# Introduction to Algebraic Number Theory. F. Oggier

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1 Introduction to Algebraic Number Theory F. Oggier

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3 A few words These are lecture notes for the class on introduction to algebraic number theory, given at NTU from January to April 2009 and These lectures notes follow the structure of the lectures given by C. Wüthrich at EPFL. I would like to thank Christian for letting me use his notes as basic material. I also would like to thank Martianus Frederic Ezerman, Nikolay Gravin and LIN Fuchun for their comments on these lecture notes. At the end of these notes can be found a short bibliography of a few classical books relevant (but not exhaustive) for the topic: [3, 6] are especially friendly for a first reading, [1, 2, 5, 7] are good references, while [4] is a reference for further reading. 3

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5 Contents 1 Algebraic Numbers and Algebraic Integers Rings of integers Norms and Traces Ideals Introduction Factorization and fractional ideals The Chinese Theorem Ramification Theory Discriminant Prime decomposition Relative Extensions Normal Extensions Ideal Class Group and Units Ideal class group Dirichlet Units Theorem p-adic numbers p-adic integers and p-adic numbers The p-adic valuation Valuations Definitions Archimedean places Non-archimedean places Weak approximation

6 6 CONTENTS 7 p-adic fields Hensel s way of writing Hensel s Lemmas Ramification Theory Normal extensions Finite extensions of Q p

7 Chapter 1 Algebraic Numbers and Algebraic Integers 1.1 Rings of integers We start by introducing two essential notions: number field and algebraic integer. Definition 1.1. A number field is a finite field extension K of Q, i.e., a field which is a Q-vector space of finite dimension. We note this dimension [K : Q] and call it the degree of K. Examples The field Q( 2) = {x + y 2 x,y Q} is a number field. It is of degree 2 over Q. Number fields of degree 2 over Q are called quadratic fields. More generally, Q[X]/f(X) is a number field if f is irreducible. It is of degree the degree of the polynomial f. 2. Let ζ n be a primitive nth root of unity. The field Q(ζ n ) is a number field called cyclotomic field. 3. The fields C and R are not number fields. Let K be a number field of degree n. If α K, there must be a Q-linear dependency among {1,α,...,α n }, since K is a Q-vector space of dimension n. In other words, there exists a polynomial f(x) Q[X] such that f(x) = 0. We call α an algebraic number. Definition 1.2. An algebraic integer in a number field K is an element α K which is a root of a monic polynomial with coefficients in Z. 7

8 8 CHAPTER 1. ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS AND ALGEBRAIC INTEGERS Example 1.2. Since X 2 2 = 0, 2 Q( 2) is an algebraic integer. Similarly, i Q(i) is an algebraic integer, since X 2 +1 = 0. However, an element a/b Q is not an algebraic integer, unless b divides a. Now that we have the concept of an algebraic integer in a number field, it is natural to wonder whether one can compute the set of all algebraic integers of a given number field. Let us start by determining the set of algebraic integers in Q. Definition 1.3. The minimal polynomial f of an algebraic number α is the monic polynomial in Q[X] of smallest degree such that f(α) = 0. Proposition 1.1. The minimal polynomial of α has integer coefficients if and only if α is an algebraic integer. Proof. If the minimal polynomial of α has integer coefficients, then by definition (Definition 1.2) α is algebraic. Now let us assume that α is an algebraic integer. This means by definition that there exists a monic polynomial f Z[X] such that f(α) = 0. Let g Q[X] be the minimal polyonial of α. Then g(x) divides f(x), that is, there exists a monic polynomial h Q[X] such that g(x)h(x) = f(x). (Note that h is monic because f and g are). We want to prove that g(x) actually belongs to Z[X]. Assume by contradiction that this is not true, that is, there exists at least one prime p which divides one of the denominators of the coefficients of g. Let u > 0 be the smallest integer such that p u g does not have anymore denominators divisible by p. Since h may or may not have denominators divisible by p, let v 0 be the smallest integer such that p v h has no denominator divisible by p. We then have p u g(x)p v h(x) = p u+v f(x). The left hand side of this equation does not have denominators divisible by p anymore, thus we can look at this equation modulo p. This gives p u g(x)p v h(x) 0 F p [X], where F p denotes the finite field with p elements. This give a contradiction, since the left hand side is a product of two non-zero polynomials (by minimality of u and v), and F p [X] does not have zero divisor. Corollary 1.2. The set of algebraic integers of Q is Z. Proof. Let a b Q. Its minimal polynomial is X a b. By the above proposition, is an algebraic integer if and only b = ±1. a b Definition 1.4. The set of algebraic integers of a number field K is denoted by O K. It is usually called the ring of integers of K.

