1 On the way to Erasmus+ A Statistical Overview of the Erasmus Programme in Education and Training
3 TABLE OF CONTENTS 3 Table of contents Acronyms used in this report...14 Disclaimer...14 Preface Erasmus Student Mobility General overview of student mobility Introduction Outbound Erasmus student mobility (study exchanges and work placements) Inbound student mobility Duration Grants Students with special needs grants Zero-grant students Participating higher education institutions Erasmus student mobility for studies Introduction Outbound study exchanges Inbound study exchanges...61
4 4 A STATISTICAL OVERVIEW OF THE ERASMUS PROGRAMME IN Subject areas and languages of study Study duration Study grants Students receiving special needs grants Zero-grant students for studies Work placements combined with studies Average expected ECTS credits Erasmus student mobility for placements Introduction Outbound student work placements Inbound students on work placements Work placement hosts Subject areas and languages used in work placements Duration of work placements Work placement grants Work placement students with special needs grants Zero-grant students on work placements Work placement consortia...90
5 TABLE OF CONTENTS 5 2. Erasmus Staff Mobility Introduction Staff mobility for teaching assignments Introduction Outbound staff on teaching assignments Inbound staff on teaching assignments Subject areas and languages Duration of teaching assignments Grants for teaching assignments Erasmus staff mobility for staff training Introduction Outbound staff training Inbound staff training Ratio of staff training to teaching assignments Staff training in companies Staff composition in staff training and types of activities Duration of staff training Grants for staff training...129
6 6 A STATISTICAL OVERVIEW OF THE ERASMUS PROGRAMME IN Erasmus Intensive Language Courses (EILC) Introduction Participation in EILC Inbound EILC participants Outbound EILC participants Recognition of participation Erasmus Intensive Programmes (IPs) Introduction Number of IPs Participation in IPs Subject areas of IPs and ECTS awarded Duration of IPs Cooperation Projects Erasmus Mundus Jean Monnet Tempus Erasmus Programme Budget The allocation and use of Erasmus funds at national level Year-on-year trends for the four different types of mobility...196
7 LIST OF CHARTS 7 List of charts Chart 1: Progress to achieving the three million student mobility target Chart 2: Outbound students by country since 2010 Chart 3: Outbound student mobility: year-on-year growth by country Chart 4: Number of students by nationality in Chart 5: Age distribution of students in Chart 6: Study exchanges and work placements by home country in Chart 7: Erasmus students as a proportion of the student population by country in Chart 8: Erasmus students as a proportion of graduates (%) by country in Chart 9: Number of inbound students by country since 2010 Chart 10: Inbound and outbound students in Chart 11: Average duration of student mobility since 1995 Chart 12: Average duration of student mobility periods by home country since 2010 Chart 13: Average monthly EU grant for student mobility since 2000 Chart 14: Average monthly EU grant for student mobility by home country in Chart 15: Number of special needs grants for student mobility by home country in Chart 16: Number of zero-grant Erasmus students by home country in Chart 17: Higher education institutions sending out students and staff since 2003 Chart 18: Study exchanges since 1987 Chart 19: Total number of study exchanges since 2000 by home country Chart 20: Outbound study exchanges by country since 2010
8 8 A STATISTICAL OVERVIEW OF THE ERASMUS PROGRAMME IN Chart 21: Inbound students on study exchanges by country since 2010 Chart 22: Inbound and outbound study exchanges in Chart 23: Share of subject areas in study exchanges in Chart 24: Languages used on study exchanges in Chart 25: Average duration of study exchanges since 1994 Chart 26: Average duration of study exchanges by home country since 2010 Chart 27: Distribution of duration of study exchanges in Chart 28: Average monthly EU grant for study exchanges since 2000 Chart 29: Average monthly EU grant distribution for study exchanges in Chart 30: Average monthly EU grant for study exchanges by home country since 2010 Chart 31: Number of combined placements by home country in Chart 32: Outbound students on work placements by country in Chart 33: Inbound students on work placements by country since 2010 Chart 34: Inbound and outbound students on work placements in Chart 35: Share of subject areas in work placements in Chart 36: Languages used in work placements in Chart 37: Average monthly duration of work placements by home country since 2010 Chart 38: Distribution of duration of work placements in Chart 39: Average monthly EU grant for work placements by home country since 2010 Chart 40: Work placement consortia by country in Chart 41: Ratio of work placements organised within and outside consortia in Chart 42: Growth in staff mobility since 2007 Chart 43: Outbound staff exchanges by country in
9 LIST OF CHARTS 9 Chart 44: Inbound staff exchanges by country in Chart 45: Teaching assignments since 2000 Chart 46: Outbound staff on teaching assignments by country since 2010 Chart 47: Outbound staff on teaching assignments compared to total teaching staff by country in Chart 48: Inbound staff on teaching assignments by country since 2010 Chart 49: Inbound and outbound staff on teaching assignments in Chart 50a: Subject areas in study exchanges in Chart 50b: Subject areas in teacher exchanges in Chart 51: Languages used in teaching assignments in Chart 52: Distribution of duration of teaching assignments in Chart 53: Average total EU grant for teaching assignments since 2000 Chart 54: Average total EU grant for teaching assignments by home country since 2010 Chart 55: Outbound staff on training by country in Chart 56: Inbound staff on training by country in Chart 57: Inbound and outbound staff on training in Chart 58: Share of staff training on total staff mobility by home country in Chart 59: Staff training in companies by host country in Chart 60: Category of work at home institution in Chart 61: Average duration of staff training by home country since 2010 Chart 62: Distribution of duration of staff training in Chart 63: Average total EU grant for staff training by country since 2010 Chart 64: Number of EILC courses since Chart 65: Student participation in EILC since 2001
