The Transport Layer. Antonio Carzaniga. October 24, Faculty of Informatics University of Lugano Antonio Carzaniga

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1 The Transport Layer Antonio Carzaniga Faculty of Informatics University of Lugano October 24, 2014

2 Outline Basic concepts in transport-layer protocols Multiplexing/demultiplexing UDP message format Reliable transfer

3 Transport Layer Internet

4 Transport Layer Internet Web browser Web server

5 Transport Layer Internet Web browser Web server

6 Transport Layer Internet Web browser GET / HTTP/1.1 Web server

7 Transport Layer Internet Web browser GET / HTTP/1.1 Web server Primitive communication between applications

8 Type of Service Antonio Carzaniga

9 Type of Service HTTP

10 Type of Service HTTP SMTP

11 Type of Service HTTP SMTP DNS

12 Type of Service HTTP SMTP DNS connection

13 Type of Service HTTP SMTP DNS connection

14 Type of Service HTTP SMTP DNS connection GET / HTTP/1.1...

15 Type of Service HTTP SMTP DNS connection GET / HTTP/ HTTP/

16 Type of Service HTTP SMTP DNS connection GET / HTTP/ HTTP/ GET...

17 Type of Service HTTP SMTP DNS connection GET / HTTP/ HTTP/ GET... HTTP/

18 Type of Service HTTP SMTP DNS connection GET / HTTP/ HTTP/ GET... HTTP/

19 Type of Service HTTP SMTP DNS connection GET / HTTP/ HTTP/ GET... HTTP/ Yo... HELO.. MAIL FROM:... RCPT TO:... QUIT 221 Bye

20 Type of Service HTTP SMTP DNS connection connection GET / HTTP/ HTTP/ GET... HTTP/ Yo... HELO.. MAIL FROM:... RCPT TO:... QUIT 221 Bye

21 Type of Service HTTP SMTP DNS connection connection messages root GET / HTTP/ Yo... HTTP/ GET... HTTP/ HELO.. MAIL FROM:... RCPT TO:... QUIT DNS app..ch unisi.ch 221 Bye

22 Type of Service HTTP SMTP DNS connection connection messages root GET / HTTP/ Yo... HTTP/ GET... HTTP/ HELO.. MAIL FROM:... RCPT TO:... QUIT DNS app..ch unisi.ch 221 Bye

23 Type of Service HTTP SMTP DNS connection connection messages root GET / HTTP/ Yo... HTTP/ GET... HTTP/ HELO.. MAIL FROM:... RCPT TO:... QUIT DNS app..ch unisi.ch 221 Bye

24 Type of Service HTTP SMTP DNS connection connection messages root GET / HTTP/ Yo... HTTP/ GET... HTTP/ HELO.. MAIL FROM:... RCPT TO:... QUIT DNS app..ch unisi.ch 221 Bye

25 Type of Service HTTP SMTP DNS connection connection messages root GET / HTTP/ Yo... HTTP/ GET... HTTP/ HELO.. MAIL FROM:... RCPT TO:... QUIT DNS app..ch unisi.ch 221 Bye

26 Type of Service HTTP SMTP DNS connection connection messages root GET / HTTP/ Yo... HTTP/ GET... HTTP/ HELO.. MAIL FROM:... RCPT TO:... QUIT DNS app..ch unisi.ch 221 Bye

27 Type of Service HTTP SMTP DNS connection connection messages root GET / HTTP/ Yo... HTTP/ GET... HTTP/ HELO.. MAIL FROM:... RCPT TO:... QUIT DNS app..ch unisi.ch 221 Bye

28 Type of Service HTTP SMTP DNS connection connection messages root GET / HTTP/ Yo... HTTP/ GET... HTTP/ HELO.. MAIL FROM:... RCPT TO:... QUIT DNS app..ch unisi.ch 221 Bye

29 Transport Layer in the Internet Antonio Carzaniga

30 Transport Layer in the Internet Transport Control Protocol (TCP) conntection-oriented (i.e., connections )

31 Transport Layer in the Internet Transport Control Protocol (TCP) conntection-oriented (i.e., connections ) User Datagram Protocol (UDP) connectionless (i.e., messages )

32 Transport Layer in the Internet Transport Control Protocol (TCP) conntection-oriented (i.e., connections ) User Datagram Protocol (UDP) connectionless (i.e., messages ) Terminology transport-layer packets are called segments

33 Transport Layer in the Internet Transport Control Protocol (TCP) conntection-oriented (i.e., connections ) User Datagram Protocol (UDP) connectionless (i.e., messages ) Terminology transport-layer packets are called segments Basic assumptions on the underlying network layer

34 Transport Layer in the Internet Transport Control Protocol (TCP) conntection-oriented (i.e., connections ) User Datagram Protocol (UDP) connectionless (i.e., messages ) Terminology transport-layer packets are called segments Basic assumptions on the underlying network layer every host has one unique IP address

