIC EFFICIENCY OF AN AGRICULTURAL TRACTOR IN FUNCTION OF TIRE INFLATION PRESSURE ENERGETIC EFFICIENCY OF AN AGRICULTURAL TRACTOR IN FUNCTION OF TIRE INFLATION PRESSURE LEONARDO DE A. MONTEIRO 1, DANIEL ALBIERO 2, KLEBER P. LANÇAS 3, ANDRÉ V. BUENO 4, FABRICIO C. MASIERO 5 ABSTRACT:

More information

Characteristics of Centrifugal Blower and Its Effective Use in High Static Pressure Area

Characteristics of Centrifugal Blower and Its Effective Use in High Static Pressure Area Characteristics of Centrifugal Blower and Its Effective Use in High Static Pressure Area Masayuki TAKAHASHI With small fans, selecting the right fan that most fits the purpose is extremely important from

More information

k is change in kinetic energy and E

k is change in kinetic energy and E Energy Balances on Closed Systems A system is closed if mass does not cross the system boundary during the period of time covered by energy balance. Energy balance for a closed system written between two

More information

Unique Airflow Visualization Techniques for the Design and Validation of Above-Plenum Data Center CFD Models

Unique Airflow Visualization Techniques for the Design and Validation of Above-Plenum Data Center CFD Models Unique Airflow Visualization Techniques for the Design and Validation of Above-Plenum Data Center CFD Models The MIT Faculty has made this article openly available. Please share how this access benefits

More information

Sheet 5:Chapter 5 5 1C Name four physical quantities that are conserved and two quantities that are not conserved during a process.

Sheet 5:Chapter 5 5 1C Name four physical quantities that are conserved and two quantities that are not conserved during a process. Thermo 1 (MEP 261) Thermodynamics An Engineering Approach Yunus A. Cengel & Michael A. Boles 7 th Edition, McGraw-Hill Companies, ISBN-978-0-07-352932-5, 2008 Sheet 5:Chapter 5 5 1C Name four physical

More information

Simulation to Analyze Two Models of Agitation System in Quench Process

Simulation to Analyze Two Models of Agitation System in Quench Process 20 th European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering ESCAPE20 S. Pierucci and G. Buzzi Ferraris (Editors) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Simulation to Analyze Two Models of Agitation

More information

TEST REPORT #44. System Drop-in Tests of Refrigerant R-32 in Single Packaged Vertical Heat Pump (SPVH)

TEST REPORT #44. System Drop-in Tests of Refrigerant R-32 in Single Packaged Vertical Heat Pump (SPVH) Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Low-GWP Alternative Refrigerants Evaluation Program (Low-GWP AREP) TEST REPORT #44 System Drop-in Tests of Refrigerant R-32 in Single Packaged

More information

Passion for Progress

Passion for Progress Fluidized-bed drying with superheated steam Jochen Gaßmann, Mirko Löhn, Hartmut Hafemann BMA Braunschweigische Maschinenbauanstalt AG Braunschweig, Germany ifood 2013, Hannover Without verbal explanation

More information

Introduction to CFD Analysis

Introduction to CFD Analysis Introduction to CFD Analysis 2-1 What is CFD? Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is the science of predicting fluid flow, heat and mass transfer, chemical reactions, and related phenomena by solving numerically

More information

www.inspection-for-industry.com

www.inspection-for-industry.com Quality Control Form (TEST RUNNING RECORD FOR AIR HANDLING UNIT) SUB POWER SUPPLY: MAIN POWER V, Hz, CONTROL V, Blower 1 kw, Blower 2 kw, Compressor: (1) kw (2) kw (3) kw (4) kw Heating Element: kw 1.

