# Lecture 5 Motion of a charged particle in a magnetic field

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1 Lecture 5 Motion of a charged particle in a magnetic field

2 Charged particle in a magnetic field: Outline 1 Canonical quantization: lessons from classical dynamics 2 Quantum mechanics of a particle in a field 3 Atomic hydrogen in a uniform field: Normal Zeeman effect 4 Gauge invariance and the Aharonov-Bohm effect 5 Free electrons in a magnetic field: Landau levels 6 Integer Quantum Hall effect

3 Lorentz force What is effect of a static electromagnetic field on a charged particle? Classically, in electric and magnetic field, particles experience a Lorentz force: F = q (E + v B) q denotes charge (notation: q = e for electron). Velocity-dependent force qv B very different from that derived from scalar potential, and programme for transferring from classical to quantum mechanics has to be carried out with more care. As preparation, helpful to revise(?) how the Lorentz force law arises classically from Lagrangian formulation.

4 Analytical dynamics: a short primer For a system with m degrees of freedom specified by coordinates q 1, q m, classical action determined from Lagrangian L(q i, q i ) by S[q i ]= dt L(q i, q i ) For conservative forces (those which conserve mechanical energy), L = T V, with T the kinetic and V the potential energy. Hamilton s extremal principle: trajectories q i (t) that minimize action specify classical (Euler-Lagrange) equations of motion, d dt ( q i L(q i, q i )) qi L(q i, q i )=0 e.g. for a particle in a potential V (q), L(q, q) = m q2 2 from Euler-Lagrange equations, m q = q V (q) V (q) and

5 Analytical dynamics: a short primer To determine the classical Hamiltonian H from the Lagrangian, first obtain the canonical momentum p i = qi L and then set H(q i, p i )= i p i q i L(q i, q i ) e.g. for L(q, q) = m q2 2 V (q), p = q L = m q, and H = p q L = p p m ( p2 2m V (q)) = p2 2m + V (q). In Hamiltonian formulation, minimization of classical action ( ) S = dt p i q i H(q i, p i ), leads to Hamilton s equations: i q i = pi H, ṗ i = qi H i.e. if Hamiltonian is independent of q i, corresponding momentum p i is conserved, i.e. p i is a constant of the motion.

6 Analytical dynamics: Lorentz force As Lorentz force F = qv B is velocity dependent, it can not be expressed as gradient of some potential nevertheless, classical equations of motion still specifed by principle of least action. With electric and magnetic fields written in terms of scalar and vector potential, B = A, E = ϕ t A, Lagrangian: L = 1 2 mv2 qϕ + qv A q i x i =(x 1, x 2, x 3 ) and q i v i = (ẋ 1, ẋ 2, ẋ 3 ) N.B. form of Lagrangian more natural in relativistic formulation: qv µ A µ = qϕ + qv A where v µ =(c, v) and A µ =(ϕ/c, A) Canonical momentum: p i = ẋi L = mv i + qa i no longer given by mass velocity there is an extra term!

7 Analytical dynamics: Lorentz force From H(q i, p i )= i p i q i L(q i, q i ), Hamiltonian given by: H = i (mv i + qa i ) v i } {{ } = p i ( ) 1 2 mv2 qϕ + qv A } {{ } = L( q i, q i ) = 1 2 mv2 + qϕ To determine classical equations of motion, H must be expressed solely in terms of coordinates and canonical momenta, p = mv + qa H = 1 2m (p qa(x, t))2 + qϕ(x, t) Then, from classical equations of motion ẋ i = pi H and ṗ i = xi H, and a little algebra, we recover Lorentz force law mẍ = F = q (E + v B)

8 Lessons from classical dynamics So, in summary, the classical Hamiltonian for a charged particle in an electromagnetic field is given by H = 1 2m (p qa(x, t))2 + qϕ(x, t) This is all that you need to recall its first principles derivation from the Lagrangian formulation is not formally examinable! Using this result as a platform, we can now turn to the quantum mechanical formulation.

9 Quantum mechanics of particle in a field Canonical quantization: promote conjugate variables to operators, p ˆp = i, x ˆx with commutation relations [ˆp i, ˆx j ]= i δ ij Ĥ = 1 2m (ˆp qa(x, t))2 + qϕ(x, t) Gauge freedom: Note that the vector potential, A, is specified only up to some gauge: For a given vector potential A(x, t), the gauge transformation A A = A + Λ, ϕ ϕ = ϕ t Λ with Λ(x, t) an arbitrary (scalar) function, leads to the same physical magnetic and electric field, B = A, and E = ϕ t A. In the following, we will adopt the Coulomb gauge condition, ( A) = 0.