35 Transport Layer in the Internet Transport Control Protocol (TCP) conntection-oriented (i.e., connections ) User Datagram Protocol (UDP) connectionless (i.e., messages ) Terminology transport-layer packets are called segments Basic assumptions on the underlying network layer every host has one unique IP address best-effort delivery service no guarantees on the integrity of segments no guarantees on the order in which segments are delivered

36 Transport-Layer Value-Added Service Antonio Carzaniga

37 Transport-Layer Value-Added Service Transport-layer multiplexing/demultiplexing i.e., connecting applications as opposed to hosts

38 Transport-Layer Value-Added Service Transport-layer multiplexing/demultiplexing i.e., connecting applications as opposed to hosts Reliable data transfer i.e., integrity and possibly ordered delivery

39 Transport-Layer Value-Added Service Transport-layer multiplexing/demultiplexing i.e., connecting applications as opposed to hosts Reliable data transfer i.e., integrity and possibly ordered delivery Connections i.e., streams can be seen as the same as ordered delivery

40 Transport-Layer Value-Added Service Transport-layer multiplexing/demultiplexing i.e., connecting applications as opposed to hosts Reliable data transfer i.e., integrity and possibly ordered delivery Connections i.e., streams can be seen as the same as ordered delivery Congestion control i.e., end-to-end traffic (admission) control so as to avoid destructive congestions within the network

41 Multiplexing/Demultiplexing Internet

42 Multiplexing/Demultiplexing Internet Web browser GET / HTTP/1.1 Web server

43 Multiplexing/Demultiplexing Internet Web browser client GET / HELO... HTTP/1.1 Web server server

44 Multiplexing/Demultiplexing GET Web browser Web browser client GET / HELO... Internet /index.html HTTP/1.1 HTTP/1.1 Web server server

45 Multiplexing/Demultiplexing GET Web browser Web browser client GET / HELO... Internet /index.html HTTP/1.1 HTTP/1.1 Web server server How do we distinguish all these connections?

46 Ports Antonio Carzaniga

47 Ports Each application running on a host is identified (within that host) by a unique port number port numbers are simply cross-platform process identifiers

48 Ports Each application running on a host is identified (within that host) by a unique port number port numbers are simply cross-platform process identifiers How do we identify a connection?

49 Ports Each application running on a host is identified (within that host) by a unique port number port numbers are simply cross-platform process identifiers How do we identify a connection? two pairs of host and application identifiers i.e., two pairs (IP-address, port)

50 Ports Each application running on a host is identified (within that host) by a unique port number port numbers are simply cross-platform process identifiers How do we identify a connection? two pairs of host and application identifiers i.e., two pairs (IP-address, port) How do we find out which application (host and port number) to connect to?

51 Ports Each application running on a host is identified (within that host) by a unique port number port numbers are simply cross-platform process identifiers How do we identify a connection? two pairs of host and application identifiers i.e., two pairs (IP-address, port) How do we find out which application (host and port number) to connect to? outside the scope of the definition of the transport layer but of course we can have well-known service numbers

52 Ports Antonio Carzaniga

53 Ports The message format of both UDP and TCP starts with the source and destination port numbers source port destination port

54 Ports The message format of both UDP and TCP starts with the source and destination port numbers source port destination port E.g., src port 1234 dst port 80 A B

55 Ports The message format of both UDP and TCP starts with the source and destination port numbers source port destination port E.g., src port 1234 dst port 80 A B src port dst port

56 Ports The message format of both UDP and TCP starts with the source and destination port numbers source port destination port E.g., src port 1234 dst port 80 A B 80 src port 1234 dst port

57 UDP Packet Format Antonio Carzaniga

58 UDP Packet Format The UDP message format is very simple source port length destination port checksum application data (message)

59 UDP Features Antonio Carzaniga

60 UDP Features UDP provides only the two most basic functionalities of a transport protocol

61 UDP Features UDP provides only the two most basic functionalities of a transport protocol application identification (multiplexing/demultiplexing)

62 UDP Features UDP provides only the two most basic functionalities of a transport protocol application identification (multiplexing/demultiplexing) integrity check by means of a CRC-type checksum

63 UDP Features UDP provides only the two most basic functionalities of a transport protocol application identification (multiplexing/demultiplexing) integrity check by means of a CRC-type checksum What if there is no application at the other end?

64 UDP Features UDP provides only the two most basic functionalities of a transport protocol application identification (multiplexing/demultiplexing) integrity check by means of a CRC-type checksum What if there is no application at the other end? How is the checksum computed? which parts of the segment does it cover?

65 UDP Features UDP provides only the two most basic functionalities of a transport protocol application identification (multiplexing/demultiplexing) integrity check by means of a CRC-type checksum What if there is no application at the other end? How is the checksum computed? which parts of the segment does it cover? What should happen when the checksum doesn t check?

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