Waste-to-Energy. Ella Stengler Managing Director CEWEP. presentation of the Third Report on WtE plants in Italy by Federambiente and ENEA

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1 Waste-to-Energy in Europe Ella Stengler Managing Director CEWEP presentation of the Third Report on WtE plants in Italy by Federambiente and ENEA 1 12 April 2012

2 CEWEP Confederation of European Waste-to-Energy Plants European Umbrella Organisation of the Waste-to-Energy (WtE) Plant Owners and Operators. WtE Plants thermally treat household and similar waste that remains after waste prevention, A new WtE plant in Torino reuse and recycling by generating energy from it. Capacity (data 2009): Europe: ca. 70 Mio. tonnes CEWEP Members Europe: 59 Mio. tonnes (84%)

3 Waste-to-Energy has a role to play in both waste and energy policy WtE is a means of minimizing i i i the volume of waste (90%), destroying the bacteria, germs etc. found in the waste and making it hygienic. Chemical pollutants found in the waste are concentrated and cleaned in effective Flue Gas Cleaning Systems WtE helps to reduce both, dependence d on landfill and limited fossil fuel resources Reducing green house gas emissions i From fossil fuels which would be used to produce this energy and From landfills WtE is a reliable, locally available renewable energy source The technology is robust and proven from decades of experience 3 guaranteeing low emissions 3 A2A WtE plant Brescia, Italy

4 WtE Capacities 4

5 Waste-to-Energy in Europe in 2009 Waste-to-Energy Plants operating in Europe (not including hazardous waste incineration plants) Waste thermally treated in Waste-to-Energy plants in million tonnes Data supplied by CEWEP members unless specified otherwise * From Eurostat Portugal Ireland United Kingdom Spain France Norway Denmark Sweden Finland Estonia Latvia Lithuania Netherlands Poland* Germany Belgium Czech Republic Luxembourg* Slovakia* Austria Switzerland Hungary Romania Slovenia* Italy Greece Bulgaria 5

6 WtE Capacity Development within Europe Country Groups Likely developments Potential for expansion DE, NL, DK, SE, CH, A, BE Recent extensions Demand and Capacity in balance or some free capacity emerging FR, IT, ES, PT, IE Market opportunities, but complications due to local policies & preferences UK, CZ, PL, FI Major extension potential GR, new EU entrants Major potential, but various complications and hurdles despite EU support

7 WtE Capacity Development within Europe (estimated figures) European WtE capacity development (million tonnes) 70 by end > 77 by end > 89 by end > 91 by end additional additional additional Sum DE FR NL IT SE CH DK UK BE ES AT PT NO HU CZ FI SK LU PL SL IE CRO RO CY LT EE BG

8 Municipal waste treatment in 2010 EU 27 & CH+NO Graph by CEWEP, Source: EUROSTAT % 90% 80% % % % 40% 30% 20% 10% % Recycled + Composted % Incinerated % Landfilled % EU DE NL AT BE SE DK LU FR FI UK IT IE SL ES PT CZ HU PL EE CY SK GR MT LV LT RO BG CH 6 NO

9 Municipal waste treatment in 2010 EU 27 Graph by CEWEP, Source: EUROSTAT % Recycled + Composted 22% Incinerated 38% Landfilled 38% of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) across the EU 27 is still landfilled (> 90 Mio t). WtE together th with Recycling helps to divert waste from landfills

10 Diverting waste from landfills Most successful countries in EU-27: Germany, Netherlands, Austria, Belgium and Sweden 1% or less landfilling of Municipal Waste Main means: landfill bans in all 5 countries; More details about landfill bans and taxes: 10

11 European Environment Agency report 2011 'Waste opportunities Three different scenarios for 2020 reg. CO 2 -e savings compared to 2008 are projected. Business-as-usual: additionally 44 Mt CO 2 -e savings All countries fully meet the Landfill Directive s targets t additionally 62 Mt CO 2 -e savings landfill ban of all Municipal Waste: additionally 78 Mt CO 2 -e savings EEA report based on ETC/SCP working paper 4/2011http://scp.eionet.europa.eu/wp/2011wp4 europa eu/wp/2011wp4 11

12 Potential for cutting GHG emissions from municipal waste Huge potential benefits for climate change mitigation if more ambitious waste policies were implemented. Source: EEA report Waste opportunities 12

13 Why not recycle 100%? New recycled materials depend d on the quality of the sorted waste: Materials sometimes too dirty or too contaminated (e.g. nappies), Mixed materials (too difficult to sort) Materials degrade after repeated recycling Demand necessary for recycled products If high quality recycling is not possible, the waste should be turned into energy, rather than being landfilled. Even countries with the highest recycling rates in Europe (e.g. Austria, Belgium, Germany and Netherlands depend on WtE to treat remaining waste not suitable for recycling.

