Holt Ch. 6 Biomes. Section 6.1 pg # 1-6

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1 Holt Ch. 6 Biomes Section 6.1 pg # 1-6

2 1. Describe how plants determine the name of a biome. Scientists name biomes after their vegetation because the plants that grow in an area determine what other organisms can live there. Plants are the most obvious part of the biome. Plants are the producers and therefore the base of the food chain.

3 2. Explain how temperature affects which plants grow in an area. Plants are adapted to a particular range of temperature and can usually survive only in a climate with that particular range. Ex. Evergreens from the Taiga cannot survive the heat of the desert Ex. Orange trees adapted to warm temperatures will never be able to survive Iowa s cold winters.

4 3. Explain how precipitation affects which plants grow in an area. Plants are adapted to a particular level of precipitation and can usually survive only in a climate with that particular range. Ex. Cacti getting too much water will likely rot. Ex. Garden plants will wilt and die for lack of water during a drought.

5 4. Define latitude and altitude. How is latitude different from altitude? How do these factors affect the organisms that live in a biome? Latitude is the distance north or south of the equator. Altitude is the height of an object above sea level. Both latitude and altitude determine the temperature and precipitation of a biome. If an organism is near the equator and at low altitude, the organism will have to survive in a very warm, humid environment. As both latitude and altitude increase, the climate becomes cooler and dryer.

6 5. The equator passes through the country of Ecuador. But the climate can range from hot and humid to cool and dry. Write a short paragraph that explains what might cause this range in climate. Part of the Andes Mountains is in Ecuador. Since there are altitudes that range from coastal (sea level) to mountains (high altitude) there will also be a range of climates.

7 6. Look at figure 1, and locate the equator and 30 north latitude. Which biomes are located between these two lines. Desert, Chaparral, Tropical Savanna, Temperate Grassland, Temperate Forest, and Tropical Rainforest.

8 Holt Ch. 6 Biomes Section 6.2 pg # 3-6

9 3. Describe two ways in which tropical rainforests of the world are being threatened. Deforestation for logging Deforestation for ranching Deforestation for farming Oil Exploration Trade in exotic animal species Loss of native cultures

10 4. Describe how a plant survives the change in seasons in a temperate deciduous forest. Write a short paragraph to explain your answer. In order to survive the change of seasons in the temperate deciduous forest, a plant loses its leaves during the fall and winter and remains dormant until spring. This applies to trees and shrubs. Many set buds during the fall. (Maple, Oak, Burning Bush, Magnolia) Other perennial plants die back to the root or rhizome (tuber) and sprout new growth each spring. (Hosta, Peony, Ferns)

11 5. Which would be better suited for agricultural development: the soil of a tropical rainforest or the soil of a temperate deciduous forest? Explain your answer. Temperate Deciduous Forest: Organic matter decays slowly in the temperate forest, and forms a deep, rich soil that would be better suited for agriculture. Also, the massive amount of rain received in rainforests has a tendency to wash nutrients away quickly. To fight this, plants in the rainforests are specially adapted to retain nutrients in their bodies.

12 6. How does a snowshoe hare avoid predation by other animals during the winter in the Taiga biome? How might this affect the animal that depends on the snowshoe hare for food? A snowshoe hare avoids predation by shedding its brown summer fur and growing white fur that camouflages it in the winter snow. Predators will have a difficult time finding a snowshoe hare during the winter.

13 Holt Ch. 6 Biomes Section 6.3 pg # 1-6

14 1. Describe two desert animals and the adaptations that help them survive Elf owls burrow into and nest in cacti -- commensalism Sidewinders (snake) move so that only small areas of their bodies contact the hot sand at any given time Many animals are nocturnal (active only at night) Spadefoot Toad Use the practice of Estivation burrowing into mud and hibernating during the hottest, driest part of the year.

15 2. Describe how Tropical Grasslands differ from Temperate Grasslands. Tropical Grasslands are located in tropical and subtropical areas near the equator, and they are full of grasses, scattered trees and shrubs. Also, they never freeze, have near constant temperatures and have a distinct wet and dry season. Temperate Grasslands are located farther from the equator and are dominated by grasses. They have extremely fertile soil. Also, they have extreme temperature ranges with a winter season and the precipitation is spread more evenly throughout the year with less in winter.

16 3. Compare the plants that live in deserts with the plants that live in the tundra biome. Plants that grow in deserts and plants native to tundra are adapted to low moisture and extreme temperatures. Both desert and tundra plants grow and flower quickly in the short growing season. Desert plants have special structures that allow them to trap and store water. Tundra plants grow low to the ground to stay out of the cold, dry wind.

17 4. Describe one threat to the Tundra biome Oil Exploration could lead to spills that could damage the environment. Tundra is a fragile biome that is easily disrupted and slow to heal because of the short growing season and simple food web found there.

18 5. Former grasslands are among the most productive farming regions. Read the description of Temperate Grassland and explain why this statement is true. Moderate to warm temperatures, consistent rain during the growing season, and fertile soils make for productive farming regions. Also, dense root mats have added in preventing erosion of topsoil. Frequent fires have added nutrients. Slow decomposition has allowed nutrients to build up, making Temperate Grassland soil among the most fertile in the world.

19 6. Explain why elephants and caribou, which live in very different biomes, both migrate. Both represent large groups of herbivores that must migrate to find food.

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