More information

ME 315 - Heat Transfer Laboratory. Experiment No. 7 ANALYSIS OF ENHANCED CONCENTRIC TUBE AND SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS

ME 315 - Heat Transfer Laboratory. Experiment No. 7 ANALYSIS OF ENHANCED CONCENTRIC TUBE AND SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS ME 315 - Heat Transfer Laboratory Nomenclature Experiment No. 7 ANALYSIS OF ENHANCED CONCENTRIC TUBE AND SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS A heat exchange area, m 2 C max maximum specific heat rate, J/(s

More information

Effects of heat exchange condition on hot air production by a chemical heat pump dryer using CaO/H 2 O/Ca(OH) 2 reaction

Effects of heat exchange condition on hot air production by a chemical heat pump dryer using CaO/H 2 O/Ca(OH) 2 reaction Chemical Engineering Journal 86 (2002) 3 10 Effects of heat exchange condition on hot air production by a chemical heat pump dryer using CaO/H 2 O/Ca(OH) 2 reaction Hironao Ogura a,, Tetsuya Yamamoto a,

More information

Modelling the Drying of Porous Coal Particles in Superheated Steam

Modelling the Drying of Porous Coal Particles in Superheated Steam B. A. OLUFEMI and I. F. UDEFIAGBON, Modelling the Drying of Porous Coal, Chem. Biochem. Eng. Q. 24 (1) 29 34 (2010) 29 Modelling the Drying of Porous Coal Particles in Superheated Steam B. A. Olufemi *

More information

Theoretical Study on Separate Sensible and Latent Cooling Air-Conditioning System

Theoretical Study on Separate Sensible and Latent Cooling Air-Conditioning System Purdue University Purdue e-pubs International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference School of Mechanical Engineering 2008 Theoretical Study on Separate Sensible and Latent Cooling Air-Conditioning

More information

Biomass pellets production with industrial and agro-industrial wastes

Biomass pellets production with industrial and agro-industrial wastes Sustainable Development and Planning V 99 Biomass pellets production with industrial and agro-industrial wastes J. C. A. R. Claro & D. Costa-Gonzalez Centro de Química Vila Real / Departamento de Química,

More information

Turbulence Modeling in CFD Simulation of Intake Manifold for a 4 Cylinder Engine

Turbulence Modeling in CFD Simulation of Intake Manifold for a 4 Cylinder Engine HEFAT2012 9 th International Conference on Heat Transfer, Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics 16 18 July 2012 Malta Turbulence Modeling in CFD Simulation of Intake Manifold for a 4 Cylinder Engine Dr MK

More information

Introduction to CFD Analysis

Introduction to CFD Analysis Introduction to CFD Analysis Introductory FLUENT Training 2006 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 2006 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 2-2 What is CFD? Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is the science

More information

Soil Suction. Total Suction

Soil Suction. Total Suction Soil Suction Total Suction Total soil suction is defined in terms of the free energy or the relative vapor pressure (relative humidity) of the soil moisture. Ψ = v RT ln v w 0ω v u v 0 ( u ) u = partial

More information

MODEL TEG-F20. Specification Sheet. TEG-F20 Specification Sheet Ver. 2011-0310. Copyright(C) 2011 Tsukasa Sokken Co., Ltd.

MODEL TEG-F20. Specification Sheet. TEG-F20 Specification Sheet Ver. 2011-0310. Copyright(C) 2011 Tsukasa Sokken Co., Ltd. Direct EGR Flow Meter MODEL TEG-F20 Specification Sheet TEG-F20 Specification Sheet Ver. 2011-0310 Copyright(C) 2011 Tsukasa Sokken Co., Ltd. 1. Overview Sokken model TEG series is an EGR Flow meter to

More information

Testing methods applicable to refrigeration components and systems

Testing methods applicable to refrigeration components and systems Testing methods applicable to refrigeration components and systems Sylvain Quoilin (1)*, Cristian Cuevas (2), Vladut Teodorese (1), Vincent Lemort (1), Jules Hannay (1) and Jean Lebrun (1) (1) University

More information

18th International Congress of Mechanical Engineering

18th International Congress of Mechanical Engineering CYLINDRICAL ENCAPSULATED COLD STORAGE Juan José Milón Guzmán Universidad Católica San Pablo, Av. Salaverry, 31, Vallecito, Cercado, Arequipa, Perú milonjj@ucsp.edu.pe Sergio leal Braga Pontificia Universidade