9 1.1. RINGS OF INTEGERS 9 The fact that O K is a ring is not obvious. In general, if one takes a,b two algebraic integers, it is not straightforward to find a monic polynomial in Z[X] which has a + b as a root. We now proceed to prove that O K is indeed a ring. Theorem 1.3. Let K be a number field, and take α K. The two statements are equivalent: 1. α is an algebraic integer. 2. The Abelian group Z[α] is finitely generated (a group G is finitely generated if there exist finitely many elements x 1,...,x s G such that every x G can be written in the form x = n 1 x 1 + n 2 x n s x s with integers n 1,...,n s ). Proof. Let α be an algebraic integer, and let m be the degree of its minimal polynomial, which is monic and with coefficients in Z by Proposition 1.1. Since all α u with u m can be written as Z-linear combination of 1,α,...,α m 1, we have that Z[α] = Z Zα... Zα m 1 and {1,α,...,α m 1 } generate Z[α] as an Abelian group. Note that for this proof to work, we really need the minimal polynomial to have coefficients in Z, and to be monic! Conversely, let us assume that Z[α] is finitely generated, with generators a 1,...,a m, where a i = f i (α) for some f i Z[X]. In order to prove that α is an algebraic integer, we need to find a monic polynomial f Z[X] such that f(α) = 0. Let N be an integer such that N > deg f i for i = 1,...,m. We have that m α N = b j a j, b j Z that is Let us thus choose α N j=1 m b j f j (α) = 0. j=1 f(x) = X N m b j f j (X). Clearly f Z[X], it is monic by the choice of N > deg f i for i = 1,...,m, and finally f(α) = 0. So α is an algebraic integer. j=1 Example 1.3. We have that { a } Z[1/2] = b b is a power of 2 is not an algebraic integer. Its minimal poly- is not finitely generated, since 1 2 nomial is X 1 2.

10 10 CHAPTER 1. ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS AND ALGEBRAIC INTEGERS Corollary 1.4. Let K be a number field. Then O K is a ring. Proof. Let α,β O K. The above theorem tells us that Z[α] and Z[β] are finitely generated, thus so is Z[α,β]. Now, Z[α,β] is a ring, thus in particular α ±β and αβ Z[α,β]. Since Z[α±β] and Z[αβ] are subgroups of Z[α,β], they are finitely generated. By invoking again the above theorem, α ± β and αβ O K. Corollary 1.5. Let K be a number field, with ring of integers O K. Then QO K = K. Proof. It is clear that if x = bα QO K, b Q, α O K, then x K. Now if α K, we show that there exists d Z such that αd O K (that is αd = β O K, or equivalently, α = β/d). Let f(x) Q[X] be the minimal polynomial of α. Choose d to be the least common multiple of the denominators of the coefficients of f(x), then (recall that f is monic!) ( ) X d deg(f) f = g(x), d and g(x) Z[X] is monic, with αd as a root. Thus αd O K. 1.2 Norms and Traces Definition 1.5. Let L/K be a finite extension of number fields. Let α L. We consider the multiplication map by α, denoted by µ α, such that µ α : L L x This is a K-linear map of the K-vector space L into itself (or in other words, an endomorphism of the K-vector space L). We call the norm of α the determinant of µ α, that is N L/K (α) = det(µ α ) K, and the trace of α the trace of µ α, that is αx. Tr L/K (α) = Tr(µ α ) K. Note that the norm is multiplicative, since N L/K (αβ) = det(µ αβ ) = det(µ α µ β ) = det(µ α )det(µ β ) = N L/K (α)n L/K (β) while the trace is additive: Tr L/K (α+β) = Tr(µ α+β ) = Tr(µ α +µ β ) = Tr(µ α )+Tr(µ β ) = Tr L/K (α)+tr L/K (β). In particular, if n denotes the degree of L/K, we have that N L/K (aα) = a n N L/K (α), Tr L/K (aα) = atr L/K (α), a K.

