Country specific notes on municipal waste data

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1 EUROPEAN COMMISSION EUROSTAT Directorate E: Sectoral and regional statistics Unit E-2: Environmental Statistics and Accounts; Sustainable Development Country specific notes on municipal waste data Last update December 2015

2 Municipal waste generated Bulgaria Denmark Germany Estonia Spain Latvia Lithuania Hungary Malta Netherlands Due to a change in methodology, revisions to the data on municipal waste generated for the period since 2004 were made. The landfill site in Sofia was closed between October 2005 and December This led to temporary storage of collected municipal waste in these years amounting to shares of the municipal waste generated between 2,5% (2005) and 10% (2006, 2007). These amounts are not included in the figures for municipal waste generated and also caused a drop in municipal waste landfilled in 2006 and Since 2010 sorted recyclable waste from businesses are no longer under the responsibility of the municipalities to collect. In order to keep the coherence of the time series, this sorted recyclable waste has been removed from municipal waste since : Implementation of a new waste data system based on the European List of Waste. For the period 1995 to 2001 Eurostat estimates for municipal waste generated were introduced to remove two breaks in the series. For the years 1995 to 1999 the figures show the amount of municipal waste collected. From 1995 to 1999 municipal waste collection covered about 70% of the population. In 2001, a new waste classification was introduced (for example sludges of municipal waste water treatment plants were included in municipal waste up to 2000 and excluded afterwards). Since 2004, the figure for municipal waste generated was computed after subtracting the amounts corresponding to (municipal) construction and demolition wastes and sludges (7% in 2004). Until 2003, these data were not subtracted from the overall figure as no information about this single variable was available. The break in the time series from 2002 onwards is due to the use of a new data source. From 1999, the decrease in the amount of waste can be explained by modernisation of treatment sites; waste is now weighed, while previously its weight was estimated based on its volume. All figures until 2010 give the amount of municipal waste collected. As part of the population is not covered by a municipal waste collection scheme (between 80% in 2007 and 94% in 2010, unknown until 2006), the total amount of waste generated is underestimated. From 2011, the amount of municipal waste generated and not covered by the MW collection system is estimated. From 2000, improved data quality due to weighing of the waste amounts at the treatment sites. From 1999, improved data quality due to weighing of the waste amounts at the treatment sites. The 100% coverage applies to household waste only. In the Netherlands only a small part of the office and services waste is collected by municipalities. Most of the office and services waste is collected by commercial collectors and is not included in the data. The difference between waste generation and treatment is waste undergoing preliminary operations like sorting. These amounts range from 6 % (1995) to 17 % (2010) of waste generation. In 2008, 2

3 Municipal waste generated the final destination of the pre-treatment output was 11 % landfill, 78 % incineration, 8 % recycling and 3 % losses. The lower value in 2003 is due to a hot and dry summer resulting in a smaller amount of organic waste. Austria Poland Portugal From 1996 to 2003, on-site composting of green waste from municipal service is fully (1999 to 2003) or partly (1996 to 1998) included. On-site composting of green waste amounted to 325 kt from 1996 to For the period 1995 to 2004, the figures show the amount of municipal waste collected. As part of the population is not covered by a municipal waste collection scheme (in 2000 about 6% of the city inhabitants and 26% of the country inhabitants), the total amount of waste generated is underestimated. In 2002, the data collection method was changed. The statistical survey was replaced with administrative data sources. For the period 1995 to 2001, the figures show the amount of municipal waste collected. Between 95% (1995) and 99% (2001) of the population was covered by a municipal waste collection scheme; thus, the amounts are slightly underestimated. Slovenia Slovakia United Kingdom Turkey Norway Switzerland From 2002, change in data collection methods and harmonisation with EU methodology. From 2004, new methodology: municipal waste generated refers not only to waste collected by public service system as until 2003, but also to waste collected by waste scheme (covering special wastes such as packaging, WEEE, medicines and waste candles from cemetery). Since 2013, the data on waste collection include waste from special waste collectors that were not included in the previous years. Data until 2001 according to national waste catalogue, from 2002 onwards according to the European List of Waste. The lower value in 2003 is due to a hot and dry summer resulting in a smaller amount of organic waste. From 2004, improved data quality due to weighing of the waste amounts at the treatment sites. The significant decrease in 2001 is due to a review of the definition of municipal waste. Prior to 2001, the figures included all waste collected and handled by municipalities and were not limited to waste similar to household waste, but included also production waste. From 2004, the imported municipal waste for incineration is deducted from the figure on municipal waste generated and incinerated. 3