More information

AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF EXERGY IN A CORRUGATED PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER

AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF EXERGY IN A CORRUGATED PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET) Volume 6, Issue 11, Nov 2015, pp. 16-22, Article ID: IJMET_06_11_002 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijmet/issues.asp?jtype=ijmet&vtype=6&itype=11

More information

A Course in Particle and Crystallization Technology

A Course in Particle and Crystallization Technology A Course in Particle and Crystallization Technology Priscilla J. Hill 1 Abstract The traditional chemical engineering curriculum is based on vapor-liquid processes with little discussion of processes involving

More information

FEASIBILITY OF A BRAYTON CYCLE AUTOMOTIVE AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM

FEASIBILITY OF A BRAYTON CYCLE AUTOMOTIVE AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM FEASIBILITY OF A BRAYTON CYCLE AUTOMOTIVE AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM L. H. M. Beatrice a, and F. A. S. Fiorelli a a Universidade de São Paulo Escola Politécnica Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica Av. Prof.

More information

RESPONSE TIME INDEX OF SPRINKLERS

RESPONSE TIME INDEX OF SPRINKLERS , Number l, p.1-6, 29 RESPONSE TIME INDEX OF SPRINKLERS C.K. Sze Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China ABSTRACT The Plunge test would be carried

More information

Coupling Forced Convection in Air Gaps with Heat and Moisture Transfer inside Constructions

Coupling Forced Convection in Air Gaps with Heat and Moisture Transfer inside Constructions Coupling Forced Convection in Air Gaps with Heat and Moisture Transfer inside Constructions M. Bianchi Janetti 1, F. Ochs 1 and R. Pfluger 1 1 University of Innsbruck, Unit for Energy Efficient Buildings,

More information

Transient Analysis of Integrated Shiraz Hybrid Solar Thermal Power Plant Iman Niknia 1, Mahmood Yaghoubi 1, 2

Transient Analysis of Integrated Shiraz Hybrid Solar Thermal Power Plant Iman Niknia 1, Mahmood Yaghoubi 1, 2 Transient Analysis of Integrated Shiraz Hybrid Solar Thermal Power Plant Iman Niknia 1, Mahmood Yaghoubi 1, 2 1 School of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran 1, 2 Shiraz University,

More information

GUIDELINES AND FORMAT SPECIFICATIONS FOR PROPOSALS, THESES, AND DISSERTATIONS

GUIDELINES AND FORMAT SPECIFICATIONS FOR PROPOSALS, THESES, AND DISSERTATIONS UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE SANTA CATARINA CENTRO DE COMUNICAÇÃO E EXPRESSÃO PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM INGLÊS: ESTUDOS LINGUÍSTICOS E LITERÁRIOS GUIDELINES AND FORMAT SPECIFICATIONS FOR PROPOSALS, THESES, AND DISSERTATIONS

More information

GenStore Archive Cabinet

GenStore Archive Cabinet GenStore Archive Cabinet Setup and Maintenance Manual Version A April 2014 Two GenStore Archives shown mounted on optional table stand. 2 Contents Getting Started... 4 Using this Manual...4 Safety Precautions...4

More information

Reproducibility of the Portuguese version of the PEDro Scale. Reprodutibilidade da Escala de Qualidade PEDro em português. Abstract RESEARCH NOTE

Reproducibility of the Portuguese version of the PEDro Scale. Reprodutibilidade da Escala de Qualidade PEDro em português. Abstract RESEARCH NOTE NOTA RESEARCH NOTE 2063 Reproducibility of the Portuguese version of the PEDro Scale Reprodutibilidade da Escala de Qualidade PEDro em português Silvia Regina Shiwa 1 Leonardo Oliveira Pena Costa 1,2 Luciola

