# Chapter 5 Polar Coordinates; Vectors 5.1 Polar coordinates 1. Pole and polar axis

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1 Chapter 5 Polar Coordinates; Vectors 5.1 Polar coordinates 1. Pole and polar axis 2. Polar coordinates A point P in a polar coordinate system is represented by an ordered pair of numbers (r, θ). If r > 0, then r is the distance of the point from the pole; θ (in degrees or radians) formed by the polar axis and a ray from the pole through the point. We call the ordered pair (r, θ) the polar coordinate of the point. 3. Example: In polar coordinate system, locate point (2, π 4 ). 4. In using polar coordinates (r, θ), if r < 0, the corresponding point is on the ray from the pole extending in the direction opposite the terminal side of θ at a distance r units from the pole. 1

2 5. Example: In polar coordinate system, locate point ( 3, 2π 3 ). 6. Example: Plot the points with the following polar coordinates: (1) (3, 5π 3 ) (2) (2, π 4 ) (3) (3, 0) (4) ( 2, π 4 ) 7. Example: Find several polar coordinates of a single point (2, π 4 ). 8. Remark: A point with polar coordinates (r, θ) also can be represented by either of the following: (r, θ + 2kπ) or ( r, θ + π + 2kπ), k any integer The polar coordinates of the pole are (0, θ), where θ can be any angle. 9. Example: Plot the point with polar coordinates (3, π ), and find other polar coordinates (r, θ) 6 of this same point for which: (1) r > 0, 2π θ 4π (2) r < 0, 0 θ < 2π 2

3 (3) r > 0, 2π θ < Theorem: Conversion from polar coordinates to rectangular coordinates by If P is a point with polar coordinates (r, θ), the rectangular coordinates (x, y) of P are given x = r cos θ y = r sin θ 11. Example: Find the rectangular coordinates of the points with the following polar coordinates: (1) (6, π 6 ) (2) ( 4, π 4 ). 12. Converting from rectangular coordinates to polar coordinates: Case 1: Points that lie on either the x-axis or the y-axis. Suppose a > 0, we have 3

4 Case 2: Points that lie in a quadrant. 13. Summary: Steps for converting from rectangular to polar coordinates. (1) Always plot the point (x, y) first. (2) To find r using r 2 = x 2 + y 2. (3) To find θ, first determine the quadrant that the point lies in: Quadrant I: θ = tan 1 y x Quadrant III: θ = π + tan 1 y x Quadrant II: θ = π + tan 1 y x Quadrant IV: θ = tan 1 y x 14. Find polar coordinates of a point whose rectangular coordinates are: (1) (0, 3) (2) (2, 2) (3) ( 1, 3) 4

5 15. Example: Transform the equation r = 4 sin θ from polar coordinates to rectangular coordinates. 16. Example: Transform the equation 4xy = 9 from rectangular coordinates to polar coordinates. 5

6 5.2 Polar equations and graphs 1. Polar grids consist of concentric circles (with centers at the pole) and rays (with vertices at the pole). 2. The graph of a polar equation An equation whose variables are polar coordinates is called a polar equation. The graph of a polar equation consists of all points whose polar coordinates satisfy the equation. 3. Example: Identify and graph the equation: r = 3. 6

7 4. Example: Identify and graph the equation: θ = π Identify and graph the equation: r sin θ = 2. 7

8 6. Identify and graph the equation: r cos θ = Theorem: Let a be a nonzero real number. Then the graph of the equation r sin θ = a is a horizontal line a units above the pole if a > 0 and a units below the pole if a < 0. The graph of the equation r cos θ = a is a vertical line a units to the right of the pole if a > 0 and a units to the left of the pole if a < 0. 8

9 8. Example: Identify and graph the equation: r = 4 sin θ. 9. Example: Identify and graph the equation: r = 2 cos θ. 9

10 10. Theorem: Let a be a positive real number. Then the graph of each of the following equation is a circle passing through the pole: (1) r = 2a sin θ: radius a; center at (0, a) in rectangular coordinates (2) r = 2a sin θ: radius a; center at (0, a) in rectangular coordinates (3) r = 2a cos θ: radius a; center at (a, 0) in rectangular coordinates (2) r = 2a cos θ: radius a; center at ( a, 0) in rectangular coordinates 10

11 5.3 The Complex Plane; De Moivre s Theorem 1. Complex plane: Real axis and imaginary axis 2. Remark: Any point on the real axis is of the form z = x + 0i = x, a real number. Any point on the imaginary axis is of the form z = 0 + yi, a pure imaginary number. 3. Definition: Let z = x + yi be a complex number. The magnitude or modulus of z denoted by z, is defined as the distance from the origin to the point (x, y). That is, z = x 2 + y 2 4. Recall that if z = x + yi, then its conjugate, denoted by z = x yi. Example: It follows from z z = x 2 + y 2 that z = z z. 11