10 Quantum mechanics of particle in a field Ĥ = 1 2m (ˆp qa(x, t))2 + qϕ(x, t) Expanding the Hamiltonian in A, we can identify two types of contribution: the cross-term (known as the paramagnetic term), q (ˆp A + A ˆp) =iq 2m 2m ( A + A ) =iq m A where equality follows from Coulomb gauge condition, ( A) = 0. And the diagonal term (known as the diamagnetic term) q2 2m A2. Together, they lead to the expansion Ĥ = 2 2m 2 + iq q2 A + m 2m A2 + qϕ

11 Quantum mechanics of particle in a uniform field Ĥ = 2 2m 2 + iq q2 A + m 2m A2 + qϕ For a stationary uniform magnetic field, A(x) = 1 2x B (known as the symmetric gauge), the paramagnetic component of Ĥ given by, iq m iq q A = iq (x B) = (x ) B = 2m 2m 2m ˆL B where ˆL = x ( i ) denotes the angular momentum operator. For field, B = Bê z oriented along z, diamagnetic term, q 2 2m A2 = q2 8m (x B)2 = q2 8m ( x 2 B 2 (x B) 2) = q2 B 2 8m (x 2 + y 2 )

12 Quantum mechanics of particle in a uniform field Ĥ = 2 2m 2 qb 2m ˆL z + q2 B 2 8m (x 2 + y 2 )+qϕ In the following, we will address two examples of electron (q = e) motion in a uniform magnetic field, B = Bê z : 1 Atomic hydrogen: where electron is bound to a proton by the Coulomb potential, V (r) =qϕ(r) = 1 e 2 4πɛ 0 r 2 Free electrons: where the electron is unbound, ϕ = 0. In the first case, we will see that the diamagnetic term has a negligible role whereas, in the second, both terms contribute significantly to the dynamics.

13 Atomic hydrogen in uniform field Ĥ = 2 2m 2 + eb 2m ˆL z + e2 B 2 8m (x 2 + y 2 ) 1 e 2 4πɛ 0 r With x 2 + y 2 a 2 0, where a 0 is Bohr radius, and L z, ratio of paramagnetic and diamagnetic terms, (e 2 /8m e ) x 2 + y 2 B 2 (e/2m e ) L z B = e 4 a2 0B 10 6 B/T i.e. for bound electrons, diamagnetic term is negligible. not so for unbound electrons or on neutron stars! When compared with Coulomb energy scale, (e/2m) B m e c 2 α 2 /2 = e (m e cα) 2 B 10 5 B/T where α = denotes fine structure constant, paramagnetic term effects only a small perturbation. e2 1 4πɛ 0 c 1 137

14 Atomic hydrogen in uniform field Ĥ 2 2m 2 + e 2m B ˆL 1 e 2 4πɛ 0 r In general, term linear in B defines magnetic dipole moment µ: Ĥ M = µ B. Result above shows that orbital degrees of freedom of the electron lead to a magnetic moment, µ = e 2m e ˆL cf. classical result: for an electron in a circular orbit around a proton, I = e/τ = ev/2πr. With angular momentum L = m e vr, µ = IA = ev 2πr πr 2 = e m e vr = e L 2m e 2m e In the next lecture, we will see that there is an additional instrinsic contribution to the magnetic moment of the electron which derives from quantum mechanical spin. Since ˆL, scale of µ set by the Bohr magneton,

15 Atomic hydrogen: Normal Zeeman effect So, in a uniform magnetic field, B = Bê z, the electron Hamiltonian for atomic hydrogen is given by, Ĥ = Ĥ0 + e 2m BˆL z, Ĥ 0 = ˆp2 2m 1 e 2 4πɛ 0 r Since [Ĥ 0, L z ] = 0, eigenstates of unperturbed Hamiltonian, Ĥ 0, defined by ψ nlm (x), remain eigenstates of Ĥ, with eigenvalues, E nlm = 1 n 2 Ry + ω Lm where ω L = eb 2m denotes the Larmor frequency. (Without spin contribution) uniform magnetic field splitting of (2l + 1)-fold degeneracy with multiplets separated by ω L.

16 Normal Zeeman effect: experiment Experiment shows Zeeman splitting of spectral lines... e.g. Splitting of Sodium D lines (involving 3p to 3s transitions) P. Zeeman, Nature 55, 347 (1897)....but the reality is made more complicated by the existence of spin and relativistic corrections see later in the course.

17 Gauge invariance Ĥ = 1 2m (ˆp qa(x, t))2 + qϕ(x, t) Hamiltonian of charged particle depends on vector potential, A. Since A defined only up to some gauge choice wavefunction is not a gauge invariant object. To explore gauge freedom, consider effect of gauge transformation A A = A + Λ, ϕ ϕ = ϕ t Λ where Λ(x, t) denotes arbitrary scalar function. Under gauge transformation: i t ψ = Ĥ[A]ψ i tψ = Ĥ[A ]ψ where wavefunction acquires additional phase, ψ (x, t) = exp [i q ] Λ(x, t) ψ(x, t) but probability density, ψ (x, t) 2 = ψ(x, t) 2 is conserved.