10 10 A STATISTICAL OVERVIEW OF THE ERASMUS PROGRAMME IN Chart 66: Inbound EILC participants by country since 2010 Chart 67: EILC students as a percentage of inbound students in Chart 68: Outbound EILC students by country since 2010 Chart 69: Number of IPs since 2000 Chart 70: Number of IPs by coordinating country since 2010 Chart 71: Student participation in IPs by home country since 2010 Chart 72: Teacher participation in IPs by home country since 2010 Chart 73: Distribution of IPs by first subject area in Chart 74: Average duration of IPs by coordinating country in Chart 75: Received and selected applications for Cooperation Projects since 2007 Chart 76: Applications selected for Cooperation Projects by type since 2007 Chart 77: Participation of countries in Cooperation Projects (as coordinators and partners) since 2007 Chart 78: Number of Cooperation Project applications submitted and selected by country (coordinators) since 2007 Chart 79: Cooperation Projects policy priorities since 2007 Chart 80: Joint Programmes and Action 2 (A2) partnerships Chart 81: Top 20 nationalities, EMMC students Chart 82: Top 20 nationalities, EMJD fellowships, Chart 83: European destination countries for Erasmus Mundus masters and doctoral programmes Chart 84: Destination countries for Europeans under Action 2 Chart 85: Nationalities of coordinators and partners in all applications received Chart 86: Nationalities of coordinators of all applications received, Chart 87: Action 2 partners per region Chart 88: EMMC subject areas
11 LIST OF MAPS 11 Chart 89: EMJD subject areas Chart 90: Participation of partner countries in Tempus IV projects Chart 91: Participation in Tempus IV projects by region Chart 92: Participation of Member States in Tempus IV projects Chart 93: Total budget distribution for Tempus IV projects by region Chart 94: Topics addressed by Tempus IV projects Chart 95: Main academic disciplines in Tempus IV projects Chart 96: Funds for Erasmus decentralised actions since 1988 Chart 97: Use of Erasmus decentralised funds by type of action in Chart 98: Student mobility and staff mobility: year-on-year growth by home country Chart 99: Study exchanges and work placements: year-on-year growth by home country Chart 100: Teaching assignments and staff training: year-on-year growth by home country List of maps Map 1: Outbound student mobility (study exchanges and work placements) growth since 2007 Map 2: Inbound student mobility (student exchanges and work placements) in with top 15 host institutions since 2007 Map 3: Inbound student mobility (study exchanges and work placements) growth since 2007 Map 4: Outbound staff mobility (teaching assignments and staff training) growth since 2007 Map 5: Inbound staff mobility (teaching assignments and staff training) growth since 2007 Map 6: Inbound staff mobility (teaching assignments and staff training) in with top 15 host institutions Map 7: EMMC scholarships: top 10 non-eu nationalities,
12 12 A STATISTICAL OVERVIEW OF THE ERASMUS PROGRAMME IN List of annexes Student Mobility Annex 1 - Outbound student mobility by country since 1987 Annex 2 - Average duration of student mobility since 1994 Annex 3 - Average monthly EU grant for student mobility since 1994 Annex 4 - Inbound and outbound student mobility in Annex 5 - Inbound and outbound special needs grants for student mobility in Annex 6 - Inbound and outbound zero-grant students in Annex 7 - Top 100 Higher education institutions sending students on mobility in Student Mobility for Studies Annex 8 - Outbound study exchanges since 1987 Annex 9 - Inbound and outbound study exchanges in Annex 10 - Inbound and outbound special needs grants for study exchanges in Annex 11 - Inbound and outbound Erasmus zero-grant study exchanges in Student Mobility for Placements Annex 12 - Inbound and outbound placements in Annex 13 - Inbound and outbound special needs grants for placements in Annex 14 - Inbound and outbound Erasmus zero-grant placements in
13 LIST OF ANNEXES 13 Staff Mobility Annex 15 - Top 100 higher education institutions sending staff on mobility in Annex 16 - Inbound and outbound staff mobility in Staff Mobility for Teaching Assignments Annex 17 - Inbound and outbound teaching assignments in Annex 18 - Inbound and outbound teaching assignments (only invited staff from enterprises) in Annex 19 - Staff on teaching assignments (total number, average duration and grant) since 2001 Staff Mobility for Staff Training Annex 20 - Inbound and outbound staff on training in Annex 21 - Inbound and outbound staff on training from university to company in Annex 22 - Staff on training (total number, average duration and grant) since 2007 Erasmus Intensive Language Courses Annex 23 - Inbound and outbound EILC participants in Intensive Programmes Annex 24 - Student participation in Intensive Programmes by home country in Annex 25 - Teacher participation in Intensive Programmes by home country in