11 1.2. NORMS AND TRACES 11 Indeed, the matrix of µ a is given by a diagonal matrix whose coefficients are all a when a K. Recall that the characteristic polynomial of α L is the characteristic polynomial of µ α, that is χ L/K (X) = det(xi µ α ) K[X]. This is a monic polynomial of degree n = [L : K], the coefficient of X n 1 is Tr L/K (α) and its constant term is ±N L/K (α). Example 1.4. Let L be the quadratic field Q( 2), K = Q, and take α Q( 2). In order to compute µ α, we need to fix a basis of Q( 2) as Q-vector space, say {1, 2}. Thus, α can be written α = a + b 2, a,b Q. By linearity, it is enough to compute µ α on the basis elements: µ α (1) = a + b 2, µ α ( 2) = (a + b 2) 2 = a 2 + 2b. We now have that ( 1, ) ( ) a 2b 2 = ( a + b 2, b a } {{ } 2b + a 2 ) M and M is the matrix of µ α in the chosen basis. Of course, M changes with a change of basis, but the norm and trace of α are independent of the basis. We have here that N Q( 2)/Q (α) = a 2 2b 2, Tr Q( 2)/Q (α) = 2a. Finally, the characteristic polynomial of µ α is given by ( ( )) a b χ L/K (X) = det XI 2b a ( ) X a b = det 2b X a = (X a)(x a) 2b 2 = X 2 2aX + a 2 2b 2. We recognize that the coefficient of X is indeed the trace of α with a minus sign, while the constant coefficient is its norm. We now would like to give another equivalent definition of the trace and norm of an algebraic integer α in a number field K, based on the different roots of the minimal polynomial of α. Since these roots may not belong to K, we first need to introduce a bigger field which will contain all the roots of the polynomials we will consider.

12 12 CHAPTER 1. ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS AND ALGEBRAIC INTEGERS Definition 1.6. The field F is called an algebraic closure of a field F if all the elements of F are algebraic over F and if every polynomial f(x) F[X] splits completely over F. We can think that F contains all the elements that are algebraic over F, in that sense, it is the largest algebraic extension of F. For example, the field of complex numbers C is the algebraic closure of the field of reals R (this is the fundamental theorem of algebra). The algebraic closure of Q is denoted by Q, and Q C. Lemma 1.6. Let K be number field, and let K be its algebraic closure. Then an irreducibe polynomial in K[X] cannot have a multiple root in K. Proof. Let f(x) be an irreducible polynomial in K[X]. By contradiction, let us assume that f(x) has a multiple root α in K, that is f(x) = (X α) m g(x) with m 2 and g(α) 0. We have that the formal derivative of f (X) is given by f (X) = m(x α) m 1 g(x) + (X α) m g (X) = (X α) m 1 (mg(x) + (X α)g (X)), and therefore f(x) and f (X) have (X α) m 1, m 2, as a common factor in K[X]. In other words, α is root of both f(x) and f (X), implying that the minimal polynomial of α over K is a common factor of f(x) and f (X). Now since f(x) is irreducible over K[X], this common factor has to be f(x) itself, implying that f(x) divides f (X). Since deg(f (X)) < deg(f(x)), this forces f (X) to be zero, which is not possible with K of characteristic 0. Thanks to the above lemma, we are now able to prove that an extension of number field of degree n can be embedded in exactly n different ways into its algebraic closure. These n embeddings are what we need to redefine the notions of norm and trace. Let us first recall the notion of field monomorphism. Definition 1.7. Let L 1,L 2 be two field extensions of a field K. A field monomorphism σ from L 1 to L 2 is a field homomorphism, that is a map from L 1 to L 2 such that, for all a,b L 1, σ(ab) = σ(a)σ(b) σ(a + b) = σ(a) + σ(b) σ(1) = 1 σ(0) = 0. A field homomorphism is automatically an injective map, and thus a field monomorphism. It is a field K-monomorphism if it fixes K, that is, if σ(c) = c for all c K.