12 5. Polar form of a complex number: When a complex number is written in the standard form z = x + yi, we say that it is in rectangular form, or Cartesian form. If r 0 and 0 θ < 2π, the complex number z = x + yi may be written in polar form as z = x + yi = (r cos θ) + (r sin θ)i = r(cos θ + i sin θ) If z = r(cos θ + i sin θ) is the polar form of a complex number, the angle θ, 0 θ < 2π, is called the argument of z. Because r 0, we have r = x 2 + y 2, the magnitude of z = r(cos θ + i sin θ) is z = r. 6. Example: Plot the point corresponding to z = 3 i in the complex plane, and write an expression for z in polar form. 7. Example: Plot the point corresponding to z = 2(cos i sin 30 0 ) in the complex plane, and write an expression for z in rectangular form. 12

13 8. Theorem: Let z 1 = r 1 (cos θ 1 + i sin θ 1 ) and z 2 = r 2 (cos θ 2 + i sin θ 2 ) be two complex numbers. Then z 1 z 2 = r 1 r 2 [cos(θ 1 + θ 2 ) + i sin(θ 1 + θ 2 )] If z 2 0, then z 1 z 2 = r 1 r 2 [cos(θ 1 θ 2 ) + i sin(θ 1 θ 2 )] 9. Example: If z = 3(cos i sin 20 0 ) and w = 5(cos i sin ), find zw and z w. 10. Theorem: De Moivre s Theorem If z = r(cos θ + i sin θ) is a complex number, then z n = r n [cos(nθ) + i sin(nθ)] where n 1 is a positive integer. 11. Example: Write [2(cos i sin 20 0 )] 3 in the standard form a + bi. 13

14 12. Example: Write (1 + i) 5 in the standard form a + bi. 13. Definition: Let w be a given complex number, and let n 2 denote a positive integer. Any complex number z that satisfies the equation z n = w is called a complex nth root of w. 14. Theorem: Let w = r(cos θ 0 + i sin θ 0 ) be a complex number and let n 2 be an integer. If w 0, there are n distinct complex roots of w, given by the formula where k = 0, 1, 2,..., n 1. z k = n r[cos( θ 0 n + 2kπ n ) + i sin(θ 0 n + 2kπ n )] 15. Example: Find the complex cube roots of 1 + 3i. 14

15 5.4 Vectors 1. Definition: A vector is a quantity that has both magnitude and direction. It is customary to present a vector by using an arrow. The length of the arrow represents the magnitude of the vector, and the arrowhead indicates the direction of the vector. 2. Definition: If P and Q are two distinct points in the xy-plane, there is exactly one line containing both P and Q. The points on that part of the line that joins P to Q, including P and Q, form what is called the line segment P Q. If we order the points so that they proceed from P to Q, we have a directed line segment from P to Q, or a geometric vector, which we denote by P Q. We call P the initial point and Q the terminal point. 15

16 3. The magnitude of the directed line segment P Q is the distance from the point P to the point Q; that is the length of the line segment. The direction of P Q is from P to Q. If a vector v has the same magnitude and the same direction as the directed line segment P Q, we write v = P Q. The vector v whose magnitude is 0 is called the zero vector, 0. The zero vector is assigned no direction. Two vectors v and w are equal, written v = w if they have the same magnitude and the same direction. 4. Definition: The sum v + w of two vectors is defined as follows: We position the vectors v and w so that the terminal point of v coincides with the initial point of w. The vector v + w is then the unique vector whose initial point coincides with the initial point of v and whose terminal point coincides with the terminal point of w. 5. Properties of vector addition: (1) Vector addition is commutative: v + w = w + v 16

17 (2) Vector addition is associative: u + ( v + w ) = ( u + v ) + w (3) v + 0 = 0 + v = v (4) If v is a vector, then v is the vector having the same magnitude as v but whose direction is opposite to v. (5) v + ( v ) = ( v ) + v = 0 6. Definition: If v and w are two vectors, we define the difference v w as v w = v + ( w ) 17

18 7. Multiplying vectors by numbers If α is a scalar and v is a vector, the scalar product α v is defined as follows: (1) If α > 0, the product α v is the vector whose magnitude is α times the magnitude of v and whose direction is the same as v. (2) If α < 0, the product α v is the vector whose magnitude is α times the magnitude of v and whose direction is opposite that of v. (3) If α = 0 or if v = 0, then α v = 0 Properties of scalar multiplication: 0 v = 0, 1 v = v, 1 v = v (α + β) v = α v + β v, α( v + w ) = α v + α w α(β v ) = (αβ) v 8. Example: 18