14 14 A STATISTICAL OVERVIEW OF THE ERASMUS PROGRAMME IN Acronyms used in this report Terminology ECTS: European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System Acronyms for country names ISO Code Country Name EILC: Erasmus Intensive Language Courses EUR33: The 33 participating countries in Erasmus in EUC: Erasmus University Charter HEI: Higher education institution LLP: Lifelong Learning Programme OM grant: Organisation of mobility grant IP: Intensive Programmes SM: Student mobility SMP: Work placements SMS: Study exchanges ST: Staff mobility AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE GR ES FI FR HR HU IE IS Austria Belgium Bulgaria Switzerland Cyprus Czech Republic Germany Denmark Estonia Greece Spain Finland France Croatia Hungary Ireland Iceland IT LI LT LU LV MT NL NO PL PT RO SE SI SK UK TR Italy Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Latvia Malta Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Sweden Slovenia Slovakia United Kingdom Turkey STA: Teaching assignments STT: Staff training Disclaimer The sources of the data used in this report are the statistics, as submitted by 28 July 2014 by the National Agencies of the 33 countries participating in the Erasmus Programme (Erasmus decentralised actions) and by the Education Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency (Erasmus centralised actions) by 10 July The European Commission makes its best efforts to ensure the accuracy of the data, but cannot be held responsible for any errors the report may nevertheless contain. More information on the Erasmus Programme, this report and its annexes can be found at: European Commission, 2015 Responsible editor: Unit B1 Higher Education, Directorate-General for Education and Culture, European Commission, Brussels
15 PREFACE 15 Preface Erasmus+ has already taken its first steps, bringing together a wide range of European support for education, training, youth and sports under one single programme. The new programme builds on the legacy of Erasmus by offering opportunities for a further four million students, apprentices, volunteers, teachers, education and training staff and youth workers to develop their competences. More than 2 million higher education students will be able to study or gain work experience abroad, both within and beyond Europe. This report looks at the ongoing Erasmus story during the academic year , an exceptional year marked by a key milestone: the three millionth student went abroad with Erasmus this year, and the number of mobile academic and administrative staff broke the barrier. Erasmus was part of the EU s Lifelong Learning Programme, with a budget of 3.1 billion for the period During the academic year , 33 countries took part in the Programme: the 27 EU Member States, Croatia, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Switzerland and Turkey. Since its launch in 1987, the Erasmus Programme has seen not only a constant increase in the number of students taking part, but also in the quality and diversity of the activities proposed. Erasmus mobility, with its core focus on skills development, is a central element of the European Commission s strategy to combat youth unemployment, featuring prominently in the Europe 2020 strategy for growth and jobs. Student mobility contributes to individuals personal development and equips them with a wide range of competences and skills that are increasingly valued by employers. Students do not only improve their foreign languages skills and develop greater intercultural understanding, they also become much more able to quickly adapt to changes and new situations, solve problems, work in teams, think critically and communicate more efficiently. The Erasmus Impact Study 1 published last year shows that the risk of long-term unemployment is half or even less for mobile students compared to those who stay at home. Mobility boosts job prospects and encourages labour market mobility later in life. Mobility also promotes common European values. Work placements in companies abroad have been supported through Erasmus since 2007 and have accounted for the largest increases in the number of students in recent years; grants 1 Effects of mobility on the skills and employability of students and the internationalisation of higher education institutions (ISBN: ,
16 16 A STATISTICAL OVERVIEW OF THE ERASMUS PROGRAMME IN have already been awarded to more than students to undertake placements and over 30% of them received a job offer from their hosting enterprise. This growth in the number of work placements is providing more and more young people with practical work experience and helps to strengthen links between higher education and business. Teachers and other staff, such as university international relations officers, can also benefit from EU support to teach or be trained abroad, and higher education institutions have the opportunity to invite staff from companies to come and teach in their institutions. This allows a wider number of students, including those who cannot go abroad, to be exposed to the labour market in an international setting before graduating. Erasmus not only caters for students and higher education staff, but, by funding transnational projects and networks, also enables higher education institutions to work together. In 2013, Erasmus counted over higher education institutions as members. For the vast majority of these institutions, taking part in Erasmus has led them to innovate in key areas such as teaching and learning, recognition of study periods abroad, student support services, cooperation with business, and institutional management. This report presents the many joint projects, summer schools and network activities which are changing the ways in which higher education is delivered in Europe. And for the first time, the Erasmus results are presented in this report alongside those from three other EU-funded programmes in the field of higher education: Tempus, Jean Monnet and Erasmus Mundus. We hope that this gives a more complete view of the complementarity of EU programmes for the development of higher education which are now being brought together in Erasmus+. All these different forms of cooperation are instrumental in improving the quality of the education, providing learning environments that stimulate creativity and curiosity and opening up our universities and colleges to cooperation with the world. Erasmus has thus promoted the internationalisation of the European Higher Education system, contributed to its modernisation, and paved the way for the Bologna Process. It now supports the Bologna goal that by 2020 at least 20 % of all graduates from the European Higher Education Area should have spent a period of time studying or training abroad.