13 1.2. NORMS AND TRACES 13 Example 1.5. We consider the number field K = Q(i). Let x = a + ib Q(i). If σ is field Q-homomorphism, then σ(x) = a + σ(i)b since it has to fix Q. Furthermore, we need that σ(i) 2 = σ(i 2 ) = 1, so that σ(i) = ±i. This gives us exactly two Q-monomorphisms of K into K C, given by: σ 1 : a + ib a + ib, σ 2 : a + ib a ib, that is the identity and the complex conjugation. Proposition 1.7. Let K be a number field, L be a finite extension of K of degree n, and K be an algebraic closure of K. There are n distinct K-monomorphisms of L into K. Proof. This proof is done in two steps. In the first step, the claim is proved in the case when L = K(α), α L. The second step is a proof by induction on the degree of the extension L/K in the general case, which of course uses the first step. The main idea is that if L K(α) for some α L, then one can find such intermediate extension, that is, we can consider the tower of extensions K K(α) L, where we can use the first step for K(α)/K and the induction hypothesis for L/K(α). Step 1. Let us consider L = K(α), α L with minimal polynomial f(x) K[X]. It is of degree n and thus admits n roots α 1,...,α n in K, which are all distinct by Lemma 1.6. For i = 1,...,n, we thus have a K-monomorphism σ i : L K such that σ i (α) = α i. Step 2. We now proceed by induction on the degree n of L/K. Let α L and consider the tower of extensions K K(α) L, where we denote by q, q > 1, the degree of K(α)/K. We know by the first step that there are q distinct K- monomomorphisms from K(α) to K, given by σ i (α) = α i, i = 1,...,q, where α i are the q roots of the minimal polynomial of α. Now the fields K(α) and K(σ i (α)) are isomorphic (the isomorphism is given by σ i ) and one can build an extension L i of K(σ i (α)) and an isomorphism τ i : L L i which extends σ i (that is, τ i restricted to K(α) is nothing else than σ i ): τ i L L i n q n q Now, since σ i K(α) K(σ i (α)) q q K [L i : K(σ i (α))] = [L : K(α)] = n q < n,

14 14 CHAPTER 1. ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS AND ALGEBRAIC INTEGERS we have by induction hypothesis that there are n q distinct K(σ i(α))-monomorphisms θ ij of L i into K. Therefore, θ ij τ i, i = 1,...,q, j = 1,..., n q provide n distinct K-monomorphisms of L into K. Corollary 1.8. A number field K of degree n over Q has n embeddings into C. Proof. The proof is immediate from the proposition. It is very common to find in the literature expressions such as let K be a number field of degree n, and σ 1,...,σ n be its n embeddings, without further explanation. Definition 1.8. Let L/K be an extension of number fields, and let α L. Let σ 1,...,σ n be the n field K-monomorphisms of L into K C given by the above proposition. We call σ 1 (α),...,σ n (α) the conjugates of α. Proposition 1.9. Let L/K be an extension of number fields. Let σ 1,...,σ n be the n distinct embeddings of L into C which fix K. For all α L, we have n n N L/K (α) = σ i (α), Tr L/K (α) = σ i (α). i=1 Proof. Let α L, with minimal polynomial f(x) K[X] of degree m, and let χ K(α)/K (X) be its characteristic polynomial. Let us first prove that f(x) = χ K(α)/K (X). Note that both polynomials are monic by definition. Now the K-vector space K(α) has dimension m, thus m is also the degree of χ K(α)/K (X). By Cayley-Hamilton theorem (which states that every square matrix over the complex field satisfies its own characteristic equation), we have that χ K(α)/K (µ α ) = 0. Now since χ K(α)/K (µ α ) = µ χk(α)/k (α), (see Example 1.7), we have that α is a root of χ K(α)/K (X). By minimality of the minimal polynomial f(x), f(x) χ K(α)/K (X), but knowing that both polynomials are monic of same degree, it follows that i=1 f(x) = χ K(α)/K (X). (1.1) We now compute the matrix of µ α in a K-basis of L. We have that {1,α,...,α m 1 } is a K-basis of K(α). Let k be the degree [L : K(α)] and let {β 1,...,β k } be a K(α) basis of L. The set {α i β j }, 0 i < m, 1 j k is a K-basis of L. The multiplication µ α by α can now be written in this basis as B B µ α =.... } {{ B } k times, B = a 0 a 1... a m 1