19 9. Magnitudes of vectors: If v is a vector, we use the symbol v to represent the magnitude of v. 10. Theorem: Properties of v If v is a vector and if α is a scalar, then (1) v 0, (2) v = 0 if and only if v = 0 (3) v = v (4) α v = α v (5) A vector u for which u = 1 is called a unit vector 11. Definition: An algebraic vector is represented as v = a, b where a and b are real numbers (scalars) called the components of the vector v We use a rectangular coordinate system to represent algebraic vectors in the plane. If v = a, b is an algebraic vector whose initial point is at the origin, then v is called a position vector. Note that the terminal point of the position vector v = a, b is P = (a, b). 12. Theorem: Suppose that v is a vector with initial point P 1 = (x 1, y 1 ), not necessarily the origin, and terminal point P 2 = (x 2, y 2 ). If v = P 1 P 2, then v is equal to the position vector v = x2 x 1, y 2 y 1 19

20 13. Example: Find the position vector of the vector v = P 1 P 2 if P 1 = ( 1, 2) and P 2 = (4, 6). 14. Theorem: Equality of vectors Two vectors v and w are equal if and only if their corresponding components are equal. That is, If v = a 1, b 1 and w = a 2, b 2 then v = w if and only if a 1 = a 2 and b 1 = b Alternative representation of a vector: Let i denote the unit vector whose direction is along the positive x-axis; let j denote the unit vector whose direction is along the positive y-axis. Then i = 1, 0 and j = 0, 1. Any vector v = a, b can be written using the unit vectors i and j as follows: v = a, b = a 1, 0 + b 0, 1 = a i + b j We call a and b the horizontal and vertical components of v, respectively. 16. Properties: Let v = a 1 i + b1 j = a1, b 1 and w = a 2 i + b2 j = a2, b 2 be two vectors, and let α be a scalar. Then (1) v + w = (a 1 + a 2 ) i + (b 1 + b 2 ) j = a 1 + a 2, b 1 + b 2 (2) v w = (a 1 a 2 ) i + (b 1 b 2 ) j = a 1 a 2, b 1 b 2 (3) α v = (αa 1 ) i + (αb 1 ) j = αa 1, αb 1 (4) v = a b

21 17. Example: If v = 2 i + 3 j = 2, 3 and w = 3 i 4 j = 3, 4, find v + w and v w 18. Example: If v = 2 i + 3 j = 2, 3 and w = 3 i 4 j = 3, 4, find (1)3 v (2)2 v 3 w (3) v 19. Theorem: Unit vector in the direction of v For any nonzero vector v, the vector u = is a unit vector that has the same direction as v v v 20. Example: Find the unit vector in the same direction as v = 4 i 3 j. 21

22 5.5 The dot product 1. Definition: If v = a 1 i + b1 j and w = a2 i + b2 j are two vectors, the dot product v w is defined as v w = a1 a 2 + b 1 b Example: If v = 2 i 3 j and w = 5 i + 3 j, find: (1) v w (2) w v (3) v v (4) v w (5) v (6) w 3. Properties of the dot product If u, v, and w are vectors, then (1) u v = v u (2) u ( v + w ) = u v + u w (3) v v = v 2 (4) 0 v = 0 22

23 4. Angle between vectors Let u and v are two nonzero vectors, the angle θ, 0 θ π, between u and v is determined by the formula cos θ = u v u v 5. Example: Find the angle θ between u = 4 i 3 j and v = 2 i + 5 j. 23

24 5.5 The dot product 1. Definition: If v = a 1 i + b1 j and w = a2 i + b2 j are two vectors, the dot product v w is defined as v w = a1 a 2 + b 1 b Example: If v = 2 i 3 j and w = 5 i + 3 j, find: (1) v w (2) w v (3) v v (4) v w (5) v (6) w 3. Properties of the dot product If u, v, and w are vectors, then (1) u v = v u (2) u ( v + w ) = u v + u w (3) v v = v 2 (4) 0 v = 0 24

25 4. Angle between vectors Let u and v are two nonzero vectors, the angle θ, 0 θ π, between u and v is determined by the formula cos θ = u v u v 5. Example: Find the angle θ between u = 4 i 3 j and v = 2 i + 5 j. 6. Parallel vectors Two vectors v and w are said to be parallel if there exists a nonzero scalar α so that v = α w. In this case, the angle θ between v and w is 0 or π. 7. Example: Show vectors v = 3 i j and w = 6 i 2 j are parallel. 25

26 8. Orthogonal vectors If the angle θ between two nonzero vectors v and w is π, the vectors v and w are called 2 orthogonal. Theorem: Two vectors v and w are orthogonal if and only if v w = 0 9. Example: Show vectors v = 2 i j and w = 3 i + 6 j are orthogonal. 10. Projection of a Vector onto Another Vector 26

27 Theorem: If v and w are two nonzero vectors, the projection of v onto w is v1 = v w w 2 w Theorem : The decomposition of v into v 1 and v 2, where v 1 is parallel to w and v 2 is perpendicular to w, is v1 = v w w 2 w v2 = v v 1 11: Example: Find the vector projection of v = i + 3 j onto w = i + j. 27