17 ERASMUS STUDENT MOBILITY Erasmus Student Mobility 1.1. General overview of student mobility Table 1: Student mobility in figures Type of student mobility Total Studies Work placements (traineeships) Student mobility Total number of Erasmus students Average EU monthly grant ( ) Average duration (months) Number of special needs students Top sending countries (absolute numbers) ES, DE, FR, IT, TR FR, DE, ES, UK, PL ES, FR, DE, IT, PL Top sending countries (% share of the student population) in LU, LI, ES, LT, LV LV, LI, LT, EE, MT LU, LI, LV, LT, ES Top receiving countries ES, FR, DE, UK, IT UK, ES, DE, FR, IT ES, DE, FR, UK, IT Level of studies Bachelor 70 % Master 28 % Doctorate 1 % Short-cycle 1% Bachelor 56 % Master 30 % Doctorate 3 % Short-cycle 11 % Bachelor 67 % Master 29 % Doctorate 1 % Short-cycle 3 % Average age of students (years) Number of higher education institutions sending students in Gender balance (% of women) 60.6 % %
18 18 A STATISTICAL OVERVIEW OF THE ERASMUS PROGRAMME IN Introduction Erasmus is the world s most successful student mobility programme. Since it began in , the Erasmus Programme has provided over three million European students with the opportunity to go abroad and study at a higher education institution or train in a company. In student mobility accounted for around 80 % of the annual Erasmus budget and 1 in 20 graduates in participating countries in Europe received Erasmus grants during their studies to go abroad. There has been a steady increase in the number of student mobility periods every year since the start of the Programme in It exceeded for the first time in In some students went abroad to study or train, setting a new record and representing an annual increase of 5.8 % compared with the previous year. By 2002, one million students had participated in Erasmus. The two million milestone was reached at the end of the academic year and during the target of supporting three million students has been achieved.
19 ERASMUS STUDENT MOBILITY 1 Million 2 Million 3 Million Chart 1: Progress to achieving the three million student mobility target 19
20 20 A STATISTICAL OVERVIEW OF THE ERASMUS PROGRAMME IN Outbound Erasmus student mobility (study exchanges and work placements) As in the previous academic year, Spain sent the most students abroad with students leaving for another country. France supported the second highest number of students going abroad, followed by Germany, Italy and Poland. Some 67 % of students participating in study exchanges and work placements in were Bachelor degree students. Students enrolled in Master s degree programmes made up 29 % of all participants, with doctoral candidates representing 1 %, while some 3 % of participants were registered at institutions offering short-cycle higher vocational education courses. Chart 2 shows the evolution of outbound student mobility by country since 2010 in absolute figures. The total number of student mobility periods by country since 1987 can be found in Annex 1. DID YOU KNOW? Around doctoral candidates go abroad with Erasmus every year. The Programme complements longer-term mobility opportunities offered through the Marie Skłodowska-Curie actions of the EU Research Framework Programme.
21 ERASMUS STUDENT MOBILITY 21 Chart 2: Outbound students by country since TOP 3 BE BG CZ DK DE EE GR ES FR IE IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK IS LI NO TR HR CH
22 22 A STATISTICAL OVERVIEW OF THE ERASMUS PROGRAMME IN Chart 3 shows the year-on-year growth in Erasmus student mobility in the participating countries. The highest increase in outbound students was noted in Malta (+40 %). It was followed by Cyprus (+36 %), and then Croatia (+27 %), which joined the Programme in , and Turkey (+22 %). Six countries Lithuania, Spain, Latvia, Iceland, Luxembourg and Lichtenstein saw a decrease in Erasmus student numbers (between -1 % and -32 %) compared with the previous year.