15 1.2. NORMS AND TRACES 15 where a i, i = 0,...,m 1 are the coefficients of the minimal polynomial f(x) (in other words, B is the companion matrix of f). We conclude that N L/K (α) = N K(α)/K (α) k, Tr L/K (α) = ktr K(α)/K (α), χ L/K (X) = (χ K(α)/K ) k = f(x) k, where last equality holds by (1.1). Now we have that f(x) = (X α 1 )(X α 2 ) (X α m ) Q[X] = m m X m α i X m ± α i Q[X] i=1 i=1 = X m Tr K(α)/K (α)x m ± N K(α)/K (α) Q[X] where last equality holds by (1.1), so that ( m ) k N L/K (α) = α i, Tr L/K (α) = k i=1 m α i. To conclude, we know that the embeddings of K(α) into Q which fix K are determined by the roots of α, and we know that there are exactly m distinct such roots (Lemma 1.6). We further know (see Proposition 1.7) that each of these embeddings can be extended into an embedding of L into Q in exactly k ways. Thus which concludes the proof. N L/K (α) = Tr L/K (α) = i=1 n σ i (α), i=1 n σ i (α), Example 1.6. Consider the field extension Q( 2)/Q. It has two embeddings i=1 σ 1 : a + b 2 a + b 2, σ 2 : a + b 2 a b 2. Take the element α = a + b 2 Q( 2). Its two conjugates are σ 1 (α) = α = a + b 2, σ 2 (α) = a b 2, thus its norm is given by while its trace is N Q( 2)/Q (α) = σ 1 (α)σ 2 (α) = a 2 2b 2, Tr Q( 2)/Q (α) = σ 1 (α) + σ 2 (α). It of course gives the same answer as what we computed in Example 1.4.

16 16 CHAPTER 1. ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS AND ALGEBRAIC INTEGERS Example 1.7. Consider again the field extension Q( 2)/Q. Take the element α = a+b 2 Q( 2), whose characteristic polynomial is given by, say, χ(x) = p 0 + p 1 X + p 2 X 2. Thus χ(α) = p 0 + p 1 (a + b 2) + p 2 (a 2 + 2ab 2 + 2b 2 ) = (p 0 + p 1 a + p 2 a 2 + p 2 2b 2 ) + (p 1 b + p 2 2ab) 2, and µ χ(α) = ( p0 + p 1 a + p 2 a 2 + p 2 2b 2 2bp 1 + 4p 2 ab p 1 b + p 2 2ab p 0 + p 1 a + p 2 a 2 + p 2 2b 2 ) (see Example 1.4). On the other hand, we have that ( a χ(µ α ) = p 0 I + p 1 b ) 2b a ( a 2b + p 2 b a ) 2. Thus we have that µ χ(α) = χ(µ α ). Example 1.8. Consider the number field extensions Q Q(i) Q(i, 2). There are four embeddings of Q(i, 2), given by σ 1 : i i, σ 2 : i i, σ 3 : i i, σ 4 : i i, We have that but since a,b Q. N Q(i)/Q (a + ib) = σ 1 (a + ib)σ 2 (a + ib) = a 2 + b 2, a,b Q N Q(i, 2)/Q (a + ib) = σ 1 (a + ib)σ 2 (a + ib)σ 3 (a + ib)σ 4 (a + ib) = σ 1 (a + ib)σ 2 (a + ib)σ 1 (a + ib)σ 2 (a + ib) = σ 1 (a + ib) 2 σ 2 (a + ib) 2 = (a 2 + b 2 ) 2 Corollary Let K be a number field, and let α K be an algebraic integer. The norm and the trace of α belong to Z. Proof. The characteristic polynomial χ K/Q (X) is a power of the minimal polynomial (see inside the proof of the above theorem), thus it belongs to Z[X]. Corollary The norm N K/Q (α) of an element α of O K is equal to ±1 if and only if α is a unit of O K.

17 1.2. NORMS AND TRACES 17 Proof. Let α be a unit of O K. We want to prove that its norm is ±1. Since α is a unit, we have that by definition 1/α O K. Thus 1 = N K/Q (1) = N K/Q (α)n K/Q (1/α) by multiplicativity of the norm. By the above corollary, both N K/Q (α) and its inverse belong to Z, meaning that the only possible values are ±1. Conversely, let us assume that α O K has norm ±1, which means that the constant term of its minimal polynomial f(x) is ±1: f(x) = X n + a n 1 X n 1 + ± 1. Let us now consider 1/α K. We see that 1/α is a root of the monic polynomial g(x) = 1 + a n 1 X + ± X n, with g(x) Z[X]. Thus 1/α is an algebraic integer. Let us prove a last result on the structure of the ring of integers. Recall that a group G is finitely generated if there exist finitely many elements x 1,...,x s G such that every x G can be written in the form x = n 1 x n s x s, with n 1,...,n s integers. Such a group is called free if it is isomorphic to Z r, r 0, called the rank of G. We now prove that O K is not only a ring, but it is furthermore a free Abelian group of rank the degree of the corresponding number field. Proposition Let K be a number field. Then O K is a free Abelian group of rank n = [K : Q]. Proof. We know by Corollary 1.5 that there exists a Q-basis {α 1,...,α n } of K with α i O K for i = 1,...,n (take a basis of K with elements in K, and multiply the elements by the proper factors to obtain elements in O K as explained in Corollary 1.5). Thus, an element x O K can be written as x = n c i α i, c i Q. i=1 Our goal is now to show that the denominators of c i are bounded for all c i and all x O K. To prove this, let us assume by contradiction that this is not the case, that is, that there exists a sequence x j = n c ij α i, c ij Q i=1 such that the greatest denominator of c ij, i = 1,...,n goes to infinity when j. Let us look at the norm of such an x j. We know that N K/Q (x j ) is the determinant of an n n matrix with coefficients in Q[c ij ] (that is coefficients are Q-linear combinations of c ij ). Thus the norm is a homogeneous polynomial