28 5.6 Vectors in space 1. Rectangular coordinates in space 2. Distance formula in space If P 1 = (x 1, y 1, z 1 ) and P 2 = (x 2, y 2, z 2 ) are two points in space, the distance d from P 1 to P 2 is d = (x 2 x 1 ) 2 + (y 2 y 1 ) 2 + (z 2 z 1 ) Example: Find the distance from P 1 = ( 1, 3, 2) to P 2 = (4, 2, 5). 4. Representation of position vectors A vector whose initial point is at the origin is called a position vector. If v is a vector with initial point at origin O and terminal point at P = (a, b, c), then we can represent v in terms of the vectors i, j, and k as v = a i + b j + c k. The scalars a, b, and c are called the components of the vector v = a i + b j + c k. 28

29 5. Representation of any vectors Suppose that v is a vector with initial point P 1 = (x 1, y 1, z 1 ), not necessarily the origin, and the terminal point P 2 = (x 2, y 2, z 2 ). If v = P 1 P 2, then v is equal to the position vector v = (x2 x 1 ) i + (y 2 y 1 ) j + (z 2 z 1 ) k. 6. Example: Find the position vector of the vector v = P 1 P 2 if P 1 = ( 1, 2, 3) and P 2 = (4, 6, 2). 7. Properties of vectors in terms of components. Let v = a 1 i + b1 j + c1 k and w = a2 i + b2 j + c2 k be two vectors, and let α be a scalar. Then (1) v = w if and only if a 1 = a 2, b 1 = b 2, and c 1 = c 2. (2) v + w = (a 1 + a 2 ) i + (b 1 + b 2 ) j + (c 1 + c 2 ) k. (3) v w = (a 1 a 2 ) i + (b 1 b 2 ) j + (c 1 c 2 ) k. (4) α v = (αa 1 ) i + (αb 1 ) j + (αc 1 ) k. (5) v = a b c Example: If v = 2 i + 3 j 2 k and w = 3 i 4 j + 5 k, find: (1) v + w (2) v w (3) 3 v (4) 2 v 3 w (5) v 29

30 9. Unit vector in the direction of v For any nonzero vector v, the vector u = is a unit vector that has the same direction as v. v v 10. Example: Find a unit vector in the same direction as v = 2 i 3 j 6 k. 11. Dot product If v = a 1 i + b1 j + c1 k and w = a2 i + b2 j + c2 k are two vectors, the dot product v w is defined as v w = a1 a 2 + b 1 b 2 + c 1 c Example: v = 2 i 3 j + 6 k and w = 5 i + 3 j k, find (1) v w (2) w v (3) v w (4) v 12. Properties of dot product If u, v, and w are vectors, then (1) u v = v u (2) u ( v + w ) = u v + u w (3) v v = v 2 (4) 0 v = 0 30

31 13. Angle between vectors If u and v are two nonzero vectors, the angle θ, 0 θ π, between u and v is determined by the formula cos θ = u v u v. 14. Example: Find the angle θ between v = 2 i 3 j + 6 k and w = 2 i + 5 j k. 31

32 5.7 The cross product 1. If v = a 1 i +b1 j +c1 k and w = a2 i +b2 j +c2 k are two vectors, the cross product v w is defined as the vector v w = (b1 c 2 b 2 c 1 ) i + (a 1 c 2 a 2 c 1 ) j + (a 1 b 2 a 2 b 1 )1 k. Note that the cross product v w of two vectors is a vector. 2. Example: If v = 2 i + 3 j + 5 k and w = i + 2 j + 3 k, find v w. 3. Determinant 4. Example: 5. Cross product in terms of determinants 32

33 6. Example: If v = 2 i + 3 j + 5 k and w = i + 2 j + 3 k, find: (1) v w (2) w v (3) v v (4) w w 7. Algebraic properties of the cross product If u, v, and w are vectors and α is a scalar, the (1) u u = 0 (2) u v = v u (3) α( v w ) = (α v ) w = v (α w ) (4) u ( v + w ) = ( u v ) + ( u w ) 8. Geometric properties of the cross product Let u and v be vectors in space. (1) u v is orthogonal to both u and v. (2) u v = u v sin θ, where θ is the angle between u and v. (3) u v is the area of the parallelogram having u 0 and v 0 as adjacent sides. (4) u v = 0 if and only if u and v are parallel. 33

34 9. Example: Find a vector that is orthogonal to u = 3 i 2 j + k and v = i + 3 j k. 10. Example: Find the area of the parallelogram whose vertices are P 1 = (0, 0, 0), P 2 = (3, 2, 1), P 3 = ( 1, 3, 1), and P 4 = (2, 1, 0). 34

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