23 ERASMUS STUDENT MOBILITY 23 Chart 3: Outbound student mobility: year-on-year growth by country % % 40 % 40 % % 30 % 22 % % 20 % Number of outbound students % 5 % 4 % 10 % 5 % 6 % -1 % 6 % 0 % 8 % -2 % -1 % -10 % 1 % 8 % 2 % 6 % 9 % 9 % 5 % 12 % 4 % 4 % 7 % -2 % 1 % 5 % 10 % 0 % -10 % % % -30 % BE BG CZ DK DE EE GR ES FR IE IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK IS LI NO TR HR CH Growth % -40 %
24 24 A STATISTICAL OVERVIEW OF THE ERASMUS PROGRAMME IN Map 1: Outbound student mobility (study exchanges and work placements) growth since 2007 Map 1 shows the growth rates of Erasmus student mobility (studies and work placements) since The highest growth rate (over 80 %) was recorded in the following countries: Cyprus (130 %), followed by Turkey (102 %), Denmark (82 %) and Latvia (81 %). 9 countries grew between 50 % and 80 % (MT, SK, GR, BG, NL, EE, ES, SI, IE). 12 countries experienced growth of between 30 % and 50 % (RO, PT, NO, SE, BE, UK, FI, IT, FR, LT, DE, CZ). 5 countries experienced growth of between 0 % and 30 % (PL, AT, IS, HU, LU). 1 country experienced a decrease (LI). 1 country (HR) began participating in the Programme in country (CH) began participating in the Programme in Ireland 52 % Netherlands 68 % Spain 57 %
26 26 A STATISTICAL OVERVIEW OF THE ERASMUS PROGRAMME IN Chart 4: Number of students by nationality in Chart 4 shows the distribution of Erasmus students by nationality. The students included some students who are nationals of countries outside the 33 participating in the Programme. The majority of these thirdcountry nationals came (in decreasing order) from the Ukraine, Russia, Morocco, China and Albania. DID YOU KNOW? Around thirdcountry nationals go abroad a year with Erasmus. This international dimension will increase in the future as Erasmus+ supports mobility to and from partner countries beyond Europe Nationality ES DE FR IT PL TR UK NL BE PT Other CZ RO FI HU AT GR SK LT SE DK IE BG CH LV SI NO HR EE LU CY IS MT LI Number of students
27 ERASMUS STUDENT MOBILITY 27 Chart 5: Age distribution of students in Number of students The average age of Erasmus students in remained 22.5 years as in the previous year. It should be noted that this corresponds to the age of students at the time of submitting their application for an Erasmus grant, usually several months before the actual mobility period takes place. The vast majority 82 % of Erasmus students were aged between 20 and 24 years old, with the youngest students aged just 17 years old >60 82 % Age
28 28 A STATISTICAL OVERVIEW OF THE ERASMUS PROGRAMME IN Chart 6 shows the share of Erasmus student mobility for studies compared to work placements in the participating countries in Work placements corresponded to more than 30 % of all periods spent abroad in seven countries: Romania, Latvia, the United Kingdom, Malta, the Netherlands, Estonia and Lithuania. On average, student mobility for work placements represented 21 % of all Erasmus student mobility in (up from 19 % the previous year). Eurostat, the European Commission s service which provides statistical information on the European Union, publishes each year the size of the student population in European countries. This corresponds to the total number of students enrolled in tertiary education in a given academic year. According to the latest Eurostat data, in 2012 ( ) the total student population in the 33 countries participating in the Programme at that time was more than 25.1 million. Absolute figures for student mobility correlate strongly with the number of students in the given countries. By comparing these results with the actual size of the student population of the country concerned, the success of the Programme can be seen in relative terms.
29 ERASMUS STUDENT MOBILITY 29 Chart 6: Study exchanges and work placements by home country in % % 24 % % % % 15 % % % 15 % 30 % 22 % 32 % 22 % 29 % 30 % 35 % 21 % 1 % 24 % 32 % 20 % 23% 36 % 23 % 28 % 19% 13 % 10 % 12 % 6 % 22 % 10 % BE BG CZ DK DE EE GR ES FR IE IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK IS LI NO TR HR CH SMP > 30 % Number of Student Mobility Type SMP % Share of work placements (SMP) on student mobility (SM) by home country Number of Student Mobility Type SMS
30 30 A STATISTICAL OVERVIEW OF THE ERASMUS PROGRAMME IN Chart 7 compares the Erasmus student data with the 2012 Eurostat student population data in the 33 participating countries 2. The proportion of the student population that participated in Erasmus was on average 1.01 %. Some 22 of the 33 countries had a participation rate above this 1.01 % average. Two very small countries, Luxembourg and Liechtenstein, show the highest mobility rates. This is linked to the fact that there is only one university in each of these countries, which does not offer provisions in all subject areas. In addition, the University of Luxembourg has made a study period abroad a prerequisite to awarding a Bachelor degree to its students. Aside from these two cases, Latvia had the highest proportion of outbound Erasmus students (2.26 %), followed by Lithuania (2.03 %), and then Spain (2.01 %). 2 Eurostat 2012 data (educ_enrl5)