14 Waste-to-Energy Contributing to Resource Efficiency Recycling WtE bottom ashes: Ferrous and non-ferrous metals can be extracted and recycled into new products, e.g. aluminium castings for the automotive ti industry. Minerals can be used as secondary aggregates, e.g. in road construction or in building products. WtE Plants contribute to achieving a recycling society and to improving Europe s resource efficiency, by using unavoidable waste as a valuable resource wherever possible.

15 European List of Waste (ELoW) ELoW under review Bottom ash has mirror entry* -> can be hazardous if containing certain Hazardous Properties HP e.g. H14 ecotox: thresholds to be determined CEWEP: biological testing not suitable for heterogeneous waste such as bottom ash CEWEP prepares bottom ash classification dossier 15

16 Achieving energy recovery status for efficient Waste-to-Energy Plants Waste Framework Directive, i Art. 3(15): recovery means any operation the principal result of which is waste serving a useful purpose by replacing other materials which would otherwise have been used to fulfill a particular function, or waste being prepared to fulfill that function, in the plant or in the wider economy. Annex II sets out a non-exhaustive list of recovery operations; Annex II R 1 Use principally i as a fuel or other means to generate energy This includes incineration facilities dedicated to the processing of municipal solid waste only where their energy efficiency is equal to or above: 0.60 for plants permitted before for plants permitted after

17 R1 formula R1-factor Ep (Ef + Ei) = 0.97 * (Ew + Ef)

18 Impacts of R1 energy recovery status Waste hierarchy: Efficient WtE plants are higher up the hierarchy than landfilling. Level playing field with co-incinerating industry (e.g. cement kilns) which was already considered as energy recovery (European Court of Justice). 18

19 Impacts of R1 energy recovery status Public acceptance building awareness of energy recovery from waste through the improvement of energy efficiency 19

20 Impacts of R1 energy recovery status R1 Energy Recovery Status provides incentives to improve energy efficiency replacing more fossil fuels serving climate protection and security of energy supply being less dependent on imports of fossil fuels 20

21 Climate Impacts on R1 energy recovery status However, R1-formula favours heat production Southern European countries are at disadvantage Climate Correction Factor to be discussed 3 options: 1) zero option (no climate factor) 2) wider climate correction factor compensating also a lack of demand for heat produced by the Waste-to- Energy Plants 3) climate correction factor restricted to compensating the lower efficiency of turbines in warmer climate. 21

22 Policies for maximisation of Sustainable Energy production from Waste Speed up R1 Energy Recovery Status technical improvements and innovation Maximize electricity production from waste; Electricity grid access Improving infrastructure for district heating and cooling Locating new plants close to energy consumers or attracting consumers (e.g. industry) to existing plants Diverting waste from landfills to Recycling & WtE

23 Sustainable waste management In order to achieve sustainable waste management, recyclable and recoverable waste should be diverted from landfills, recycled as much as suitable with the remaining waste used to g generate energy!

24 Sustainable Energy from WtE low-hanging fruits Enough to supply 70m inhabitants. 196 TWh 100 TWh 134 TWh Includes both renewable and fossil components. 1 TWh is equal to 1 billion kwh

25 Local Energy, from Local Waste Waste-to-Energy Plants de-centralised energy facilities, creating - reliable, - cost-effective, - local energy from citizens waste. Garstad Waste-to-Energy plant, Sweden

26 Cologne cathedral illuminated by the city s waste The symbol of the city of Cologne its cathedral the Kölner Dom - is illuminated at night using energy generated from the city s Waste-to-Energy to Plant AVG Köln

27 Energy from Waste: power for public transport in Amsterdam Electricity generated by the AEB Waste-to-Energy plant Helps provide green certified power for the tram, metro and city.

28 Waste-to-Energy Helping to keep the Mona Lisa smiling 50% of Paris, including the famous Louvre museum, is heated by 3 Waste-to-Energy Plants St Ouen Issy-les-Moulineaux and Ivry/Seine paris.fr/edi/comm/comm/ivry/presentatio n.htm

29 For more information on Waste to Energy: CEWEP Confederation of European Waste-to-Energy Plants Boulevard Clovis 12A, B-1000 Brussels Tel Fax

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