, has mean A) 0.3. B) the smaller of 0.8 and 0.5. C) D) which cannot be determined without knowing the sample results.

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1 BA 275 Review Problems - Week 9 (11/20/06-11/24/06) CD Lessons: 69, 70, Textbook: pp , , An SRS of size 100 is taken from a population having proportion 0.8 of successes. An independent SRS of size 400 is taken from a population having proportion 0.5 of successes. 1. The sampling distribution for the difference in the sample proportions, p 1 p 2, has mean A) 0.3. B) the smaller of 0.8 and 0.5. C) D) which cannot be determined without knowing the sample results. 2. The sampling distribution for the difference in the sample proportions, p 1 p 2, has standard deviation σd equal to A) 1.3. B) C) D) In a large midwestern university (the class of entering freshmen being on the order of 6000 or more students), an SRS of 100 entering freshmen in 1993 found that 20 finished in the bottom third of their high school class. Admission standards at the university were tightened in In 1997 an SRS of 100 entering freshmen found that 10 finished in the bottom third of their high school class. Letting p1 and p2 be the proportion of all entering freshmen in 1993 and 1997, respectively, who graduated in the bottom third of their high school class. 3. A 90% confidence interval for p1 p2 is A) ±.050. B) ±.083. C) ±.099. D) ±.130. Page 1

2 4. Is there evidence that the proportion of freshmen who graduated in the bottom third of their high school class in 1997 has been reduced, as a result of the tougher admission standards adopted in 1995, compared to the proportion in 1993? To determine this, you test the hypotheses H0: p1 = p2, Ha: p1 > p2. The P-value of your test is A) between.10 and.05. B) between.05 and.01. C) between.01 and.001. D) below The fraction of the variation in the values of y that is explained by the least-squares regression of y on x is A) the correlation coefficient. B) the slope of the least-squares regression line. C) the square of the correlation coefficient. D) the intercept of the least-squares regression line. 6. In a statistics course, a linear regression equation was computed to predict the final exam score from the score on the first test. The equation of the least-squares regression line was y = x where y represents the final exam score and x is the score on the first exam. Suppose Joe scores a 90 on the first exam. What would be the predicted value of his score on the final exam? A) 91. B) 89. C) 81. D) The value cannot be determined from the information given. We also need to know the correlation. Page 2

3 7. A researcher wished to determine whether a company's profits can be used to predict the market value of the company. Based on data from a sample of over 80 companies from the Forbes 500 list, the researcher calculated the equation of the least-squares line for predicting market value from profits to be Market value = (Profits) The correlation between market value and profits would be A) 1/13.7. B) 13.7/ C) positive, but we cannot say what the exact value is. D) either positive or negative. It is impossible to say anything about the correlation from the information given. 8. The least-squares regression line is A) the line that makes the square of the correlation in the data as large as possible. B) the line that makes the sum of the squares of the vertical distances of the data points from the line as small as possible. C) the line that best splits the data in half, with half of the points above the line and half below the line. D) all of the above. 9. Which of the following is true of the least-squares regression line? A) The slope is the change in the response variable that would be predicted by a unit change in the explanatory variable. B) It always passes through the point ( x, y ), the means of the explanatory and response variables, respectively. C) It will only pass through all the data points if r = ± 1. D) All of the above. Page 3

4 10. A producer of infant formual wishes to study how the average weight Y (in kilograms) of children changes during the first year of life. He plots these averages versus the age (in months) and decides to fit a least-squares regression line to the data with as the explanatory variable and Y as the response variable. He computes the following quantities: r = correlation between and Y = 0.9 x = mean of the values of = 6.5 y = mean of the values of Y = 6.6 s x = standard deviation of the values of = 3.6 s = standard deviation of the values of Y = 1.2 y The slope of the least-squares line is A) B) C) D) In a study of 1991 model cars, a researcher computed the least-squares regression line of price (in dollars) on horsepower. He obtained the following equation for this line. price = horsepower. Based on the least-squares regression line, we would predict that a 1991 model car with horsepower equal to 200 would cost A) $41,677. B) $35,000. C) $28,323. D) $13,354. Page 4

5 12. A response Y and explanatory variable were measured on each of several subjects. A scatterplot of the measurements is given below. The least-squares regression line is shown in the plot Which of the following is a plot of the residuals for the above data versus? A) B) Page 5

6 C) D) The least-squares regression line is fit to a set of data. If one of the data points has a positive residual, then A) the correlation between the values of the response and explanatory variables must be positive. B) the point must lie above the least-squares regression line. C) the point must lie near the right edge of the scatterplot. D) all of the above. 14. Which of the following statements concerning residuals is true? A) The sum of the residuals is always 0. B) A plot of the residuals is useful for assessing the fit of the least-squares regression line. C) The value of a residual is the observed value of the response minus the value of the response that one would predict from the least-squares regression line. D) All of the above. Page 6

7 15. When exploring very large sets of data involving many variables, which of the following is true? A) Extrapolation is safe because it is based on a greater quantity of evidence. B) Associations will be stronger than would be seen in a much smaller subset of the data. C) A strong association is good evidence for causation because it is based on a large quantity of information. D) None of the above. 16. A sample of 79 companies was taken and the annual profits (y) were plotted against annual sales (x). The plot is given below. All values in the plots are in units of $100, Sales The correlation between sales and profits is found to be Based on this information, we may conclude which of the following? A) Not surprisingly, increasing sales causes an increase in profits. This is confirmed by the large positive correlation. B) There are clearly influential observations present. C) If we group the companies in the plot into those that are small in size, those that are medium in size, and those that are large in size and compute the correlation between sales and profits for each group of companies separately, the correlation in each group will be about 0.8. D) All of the above. 17. When possible, the best way to establish that an observed association is the result of a cause-and-effect relation is by means of A) the least-squares regression line. B) the correlation coefficient. C) examining z-scores rather than the original variables. D) a well-designed experiment. Page 7

8 18. Which of the following would be necessary to establish a cause-and-effect relation between two variables? A) Strong association between the variables. B) An association between the variables is observed in many different settings. C) The alleged cause is plausible. D) All of the above. Page 8

9 Answer Key 1. A Topic: 8.2 Comparing Two Proportions 2. C Topic: 8.2 Comparing Two Proportions 3. B Topic: 8.2 Comparing Two Proportions 4. B Topic: 8.2 Comparing Two Proportions 5. C 6. A 7. C 8. B 9. D 10. A 11. C 12. A 13. B 14. D 15. D 16. B 17. D 18. D Page 9

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