31 ERASMUS STUDENT MOBILITY Chart 7: Erasmus students as a proportion of the student population by country in % 2.03 % 2.01 % 1.71 % 1.67 % 1.66 % 1.62 % 1.59 % 1.48 % 1.48 % 1.45 % 1.43 % 1.37 % 1.22 % 1.21 % 1.21 % 1.21 % 1.17 % 1.15 % 1.14 % 1.01 % 0.81 % 0.79 % 0.76 % 0.71 % 0.65 % 0.65 % 0.56 % 0.55 % 0.54 % 0.27 % 3.96 % 7.40 % 8 % 7 % 6 % 5 % 4 % 3 % 2 % 1 % 0 % LU LI LV LT ES FI SI PT EE CZ AT BE FR IE IS MT IT SK DK NL HU DE CH CY SE PL NO BG RO HR UK GR TR Average: 1.01 % 31 Share of student population (in %)
32 32 A STATISTICAL OVERVIEW OF THE ERASMUS PROGRAMME IN At their meeting in November 2011, European Ministers for Education, Youth and Culture agreed on a new benchmark for learning mobility. With regard to mobility in higher education, the Council set as a target that at least 20 % of higher education graduates in the EU should have had a period of higher education-related study or training including work placements abroad by So, how is Erasmus contributing to meeting this goal? As the exact number of graduates who have been abroad with Erasmus is not yet available for many countries, it is not possible to indicate where the benchmark currently lies. We can obtain, however, a rough estimation by comparing the Eurostat number of graduates in the most recent year where data is available ( ) with the number of Erasmus students in the same year. In 2012 ( ) higher education graduates at Bachelor and Master s degree levels or equivalent accounted for over 5.57 million 3 in the then 33 participating countries. If this number is compared with the number of Erasmus students in , Erasmus students accounted for around 4.54 % of all graduates. If this is added to the proportion of the total student population that has spent or is spending part or all of their studies abroad, with the support of other public and private means, the overall share of students who have been mobile before graduation totals around 10 %. 3 Eurostat 2012 data (educ_grad4). Data from France, Iceland and Liechtenstein are from 2011.
33 ERASMUS STUDENT MOBILITY Chart 8: Erasmus students as a proportion of graduates (%) by country in % 10.3 % 10.2 % 10.1 % 9.5 % 8.4 % 8.4 % 8.1 % 6.9 % 6.5 % 6.4 % 6.4 % 6.2 % 6.1 % 6.1 % 6.0 % 5.7 % 5.4 % 5.2 % 4.8 % 4.6 % 4.3 % 4.2 % 4.2 % 3.7 % 3.4 % 2.9 % 2.4 % 2.3 % 2.2 % 1.9 % 1.8 % 14.7 % 34.9 % 35 % 30 % 25 % 20 % 15 % 10 % 5 % 0 % LU LI FI LV ES EE SI LT AT PT CZ BE IS HU NL IT DE DK GR SE FR IE MT NO CY SK CH BG PL RO HR TR UK Average: 4.54 % 33 Share of graduate population in %
34 34 A STATISTICAL OVERVIEW OF THE ERASMUS PROGRAMME IN Inbound student mobility As in previous years, Spain remained the most popular destination in among European students with inbound students (14.9 % share of all inbound students), followed by Germany (11.3 %), France (10.9 %), the United Kingdom (10.9 %) and Italy (7.5 %). Map 2 shows the inbound student numbers in , highlighting the top 15 destinations. Map 2: Inbound student mobility (student exchanges and work placements) in with top 15 host institutions since 2007 KUNGLIGA TEKNISKA HÖGSKOLAN FREIE UNIVERSITAET BERLIN HUMBOLDT-UNIVERSITAET ZU BERLIN UNIVERSITAET WIEN DID YOU KNOW? The most popular destination for Erasmus students is Spain, followed by Germany, France, the United Kingdom and Italy. UNIVERSITAT DE BARCELONA UNIVERSIDAD DE SEVILLA UNIVERSIDAD COMPLUTENSE DE MADRID UNIVERSITAT POLITÈCNICA DE VALENCIA UNIVERSITAT DE VALENCIA (ESTUDI GENERAL) UVEG UNIVERSIDAD DE SALAMANCA UNIVERSIDAD DE GRANADA
35 ERASMUS STUDENT MOBILITY 35 Liechtenstein Luxembourg Malta > < Not Erasmus countries UNIVERSITÀ DI BOLOGNA - ALMA MATER STUDIORUM UNIVERZA V LJUBLIANI UNIVERSITA DEGLI STUDI DI ROMA LA SAPIENZA
36 36 A STATISTICAL OVERVIEW OF THE ERASMUS PROGRAMME IN In , almost all participating countries experienced growth in the number of inbound students for studies and work placements compared to the previous year. The only exceptions were Greece (a decrease of -9.2 %), Denmark (-1.6 %) and Italy (-1.2 %). Apart from Croatia, which joined the Programme recently, Malta had the highest annual growth (37.4 %), followed by Latvia (27.1 %) and then Lithuania (23.8 %) and Romania (23.3 %). Chart 9 shows the evolution of inbound students during the last three academic years.