18 Gauge invariance ψ (x, t) = exp [i q ] Λ(x, t) ψ(x, t) Proof: using the identity (ˆp qa q Λ) exp [i q ] Λ = exp [i q ] Λ (ˆp qa) [ ] 1 Ĥ[A ]ψ = 2m (ˆp qa q Λ)2 + qϕ q t Λ exp [i q ] Λ ψ [ = exp i q ] [ ] Λ 1 2m (ˆp qa)2 + qϕ q t Λ ψ [ = exp i q ] ][Ĥ[A] Λ q t Λ ψ Similarly i t ψ = exp [i q ] Λ (i t q t Λ) ψ Therefore, if i t ψ = Ĥ[A]ψ, we have i tψ = Ĥ[A ]ψ.

19 Gauge invariance: physical consequences ψ (x, t) = exp [i q ] Λ(x, t) ψ(x, t) Consider particle (charge q) travelling along path, P, in which the magnetic field, B = 0. However, B =0 A = 0: any Λ(x) such that A = Λ leads to B = 0. In traversing path, wavefunction acquires phase φ = q A dx. If we consider two separate paths P and P with same initial and final points, relative phase of the wavefunction, φ = q A dx q A dx = q A dx Stokes = q B d 2 x P P A where A runs over area enclosed by loop formed from P and P P

20 Gauge invariance: physical consequences φ = q A B d 2 x i.e. for paths P and P, wavefunction components acquire relative phase difference, φ = q magnetic flux through area If paths enclose region of non-vanishing field, even if B identically zero on paths P and P, ψ(x) acquires non-vanishing relative phase. This phenomenon, known as the Aharonov-Bohm effect, leads to quantum interference which can influence observable properties.

21 Aharanov-Bohm effect: example I Influence of quantum interference effects is visible in transport properties of low-dimensional semiconductor devices. When electrons are forced to detour around a potential barrier, conductance through the device shows Aharonov-Bohm oscillations.

22 Aharanov-Bohm effect: example II But can we demonstrate interference effects when electrons transverse region where B is truly zero? Definitive experimental proof provided in 1986 by Tonomura: If a superconductor completely encloses a toroidal magnet, flux through superconducting loop quantized in units of h/2e. Electrons which pass inside or outside the loop therefore acquire a relative phase difference of ϕ = e n h 2e = nπ. If n is even, there is no phase shift, while if n is odd, there is a phase shift of π. Tonomura et al., 1986 Experiment confirms both Aharonov-Bohm effect and the phenomenon of flux quantization in a superconductor!

23 Summary: charged particle in a field Starting from the classical Lagrangian for a particle moving in a a static electromagnetic field, L = 1 2 mv2 qϕ + qv A we derived the quantum Hamiltonian, H = 1 2m (p qa(x, t))2 + qϕ(x, t) An expansion in A leads to a paramagnetic and diamagnetic contribution which, in the Coulomb gauge ( A = 0), is given by Ĥ = 2 2m 2 + iq q2 A + m 2m A2 + qϕ

24 Summary: charged particle in a field Applied to atomic hydrogen, a uniform magnetic field, B = Bê z leads to the Hamiltonian Ĥ = 1 2m [ ˆp 2 r + ˆL 2 r 2 + ebˆl z e2 B 2 (x 2 + y 2 ) ] 1 e 2 4πɛ 0 r For weak fields, diamagnetic contribution is negligible in comparison with paramagnetic and can be dropped. Therefore, (continuing to ignore electron spin), magnetic field splits orbital degeneracy leading to normal Zeeman effect, E nlm = 1 n 2 Ry + µ BBm However, when diamagnetic term O(B 2 n 3 ) competes with Coulomb energy scale Ry n classical dynamics becomes irregular and system 2 enters quantum chaotic regime.

25 Summary: charged particle in a field Gauge invariance of electromagnetic field wavefunction not gauge invariant. Under gauge transformation, A A = A + Λ, ϕ ϕ = ϕ t Λ, wavefunction acquires additional phase, ψ (x, t) = exp [i q ] Λ(x, t) ψ(x, t) Aharanov-Bohm effect: (even if no orbital effect) particles encircling magnetic flux acquire relative phase, φ = q A B d 2 x. i.e. for φ =2πn expect constructive interference 1 h n e oscillations.