More information

SOIL-LIME TESTING. Test Procedure for. TxDOT Designation: Tex-121-E 1. SCOPE 2. APPARATUS 3. MATERIALS TXDOT DESIGNATION: TEX-121-E

SOIL-LIME TESTING. Test Procedure for. TxDOT Designation: Tex-121-E 1. SCOPE 2. APPARATUS 3. MATERIALS TXDOT DESIGNATION: TEX-121-E Test Procedure for SOIL-LIME TESTING TxDOT Designation: Tex-121-E Effective Date: August 2002 1. SCOPE 1.1 This method consists of three parts. 1.1.1 Part I determines the unconfined compressive strength

More information

Finite Element Modules for Enhancing Undergraduate Transport Courses: Application to Fuel Cell Fundamentals

Finite Element Modules for Enhancing Undergraduate Transport Courses: Application to Fuel Cell Fundamentals Finite Element Modules for Enhancing Undergraduate Transport Courses: Application to Fuel Cell Fundamentals Originally published in 2007 American Society for Engineering Education Conference Proceedings

More information

Laboratory Experience with a Model Jet Turbine

Laboratory Experience with a Model Jet Turbine Session 2166 Laboratory Experience with a Model Jet Turbine John E. Matsson Oral Roberts University Abstract This paper describes the experience gained from the operation of a JetCat model turbojet engine

More information

AGJ APRÍTÓGÉPGYÁR Kft.

AGJ APRÍTÓGÉPGYÁR Kft. 1 AGJ APRÍTÓGÉPGYÁR Kft. Headquarters: H 5100 Jászberény, Honvéd u.27. Location: H 5100 Jászberény, Sportpálya u.1. Postal address: H 5101 Jászberény, PF.: 44 Tel.: +36 57 515 355, Fax: +36 57 515 356

More information

ME 305 Fluid Mechanics I. Part 8 Viscous Flow in Pipes and Ducts

ME 305 Fluid Mechanics I. Part 8 Viscous Flow in Pipes and Ducts ME 305 Fluid Mechanics I Part 8 Viscous Flow in Pipes and Ducts These presentations are prepared by Dr. Cüneyt Sert Mechanical Engineering Department Middle East Technical University Ankara, Turkey csert@metu.edu.tr

More information

Effect of design parameters on temperature rise of windings of dry type electrical transformer

Effect of design parameters on temperature rise of windings of dry type electrical transformer Effect of design parameters on temperature rise of windings of dry type electrical transformer Vikas Kumar a, *, T. Vijay Kumar b, K.B. Dora c a Centre for Development of Advanced Computing, Pune University

More information

A heat pipe heat recovery heat exchanger for a mini-drier

A heat pipe heat recovery heat exchanger for a mini-drier A heat pipe heat recovery heat exchanger for a mini-drier A Meyer Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch R T Dobson Department of Mechanical Engineering, University

More information

Energy savings in commercial refrigeration. Low pressure control

Energy savings in commercial refrigeration. Low pressure control Energy savings in commercial refrigeration equipment : Low pressure control August 2011/White paper by Christophe Borlein AFF and l IIF-IIR member Make the most of your energy Summary Executive summary

More information

EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF HEAT TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT IN A CIRCULAR TUBE WITH DIFFERENT TWIST RATIO OF TWISTED TAPE INSERTS

EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF HEAT TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT IN A CIRCULAR TUBE WITH DIFFERENT TWIST RATIO OF TWISTED TAPE INSERTS INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEAT AND TECHNOLOGY Vol.33 (2015), No.3, pp.158-162 http://dx.doi.org/10.18280/ijht.330324 EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF HEAT TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT IN A CIRCULAR TUBE WITH DIFFERENT

More information

TRANSIENT AIR TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS IN A DATA CENTER

TRANSIENT AIR TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS IN A DATA CENTER Proceedings of the 21st National & 10TH ISHMT-ASME Heat and Mass Transfer Conference December 27-30, 2011, IIT Madras, India Paper ID: ISHMT_USA_013 TRANSIENT AIR TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS IN A DATA CENTER

More information