37 ERASMUS STUDENT MOBILITY 37 Chart 9: Number of inbound students by country since Number of inbound students TOP 3 BE BG CZ DK DE EE GR ES FR IE IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK IS LI NO TR HR CH
38 38 A STATISTICAL OVERVIEW OF THE ERASMUS PROGRAMME IN Iceland 92 % Map 3: Inbound student mobility (study exchanges and work placements) growth since 2007 Map 3 shows the trends in inbound student numbers since the beginning of the Lifelong Learning Programme in Liechtenstein 47 % Luxembourg 163 % Malta 253 % Norway 62 % > 40 % growth % growth 0-20 % growth n/a Not Erasmus countries Slovenia 119 % UK 42 % Belgium 48 % Germany 46 % Austria 40 % Portugal 76 %
40 40 A STATISTICAL OVERVIEW OF THE ERASMUS PROGRAMME IN Chart 10 compares the numbers of inbound and outbound students in the participating countries. Hungary, the Netherlands and Spain achieved the closest balance between the two (just 2 % difference). A number of countries, however, showed a significant imbalance. The number of outbound students was at least twice as high as inbound students in Romania and Turkey. In Slovakia and Latvia the difference between outbound and inbound students was nearly double as well. There were twice or more as many inbound students compared to outbound students in Iceland, Liechtenstein, Cyprus and Ireland. In Sweden and Norway this number rose to almost three times as many. Malta received eight inbound students for every outbound student in , as in the previous academic year. DID YOU KNOW? Hungary, the Netherlands and Spain are the countries with the most balanced numbers of inbound and outbound students taking part in Erasmus.
41 ERASMUS STUDENT MOBILITY 41 Chart 10: Inbound and outbound students in TOP 3 (best balances) BE BG CZ DK DE EE GR ES FR IE IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK IS LI NO TR HR CH Outbound Inbound
42 42 A STATISTICAL OVERVIEW OF THE ERASMUS PROGRAMME IN Duration Chart 11: Average duration of student mobility since Socrates I - Erasmus Socrates II - Erasmus Lifelong Learning Programme - Erasmus Months The average duration of student exchanges was six months. This has remained constant during the past decade. While study exchanges lasted on average 6.2 months, work placements abroad were on average 4.3 months long. The evolution of the average duration of student mobility periods since 1994 can be seen in Chart 11. The average duration of student mobility periods by country since 1994 can be found in Annex Months
43 ERASMUS STUDENT MOBILITY 43 Chart 12: Average duration of student mobility periods by home country since 2010 Months As in previous years, the average duration of student mobility periods in varied considerably between countries. Students from Malta had the lowest average duration (4.1 months), while students from Spain spent the longest periods abroad on average (7.3 months). Chart 12 shows the average duration of student exchanges by home country since BE BG CZ DK DE EE GR ES FR IE IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK IS LI NO TR HR CH Average : 5.9 months
44 44 A STATISTICAL OVERVIEW OF THE ERASMUS PROGRAMME IN Grants Erasmus grants are designed to cover part of the additional costs linked to travelling and living abroad. Erasmus students do not pay tuition fees at their host institution. The Erasmus budget for mobility is divided up into 33 national budgets according to a range of set criteria. National Agencies in each country allocate the funds at their disposal to higher education institutions. A National Agency can choose to support a smaller number of students with higher grants (as is the case, for example, in Bulgaria, Romania and Cyprus) or a larger number with lower grants (for example in France and the Netherlands), but has to respect the ceiling for grants set by the European Commission for every host country. The National Agency then allocates funds to institutions taking into consideration the amount requested and other factors, such as the institution s past performance. The institution can in its turn decide on the exact grant it pays to students and staff within the range set by its National Agency. In the average monthly grant was 272 across the participating countries. This amount represents a 8,8 % increase compared to the previous year. The monthly grant depends on the host country and the type of mobility. For instance, there has been a tendency to give higher grants for work placements ( 376 on average) than for study exchanges ( 253 on average).
45 ERASMUS STUDENT MOBILITY 45 Chart 13: Average monthly EU grant for student mobility since Average monthly EU grant in Annex 3 presents the average monthly EU grant by country since 1994, while Chart 13 shows the evolution of the average monthly EU grant across the participating countries since It has to be noted that many countries have a complementary national funding scheme in place, to supplement students grants. The figures in the chart only represent the EU part of the Erasmus grant
46 46 A STATISTICAL OVERVIEW OF THE ERASMUS PROGRAMME IN Chart 14 shows the average monthly EU grant by home country in The grant levels varied greatly across the participating countries, ranging from 143 in Spain to 616 in Lichtenstein. Wide variations can be seen in the level of student grants in the different sending countries due to the following factors: the difference in the living costs between the sending and the destination country (the more relatively expensive the receiving country, the higher the grant level); the level of co-financing at national, regional or institutional level (the higher the level of co-financing, the lower the Erasmus grant level); the level of demand in the sending country or institution (a high level of demand leads to a reduction of the average grants to maximise the number of periods spent abroad); the remoteness of the sending country or region.
