Polarity. Andy Schweitzer

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1 Polarity Andy Schweitzer

2 What does it mean to be polar? A molecule is polar if it contains + and somewhere in the molecule. Remember: Protons can not move. So for a molecule to get a +/- it must somehow have its electrons dragged from one atom to another!

3 How does polarity affect a molecules properties? Solute dissolving in a solvent? Likes dissolve likes Non-polar solutes dissolve in non-polar solvents Polar solutes dissolve in polar solvents. Biologically Drugs are absorbed into the brain (past the blood brain barrier) based upon their polarity. Morphine and Heroine are very similar Your body converts heroine to morphine after it enters the brain. Heroin is 90% more polar there for it absorbs a lot faster.

4 How does a molecule become Must have at least one polar bond. polar. Electrons are being dragged from one atom to another What is a polar bond? A covalent bond where the electrons are not being shared equally.

5 Why are or why aren t the electrons being shared equally Electronegativity: An atoms attraction for electrons in a bond. Some atoms, when bonded suck the electrons toward them. Electronegativity Difference: When you get two atoms bonded where one is highly electronegative and the other is not there will be unequal sharing.

6 Electronegativity difference? Tug of war Mr. Schweitzer Baby Who wins this contest????

7 Electronegativity difference? Tug of war Mr. Schweitzer Superman Who wins this contest????

8 Electronegativity difference? Tug of war Mr. Schweitzer Superman STALEMATE

9 Electronegativity

10 Electronegativity Electronegativity difference Dipole moment: numerical measurement of the difference of charge. Ionic dipole moment: (> 1.7) NaCl = 3-.9 = 2.1 Polar covalent (.5 > x <1.7) Pure covalent (<.5) These values are estimates

11 Which of these are polar covalent molecules H-F Dipole moments 1.9 H-Cl.9 NO 2.5 H 2 0

12 Structure also affects polarity Polar bonds (charges) Non-polar none present symmetrical symmetrical Non-polar asymmetrical polar

13 Symmetrical vs. Asymmetrical If a molecule is symmetrical then there will not be any unequal disposition of charges. How do you know if a molecule is symmetrical?

14 Structures These are the general structures. They all start out symmetrical.

15 Molecular geometry 2 bonded/0 non-bonded Linear Symmetrical Hybridiztion = sp Are these polar molecules? What do we need to be polar? No stealers so not polar Stealers = yes Stealer + not symmetrical = Symmetrical polar = yes Polar = no

16 Molecular geometry 2 bonded/0 non-bonded Trigonal planer Symmetrical Hybridization = sp 2 Are these polar? No stealer! Non-polar Stealer = yes Symmetrical = no Polar

17 Molecular geometry Bent 2 bonded/1 nonbonded Asymmetrical Bond angle <120 Hybridization = sp 2 Are these polar? Dipole moment = 0 Non-polar Un-bonded pairs take more space then bonded pushing angle to slightly less then 120

18 Molecular geometry tetrahedral Symmetrical 4 bonded/0 non-bonded Bond angle: Are these polar? 2 bonded/0 non-bonded Linear Symmetrical 2 bonded/0 non-bonded Linear Symmetrical

19 Molecular geometry Trigonal pyramidal 3 bonded/ 1 non-bonded Bond angle < Asymmetrical Stealer = Yes Symmetrical = No Polar Stealer = Yes Symmetrical = no Polar

20 Molecular geometry Bent 2 bonded/ 2 non-bonded Bond angle: < Asymmetrical Stealer = yes Symmetrical = no Polar

21 Molecular geometry Trigonal bipyramidal Bond angle Equatorial: 120 vertical: 90 Symmetrical Hybridization = sp 3 d Polar molecule?

22 Molecular geometry See-Saw 4 Bonded/1 Non-bonded Bond angle Equatorial: 120 vertical: 90 Asymmetrical

23 Molecular geometry T-Shaped 3-bonded/2 non-bonded Bond angle Equatorial: 120 Vertical: 90 asymmetrical Polar?

24 Molecular geometry 2-bonded/3 non-bonded Linear Bond angle: 180 Symmetrical Hybridization = sp 3 d Polar?

25 Molecular geometry Octahedral or square bipyramidal 6 bonded/ 0 non-bonded Bond angle equatorial: 90 vertical: 90 Symmetrical Hybridization = sp 3 d 2 Polar?

26 Molecular geometry Square pyramidal 5 bonded/1 nonbonded Bond angle Equatorial: 90 Vertical: 90 Asymmetrical

27 Molecular geometry Square Planar 4 bonded / 2 nonbonded Bond angle Equatorial: 90 vertical: 90 Symmetrical Polar?

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