18 18 CHAPTER 1. ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS AND ALGEBRAIC INTEGERS in c ij, whose coefficients are determined by the field extension considered. Furthermore, it belongs to Z (Corollary 1.10). Since the coefficients are fixed and the norm is in Z, the denominators of c ij cannot grow indefinitely. They have to be bounded by a given constant B. Thus we have shown that O K 1 B n Zα i. i=1 Since the right hand side is a free Abelian group, O K is free. Furthermore, O K contains n elements which are linearly independent over Q, thus the rank of O K is n. Example 1.9. Let ζ p be a primitive pth root of unity. One can show that the ring of integers of Q(ζ p ) is Z[ζ p ] = Z Zζ p Zζ p 2 p. Proposition Let K be a number field. Let α K. If α is the zero of a monic polynomial f with coefficients in O K, then α O K. We say that O K is integrally closed. Proof. Let us write f(x) = X m + a m 1 X m a 0, with a i O K. We know by the above proposition that O K is a free abelian group which is finitely generated. Since α m = a m 1 α m 1 a 0, we have that O K [α] is finitely generated as Abelian group. Thus Z[α] O K [α] is also finitely generated, and α is an algebraic integer by Theorem 1.3. The main definitions and results of this chapter are Definition of a number field K of degree n and its ring of integers O K. Properties of O K : it is a ring with a Z-basis of n elements, and it is integrally closed. The fact that K has n embeddings into C. Definition of norm and trace, with their characterization as respectively product and sum of the conjugates.

19 Chapter 2 Ideals For the whole chapter, K is a number field of degree n and O = O K is its ring of integers. 2.1 Introduction Historically, experience with unique prime factorization of integers led mathematicians in the early days of algebraic number theory to a general intuition that factorization of algebraic integers into primes should also be unique. A likely reason for this misconception is the actual definition of what is a prime number. The familiar definition is that a prime number is a number which is divisible only by 1 and itself. Since units in Z are ±1, this definition can be rephrased as: if p = ab, then one of a or b must be a unit. Equivalently over Z, a prime number p satisfies that if p ab, then p a or p b. However, these two definitions are not equivalent anymore over general rings of integers. In fact, the second property is actually stronger, and if one can get a factorization with primes satisfying this property, then factorization will be unique, which is not the case for primes satisfying the first property. To distinguish these two definitions, we say in modern terminology that a number satisfying the first property is irreducible, while one satisfying the second property is prime. Consider for example Z[ 6]. We have that 6 = 2 3 = 6 6. We get two factorizations into irreducibles (we have a factorization but it is not unique). However this is not a factorization into primes, since 6 divides 2 3 but 6 does not divide 2 and does not divide 3 either. So in the case where primes and irreducibles are different, we now have to think what we are looking for when we say factorization. When we attempt to factorize an element x in a domain D, we naturally mean proper factors a,b such that x = ab, and if either 19