4 Municipal waste landfilled Bulgaria The landfill site in Sofia was closed between October 2005 and December This lead to temporary storage of collected municipal waste in these years amounting to shares from the municipal waste generated between 2.5% (2005) and 10% (2006, 2007). These amounts are not included in the figures for municipal waste generated and also caused a drop in municipal waste landfilled in 2006 and Czech Republic Treatment data since 2004 calculated according to new methodology. Denmark Ban on landfilling of waste suitable for incineration since 1 January 1997 (Source: Danish Environment Protection Agency, 2005: Waste Statistics Environmental Review No ). Germany Ban on landfilling of organic waste since 1 June 2004 (Source: Abfallablagerungsverordnung from 20. Feb 2001 (BGBl. I S. 305)). For the period 1995 to 2001 Eurostat estimates for municipal waste treated were introduced to remove two breaks in the series. Estonia Spain Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Hungary Malta Netherlands In 2001, a new waste classification was introduced (for example sludges of municipal waste water treatment plants were included in municipal waste up to 2000 and excluded afterwards). Data on waste treatment is aimed at measuring waste as it enters final treatment facilities, so that pre-treated amounts are excluded from the estimates. Since 2009, data are estimated using administrative sources as provided by the Ministry of Agriculture, Nourishment and Environment (MANE). Both composting and recycling figures do not account for discarded waste from their respective operations. Discarded waste amounts have been respectively added to landfilling and incineration figures. Includes waste from sorting operations which are sent to landfill. In 2011, the quantities of waste recycled have been examined and corrected, especially for metals. The definition of what qualifies as municipal waste was assessed and new data sources of a better quality were used. Consequently, the quantities of municipal waste recycled are now much smaller than what was previously reported for the entire time series. The break in the time series from 2002 onwards is due to the use of a new data source. From 1999, the decrease in the amount of waste can be explained by modernisation of treatment sites; waste is now weighed, while previously its weight was estimated based on its volume. From 2000, improved data quality due to weighing of the waste amounts in the treatment sites. Increased amounts of municipal waste landfilled from 2007 to 2009 due to refurbishment of recycling (2007) and composting facilities (2007 to 2009) of the solid waste treatment plant. From 2010, landfilled amounts include secondary waste from sorting and mechanical treatment processes (2010: 8.48 kt; 2011: kt). Lower amounts of municipal waste landfilled since 2003 due to new legislation which bans direct disposal of mixed municipal waste to landfill. 4

5 Municipal waste landfilled Austria Portugal Slovenia Sweden Turkey Norway Until 2003, figures for recovery and disposal include secondary waste (particularly landfill), thus the sum is above 100%. From 2004, the figures for recovery and disposal do not contain double counts anymore. Since 2004, landfilling is permitted only for pre-treated waste. Additional thermal facilities went into operation. In addition, the figures since 2004 include amounts treated in mechanical-biological facilities (after deduction of decomposition losses) which were formerly allocated to composting. In 2002, the data collection method was changed. The statistical survey was replaced with administrative data sources. Includes landfilling of residues from other treatment operations. For most reference years, the total treatment is significantly lower than the waste generation because of the temporary storage of municipal waste, the loss of weight during pre-treatment as well as the incomplete coverage of outputs from pre-treatment (sorting or mechanicalbiological-treatment). Landfilling of sorted combustible waste is prohibited since 1 January 2002 and landfilling of organic waste since 2005 (Source: The Swedish Association of Waste Management (RVF), 2003: Swedish Waste Management 2003). From 2004, improved data quality due to weighing of the waste amounts at the treatment sites. The significant decrease in 2001 is due to a review of the definition of municipal waste. Prior to 2001, the figures included all waste collected and handled by municipalities; they were not limited to waste similar to household waste, but included also production waste. 5

