# First Midterm for ECE374 03/09/12 Solution!!

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1 1 First Midterm for ECE374 03/09/12 Solution!! Instructions: Put your name and student number on each sheet of paper! The exam is closed book. You have 90 minutes to complete the exam. Be a smart exam taker - if you get stuck on one problem go on to another problem. Also, don't waste your time giving irrelevant (or not requested) details. The total number of points for each question is given in parenthesis. There are 100 points total. An approximate amount of time that would be reasonable to spend on each question is also given; if you follow the suggested time guidelines, you should finish with 10 minutes to spare. The exam is 90 minutes long. Show all your work. Partial credit is possible for an answer, but only if you show the intermediate steps in obtaining the answer. If you make a mistake, it will also help the grader show you where you made a mistake. Good luck.

3 f. Suppose TCP uses AIMD for its congestion control without slow start. Assuming cwnd increases by 2 MSS every time a batch of ACKs is received and assuming approximately constant round- trip times, how long does it take for cwnd to increase from 4 MSS to 12 MSS (assuming no loss events)? Answer: It takes 1 RTT to increase CongWin to 6 MSS; 2 RTTs to increase to 8 MSS; 3 RTTs to increase to 10 MSS; 4 RTTs to increase to 12 MSS. g. Name and depict the three different switching techniques commonly used in routers. Answer: Memory, Bus, Crossbar h. Name the four major components of the Internet s Network layer. Answer: IP, ICMP, Routing Protocols, Forwarding Tables.

7 7 Answer: 1.) src port: XXXX (greater 5000), dst port 80, 2.) src port: YYYY (greater 5000 and different than XXXX), dst port 80. d. Let us turn our attention to the web server for this sub- problem. Assume that the main web page is a single HTML file (e.g., index.html) that is of size 500,000 bytes and the MSS is 1000 bytes. Further assume that the sequence number for the very first TCP segment carrying that data stream is 0. What is the sequence number for the 2 nd, 3 rd, and 4 th segment? Also give an expression for the n th TCP segments in that stream. Assuming there are no packet losses and timeouts, how many TCP segments are needed in total to transmit that HTML page? Answer: 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, (n- 1)*1000, 500,000/1000=500. e. Now assume there s an institutional cache in the client s subnet. The client s initial request is cached by this cache. Since news page change frequently the client wants to make sure that it does not get served an outdated HTML page from the cache. Explain the HTTP mechanism that prevents this from happening. What would be in the body of the second server reply if the reply would be 304 Not Modified? Answer: Last- Modified from server, If- Modified- since from client. The body would be empty in the second case since the HTML page would be served from the cache.

8 8 Problem 4: TCP (24 Points, 20 minutes) For this problem you should familiarize yourself with Figure 4 first. Now assume that in the network shown in Figure 4 two parallel TCP transmissions are performed. TCP1 is a transmission between Source A and Sink A that uses TCP Tahoe. TCP2 is a transmission between Source B and Sink B that uses TCP Reno. Initial ssthresh for both TCP transmissions is set to 32. In this specific scenario no additional delay through forwarding is introduced. Thus, the RTT is only composed of the sums of the delay indicated on each link, times two. a. For the TCP 1 transmission, draw the resulting congestion window, assuming that a packet loss (triple duplicate ACKs) is detected at time t=900ms in Figure 5. b. For the TCP 2 transmission, draw the resulting congestion window, assuming that a packet loss (triple duplicate ACKs) is detected at time t=650ms in Figure 5. c. Describe the benefit of TCP Reno over TCP Tahoe. d. In general, explain the purpose of the receiver- advertised window in TCP. Answer: It allows the receiver to signal the sender how much unacknowledged data can be in flight. e. Assume a TCP sender transmits 4 TCP segments with respective sequence numbers 1200, 2400, 3600, The sender receives four acknowledgements with the following sequence numbers, 2400, 2400, 2400, Complete Figure 6 to show what TCP segments are exchanged between sender and receiver. Figure 4 Network layout for problem 5.

9 9 Figure 5 Solution

10 10 Seq #:1200 ACK Seq #:2400 Figure 6 Solution for a, b, and e:

11 11

12 12 Seq #:1200 Seq #:2400 ACK Seq #:2400 Seq #:3600 X Seq #:4800 ACK Seq #: duplicate ACKs Resend 2400 ACK Seq #:2400 Seq #:2400 ACK Seq #:6000

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