20 20 CHAPTER 2. IDEALS of these factors can be further decomposed, we go on. That means, we look for writing x = a 1 a 2...a n into factors that cannot be reduced any further. The definition of irreducible captures what it means for the factorization to terminate: one of the term has to be a unit. Thus what we are interested in is to understand the factorization into irreducibles inside rings of integers. Before starting, let us make a few more remarks. Note first that this factorization into irreducibles may not always be possible in general rings, since the procedure may continue indefinitely. However the procedure does stop for rings of integers. This comes from the fact that rings of integers are, again in modern terminology, what we call noetherian rings. The big picture can finally be summarized as follows: In general rings, factorization even into irreducibles may not be possible. In rings of integers, factorization into irreducibles is always possible, but may not be unique. For rings of integers which furthermore have a generalized Euclidean division, then the notions of prime and irreducible are equivalent, thus factorization is unique. Let us now get back to the problem we are interested in, namely, factorization into product of irreducibles in rings of integers. Example 2.1. Let K = Q( 5) be a quadratic number field, with ring of integers O K = Z[ 5], since d 3 (mod 4). Let us prove that we do not have a unique factorization into product of irreducibles in Z[ 5]. We have that 21 = 7 3 = ( )(1 2 5) with 3,7,1 ± 2 5 irreducible. Let us show for example that 3 is irreducible. Let us write 3 = αβ, α,β O K. We need to see that either α or β is a unit (that is an invertible element of O K ). The norm of 3 is given by 9 = N K/Q (3) = N K/Q (α)n K/Q (β), by multiplicativity of the norm. By Corollary 1.10, we know that N K/Q (α),n K/Q (β) Z. Thus we get a factorization of 9 in Z. There are only two possible factorizations over the integers: N K/Q (α) = ±1, N K/Q (β) = ±9 (or vice versa): by Corollary 1.11, we know that the element of O K of norm ±1 is a unit, and we are done.

21 2.1. INTRODUCTION 21 Figure 2.1: Ernst Kummer ( ) and Richard Dedekind ( ) N K/Q (α) = ±3, N K/Q (β) = ±3 (or vice versa): however, we will now show that there is no element of O K with norm ±3. Let us indeed assume that there exists a + b 5 O K, a,b Z such that N(a + b 5) = a 2 + 5b 2 = ±3. We can check that this equation has no solution modulo 5, yielding a contradiction. On the other hand, we will see that the ideal 21O K can be factorized into 4 prime ideals p 1,p 2,p 3,p 4 such that 7O K = p 1 p 2, 3O K = p 3 p 4, ( )O K = p 1 p 3, (1 2 5)O K = p 2 p 4, namely 21O K = p 1 p 2 p 3 p 4. After the realization that uniqueness of factorization into irreducibles is unique in some rings of integers but not in others, the mathematician Kummer had the idea that one way to remedy to the situation could be to work with what he called ideal numbers, new structures which would enable us to regain the uniqueness of factorization. Ideals numbers then got called ideals by another mathematician, Dedekind, and this is the terminology that has remained. Ideals of O will the focus of this chapter. Our goal will be to study ideals of O, and in particular to show that we get a unique factorization into a product of prime ideals. To prove uniqueness, we need to study the arithmetic of non-zero ideals of O, especially their behaviour under multiplication. We will recall how ideal multiplication is defined, which

22 22 CHAPTER 2. IDEALS will appear to be commutative and associative, with O itself as an identity. However, inverses need not exist, so we do not have a group structure. It turns out that we can get a group if we extend a bit the definition of ideals, which we will do by introducing fractional ideals, and showing that they are invertible. 2.2 Factorization and fractional ideals Let us start by introducing the notion of norm of an ideal. We will see that in the case of principal ideals, we can relate the norm of the ideal with the norm of its generator. Definition 2.1. Let I be a non-zero ideal of O, we define the norm of I by N(I) = O/I. Lemma 2.1. Let I be a non-zero ideal of O. 1. We have that N(αO) = N K/Q (α), α O. 2. The norm of I is finite. Proof. 1. First let us notice that the formula we want to prove makes sense, since N(α) Z when α O K, thus N(α) is a positive integer. By Proposition 1.12, O is a free Abelian group of rank n = [K : Q], thus there exists a Z-basis α 1,...,α n of O, that is O = Zα 1 Zα n. It is now a general result on free Abelian groups that if H is as subgroup of G, both of same rank, with Z-bases x 1,...,x r and y 1,...,y r respectively, with y i = j a ijx j, then G/H = det(a ij ). We thus apply this theorem in our case, where G = O and H = αo. Since one basis is obtained from the other by multiplication by α, we have that O/αO = det(µ α ) = N K/Q (α). 2. Let 0 α I. Since I is an ideal of O and αo I, we have a surjective map O/αO O/I, so that the result follows from part 1. Example 2.2. Let K = Q( 17) be a quadratic number field, with ring of integers O K = Z[ 17]. Then N( 18 ) = 18 2.

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