6 Municipal waste incinerated Czech Republic Germany Spain Ireland France Italy Hungary Austria Portugal Slovenia United Kingdom Switzerland Treatment data since 2004 calculated according to new methodology. For the period 1995 to 2001 Eurostat estimates for municipal waste treated were introduced to remove two breaks in the series. The series on municipal waste incinerated without energy recovery includes "treatment for disposal", mostly reflecting mechanicalbiological treatment, with the following amounts in [kt]: 2002: 89; 2003: 111; 2004: 625; 2005: 987; 2006: 2287; 2007: 1839; 2008: 1951; 2009: 1941; 2010: 1995; 2011: 1858; 2012: 988; 2013: Prior to 2002 the amounts are estimated to range between 10 and 20 kt. Data on waste treatment is aimed at measuring waste as it enters final treatment facilities, so that pre-treated amounts are excluded from the estimates. Since 2009, data are estimated using administrative sources as provided by the Ministry of Agriculture, Nourishment and Environment (MANE). Both composting and recycling figures do not account for discarded waste from their respective operations. Discarded waste amounts have been respectively added to landfilling and incineration figures. From 2008, the value on incineration refers to energy recovery (R1) rather than commercial municipal waste incineration (which does not exist in Ireland). The R1 activity consists of co-incineration as refuse derived fuel (RDF), but also use of wood as a fuel and use of edible oils and fats in biodiesel processing. It took place in Ireland (66%) and abroad (33%). From 2010, recycling figures refer to output from sorting. Until 2009, input to sorting was reported (incl. sorting residues). Data since 2002 cover both urban waste and waste-derived fuels and are not comparable with previous years due to a new method of calculation smaller amount due to the reconstruction of the largest incinerator. Until 2003, figures for recovery and disposal include secondary waste, thus the sum is above 100%. From 2004, the figures for recovery and disposal do not contain double counts anymore. Since 2004, landfilling is permitted only for pre-treated waste. Additional thermal facilities went into operation. In 2002, the data collection method was changed. The statistical survey was replaced with administrative data sources. For most reference years, the total treatment is significantly lower than the waste generation because of the temporary storage of municipal waste, the loss of weight during pre-treatment as well as the incomplete coverage of outputs from pre-treatment (sorting or mechanical-biological-treatment). The drop in 1996 is due to the closure of incinerators without energy recovery (because of legislation banning them). From 2004, the imported municipal waste for incineration is deducted from the figure on municipal waste generated and incinerated. 6

7 Municipal waste recycled Czech Republic Germany Estonia Spain Croatia Italy Luxembourg Cyprus Treatment data since 2004 calculated according to new methodology. For the period 1995 to 2001 Eurostat estimates for municipal waste treated were introduced to remove two breaks in the series. Due to specialties of Estonian national waste data collection and processing system, the municipal waste recycling data can include partially data on municipal waste sorting before final recycling, but exclude some recycled fractions taken into consideration on waste material basis. Data on waste treatment is aimed at measuring waste as it enters final treatment facilities, so that pre-treated amounts are excluded from the estimates. Since 2009, data are estimated using administrative sources as provided by the Ministry of Agriculture, Nourishment and Environment (MANE). Both composting and recycling figures do not account for discarded waste from their respective operations. Discarded waste amounts have been respectively added to landfilling and incineration figures. From 2011, amount recycled includes also municipal waste which originates from services (NACE activities G to U, except G46.77). Until 2007, data on recycling took into account only the fractions collected on public areas, therefore this figure was underestimated. This methodology has been later refined and, starting from 2008, provides for the accounting for all other fractions sent for recycling. More than 95% of the municipal waste recycled is exported for treatment; these amounts are included in the whole time series. In 2011, the quantities of waste recycled have been examined and corrected, especially for metals. The definition of what qualifies as municipal waste was assessed and new data sources of a better quality were used. Consequently, the quantities of municipal waste recycled are now much smaller than what was previously reported for the entire time series. Lithuania In 2007/2008/2009/2010/2011 the figures include shares of 63% /60%/57%/69% /56% exported for recycling. Hungary Malta Austria From 2001 to 2003 data originates from a HCSO survey. Since 2004 data come from the Waste Information System of the Ministry. In 2007/2008/2009/2010/2011 the figures include shares of 30%/25%/34%/50%/53% exported for recycling. The drop of the amounts in 2007 is due to the refurbishment of the recycling facility which started in 2007 and was concluded in February From 2010 onwards all the outputs from sorting are allocated to their final treatment destination. All MW which is allocated to recycling refers to the outputs of sorting which are exported for recycling overseas. For previous years MW recycled figures refer to the input of waste into the sorting process. All MW recycled was sorted and/or pre-treated in Malta and then exported (or is in the process of being exported) for actual recycling in other countries Until 2003, figures for recovery and disposal include secondary waste, thus the sum is above 100%. From 2004, the figures for recovery and disposal do not contain double 7