26 Lecture 5: continuedfree electrons in a magnetic field: Landau levels But what happens when free (i.e. unbound) charged particles experience a magnetic field which influences orbital motion? e.g. electrons in a metal. Ĥ = 1 2m (ˆp qa(x, t))2 + qϕ(x, t), q = e In this case, classical orbits can be macroscopic in extent, and there is no reason to neglect the diamagnetic contribution. Here it is convenient (but not essential see PS1) to adopt Landau gauge, A(x) =( By, 0, 0), B = A = Bê z, where Ĥ = 1 2m [ (ˆpx eby) 2 +ˆp 2 y +ˆp 2 z ]

27 Free electrons in a magnetic field: Landau levels Ĥψ(x) = 1 2m [ (ˆpx eby) 2 +ˆp y 2 +ˆp z 2 ] ψ(x) =Eψ(x) Since [Ĥ, ˆp x ] = [Ĥ, ˆp z ] = 0, both p x and p z conserved, i.e. ψ(x) =e i(p x x+p z z)/ χ(y) with [ ] 2 ˆp y 2m mω2 (y y 0 ) 2 χ(y) = ( ) E p2 z χ(y) 2m where y 0 = p x eb and ω = eb is classical cyclotron frequency m p x defines centre of harmonic oscillator in y with frequency ω, i.e. E n,pz =(n +1/2) ω + p2 z 2m The quantum numbers, n, index infinite set of Landau levels.

28 Free electrons in a magnetic field: Landau levels E n,pz =(n +1/2) ω + p2 z 2m Taking p z = 0 (for simplicity), for lowest Landau level, n = 0, E 0 = ω 2 ; what is level degeneracy? Consider periodic rectangular geometry of area A = L x L y. Centre of oscillator wavefunction, y 0 = p x eb, lies in [0, L y ]. With periodic boundary conditions e ip x L x / = 1, p x =2πn L x, i.e. y 0 set by evenly-spaced discrete values separated by y 0 = p x eb = h ebl x. L y L y h/ebl x degeneracy of lowest Landau level N = y 0 = = BA Φ 0, where Φ 0 = e h denotes flux quantum, (N BA 1014 m 2 T 1 ).

29 Quantum Hall effect The existence of Landau levels leads to the remarkable phenomenon of the Quantum Hall Effect, discovered in 1980 by von Kiltzing, Dorda and Pepper (formerly of the Cavendish). Classically, in a crossed electric E = Eê y and magnetic field B = Bê z, electron drifts in direction ê x with speed v = E/B. F = q(e + v B) With current density j x = nev, Hall resistivity, ρ xy = E y j x = E nev = B en Experiment: linear increase in ρ xy with B punctuated by plateaus at which ρ xx = 0 dissipationless flow!

30 Quantum Hall Effect Origin of phenomenon lies in Landau level quantization: For a state of the lowest Landau level, ψ px (y) = eip x x/ Lx ( mω π ) 1/4 e mω 2 (y y 0) 2 current j x = 1 2m (ψ (ˆp x + ea x )ψ + ψ((ˆp x + ea x )ψ) ), i.e. j x (y) = 1 2m (ψ p x (ˆp x eby)ψ + ψ px ((ˆp x eby)ψ )) mω 1 p x eby = e mω (y y 0) 2 π L x } {{ m } eb m (y 0 y) is non-vanishing. (Note that current operator also gauge invarant.) However, if we compute total current along x by integrating along y, sum vanishes, I x = L y 0 dy j x (y) = 0.

31 Quantum Hall Effect If electric field now imposed along y, eϕ(y) = eey, symmetry is broken; but wavefunction still harmonic oscillator-like, [ ] 2 ˆp y 2m mω2 (y y 0 ) 2 eey χ(y) =Eχ(y) but now centered around y 0 = p x eb + me eb 2. However, the current is still given by ( mω 1 p x eby eb j x (y) = y 0 y me ) π L x m m eb 2 e mω (y y 0) 2 Integrating, we now obtain a non-vanishing current flow I x = Ly 0 dy j x (y) = ee BL x

32 Quantum Hall Effect I x = Ly 0 dy j x (y) = ee BL x To obtain total current flow from all electrons, we must multiply I x by the total number of occupied states. If Fermi energy lies between two Landau levels with n occupied, I tot = nn I x = n eb h L xl y ee BL x = n e2 h EL y With V = EL y, voltage drop across y, Hall conductance (equal to conductivity in two-dimensions), σ xy = I tot V = n e2 h Since no current flow in direction of applied field, longitudinal conductivity σ yy vanishes.

33 Quantum Hall Effect Since there is no potential drop in the direction of current flow, the longitudinal resistivity ρ xx also vanishes, while ρ yx = 1 n Experimental measurements of these values provides the best determination of fundamental ratio e 2 /h, better than 1 part in h e 2

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