47 ERASMUS STUDENT MOBILITY Chart 14: Average monthly EU grant for student mobility by home country in TOP 3 BE BG CZ DK DE EE GR ES FR IE IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK IS LI NO TR HR CH Average: Average monthly EU grant in
48 48 A STATISTICAL OVERVIEW OF THE ERASMUS PROGRAMME IN Students with special needs grants Erasmus also actively supports the participation of students with special needs by offering them a supplementary grant. In , some 388 students with special needs received additional funding. This represents a 15 % increase compared to the previous year (336 students in ). Most of them 88 % chose to go abroad to study. Students with special needs represented only 0.15 % of the total number of Erasmus students in This is very low, but it reflects also the limited participation of students with special needs in higher education in general. Annex 5 presents the number of inbound and outbound students by country who received supplementary grants in Poland sent out the highest number of students with special needs, some 125 students (a 0.77 % share of all their Erasmus students), followed by Germany with 56 students (0.16 %) and Italy with 51 students (0.20 %). In relative terms, the highest rate of students with special needs compared to the total number participating in the Programme was in Hungary (0.91 %). DID YOU KNOW? In , some 388 Erasmus students with special needs received additional funding to study or train abroad. This will be further supported through Erasmus+.
49 ERASMUS STUDENT MOBILITY 49 Chart 15: Number of special needs grants for student mobility by home country in Number of grants for special needs TOP 3 BE BG CZ DK DE GR ES FR IE IT LV LT HU NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI UK NO TR HR Note: only countries with at least one grant for special needs are displayed in the chart.
50 50 A STATISTICAL OVERVIEW OF THE ERASMUS PROGRAMME IN Zero-grant students Every year, a number of students can benefit from the status of being an Erasmus student without receiving an EU grant (so-called zero-grant students). This happens, for example, in situations where the national Erasmus budget for an academic year has already been allocated, and additional students can receive all the advantages of being an Erasmus student (such as non-payment of tuition fees to the host institution) without receiving EU funding. Zero-grant students may receive funding from other sources. In , the total number of zerogrant Erasmus students was 6 617, down from in the previous academic year (-16.8 %). Most of them 86 % participated in study exchanges. Zero-grant students represented around 2.5 % of the total number of student mobility periods. Annex 6 presents the number of inbound and outbound Erasmus zerogrant students per country in As can be seen in Chart 16, the highest numbers of zero-grant students were from France, Austria, Italy and Germany.
51 ERASMUS STUDENT MOBILITY 51 Chart 16: Number of zero-grant Erasmus students by home country in Number of zero-grant students BE BG CZ DK DE EE GR ES FR IE IT LV LT HU NL AT PL PT RO SK FI LI NO TR HR CH Note: only countries with at least one zero-grant student are displayed in the chart.
52 52 A STATISTICAL OVERVIEW OF THE ERASMUS PROGRAMME IN Participating higher education institutions Some Higher Education Institutions sent students abroad through Erasmus in , out of a total of institutions holding an Erasmus University Charter (EUC) that year. This means that 71 % of all EUC holders sent students on Erasmus mobility in A further 6 % of institutions used their Charter to receive students only. Thus, the total share of higher education institutions taking part in student mobility in either way was 77 %. Further examination of the data available shows the wide variety of situations across Europe. For example, comparing the distribution of student mobility periods across participating countries reveals that the top 22 % of higher education institutions participating in with over 100 student mobility periods each sent out more than 80 % of all students. In other words, one fifth of all institutions active in student mobility accounted for sending the four fifth of students abroad. Out of these, 16 institutions sent out more than students.
53 ERASMUS STUDENT MOBILITY 53 DID YOU KNOW? Around 40 % of the higher education institutions send out 10 or fewer students a year. However, these limited numbers of exchanges often represent the first step towards internationalisation for these higher education institutions. At the other end of the scale are the 40 % of participating higher education institutions with 10 or fewer student mobility periods each which represent around only 2 % of all student mobility periods. Out of these, 208 institutions sent out only 1 student in However, some institutions were more active on the receiving than on the sending side. Thus, some 107 of the institutions sending out 10 or less students received more than 10 students in turn. Eight institutions received more than 20 times as many students as they sent out. One of these, the University College Birmingham in the UK received 100 times more students than it sent out. The highest number of students were sent out by the Complutense University of Madrid. It was followed closely by the University of Granada in Spain with students. A list of the top 100 institutions sending students on Erasmus mobility periods in can be found in Annex 7.
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