8 counts anymore. Country specific notes on municipal waste Municipal waste recycled Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia United Kingdom The increase in the amounts of waste composted and the subsequent fall in the amounts of waste recycled from 2010 to 2011 is a result of the change on the reporting form, introducing mechanical-biological-treatment (MBT) operations and the approach of allocating of the output streams of MBT facilities to MW composted or fermented. Splitting the amounts of municipal waste allocated to the MBT operations between the four categories is not possible yet due to the construction of reporting form. It should be possible starting from the reference year In 2002, the data collection method was changed. The statistical survey was replaced with administrative data sources & 2007: total amount of waste separately collected. In 2001 and 2002 data originates from an administrative source. Starting with 2003, the methodology of data collection and processing has been changed. For 2003 to 2006, the figures include all recovery operations; for 2007, it includes only R2-R11 (excluding composting), according to the classification of the Waste Framework Directive. From 2002, figures on municipal waste recycled exclude imports and include exports. For most reference years, the total treatment is significantly lower than the waste generation because of the temporary storage of municipal waste, the loss of weight during pre-treatment as well as the incomplete coverage of outputs from pre-treatment (sorting or mechanical-biological-treatment). In 2005, the data collection system was changed with new R and D codes (according to the Waste Framework Directive), causing a loss of information on final recovery of municipal waste, mainly in recycling and less significantly in composting. Data 1995 to 1999 include amounts of composted municipal waste. 8

9 Municipal waste composted Czech Republic Germany Spain Italy Hungary Cyprus Malta Austria Poland Portugal Slovenia Treatment data since 2004 calculated according to new methodology. For the period 1995 to 2001 Eurostat estimates for municipal waste treated were introduced to remove two breaks in the series. Data on waste treatment is aimed at measuring waste as it enters final treatment facilities, so that pre-treated amounts are excluded from the estimates. Since 2009, data are estimated using administrative sources as provided by the Ministry of Agriculture, Nourishment and Environment (MANE). Both composting and recycling figures do not account for discarded waste from their respective operations. Discarded waste amounts have been respectively added to landfilling and incineration figures.. The amounts composted mainly refer to the composting of mixed waste (share 2010: 92%). From 2000 composting does not include data from mechanical-biological-treatment (MBT). From 2005, composting includes anaerobic treatments. From 2001 to 2003 data originates from a HCSO survey; since 2004 data come from the Waste Information System of the Ministry. A new waste management facility started operating in April In this new facility, the organic fraction of the wastes is separated and treated with aerobic treatment and stabilization (composting). The facility can produce high quality compost from green waste and compost from mixed waste which is considered to be soil improvement. This product belongs to the government and it can be used either as soil improvement or for the daily overlay of the residuals of the treatment process which are disposed to the landfill area. The missing amounts of waste composted since 2008 and the sharp decrease in 2007 are due to the refurbishment of the composting facility which started in the course of 2007 and continued throughout 2008 and Includes amounts treated in mechanical-biological facilities until From 2004, these amounts were allocated to landfill (after deduction of decomposition losses). From 1996 to 2003, on-site composting of green waste from municipal service is fully (2000 to 2003) or partly (1996 to 1999) included. On-site composting of green waste amounted to 325 kt from 1996 to Until 2003, figures for recovery and disposal include secondary waste, thus the sum is above 100%. From 2004, the figures for recovery and disposal do not contain double counts anymore. The increase in the amounts of waste composted and the subsequent fall in the amounts of waste recycled from 2010 to 2011 is a result of the change on the reporting form, introducing mechanical-biological-treatment (MBT) operations and the approach of allocating of the output streams of MBT facilities to MW composted or fermented. Splitting the amounts of municipal waste allocated to the MBT operations between the four categories is not possible yet due to the construction of reporting form. It should be possible starting from the reference year In 2002, the data collection method was changed. The statistical survey was replaced with administrative data sources. 2006/2008/2009: Figures for composting include biodegradable waste selectively collected (2008: 14%; 2009: 13%). For most reference years, the total treatment is significantly lower than the waste 9

10 Municipal waste composted generation because of the temporary storage of municipal waste, the loss of weight during pre-treatment as well as the incomplete coverage of outputs from pre-treatment (sorting or mechanical-biological-treatment). Slovakia Finland United Kingdom In 2005, the data collection system was changed with new R and D codes (according to the Waste Framework Directive), causing a loss of information on final recovery of municipal waste, mainly in recycling and less significantly in composting. Municipal waste composted includes estimated amount of about tonnes waste composted by households (home composting 2010), and is counted in our statistics therefore as generated municipal waste. This is valid to our whole time series from From 1995 to 1999, amounts of municipal waste composted are included in those for recycling. 10

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