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1 Part I: The problem specifications NTNU The Norwegian University of Science and Technology Department of Telematics Note! The problem set consists of two parts: Part I: The problem specifications pages Part II: The answer pages Contacts during the exam: English (original) Name: Yuming Jiang Tlf.: The exam rooms will be visited in the time period between 10am and 12am. Exam in course: "TTM4100 COMMUNICATION SERVICES AND NETWORKS" 30 May :00 13:00 Grading results 23 June 2008 (This is the date for sending the results from the Department of Telematics to the Student and Academic Division of NTNU) Remedies: D: No printed or handwritten remedies allowed. Determined, simple calculator allowed. 1/8

3 Score The maximum score for the exam is 100 points. A sub-problem has a defined maximum score X points. A sub-problem may be defined by using various types of box fields. In this exam we mainly have two different types of box fields: Written text. A sub - problem shall be answered by written text. In that case the answer shall be written in the supplied marked box in the answer page. The answer can give from 0 to max X points. True or False: Check one box per statement, or do not check. If True and False both are checked for a statement, it counts as an incorrect mark. If the sub-problem has M statements and the maximum score for this subproblem is X points, then the resulting score is calculated as follows: X Points = dif * -----, where dif is the difference between the number of M correct marks and the number of discounts points and where discount points are found from the Table below. number of discount points incorrect marks ,5 i >= 3 i Formally we have: dif =Max{(number of correct marks discount points), 0}, This mapping between incorrect marks and discount points allows you to guess wrong once without being punished. Note that the True or False problem does not give incorrect marks if you do not check any of the two boxes for a given statement. 3/8

4 1. True or False questions. (60 points) 1.1 Miscellaneous (10 points) Packet switching employs statistical multiplexing A server program requests and receives services from a client program Each user on an Ethernet LAN can continuously transmit at the transmission rate of the Ethernet LAN A router only processes the Network layer in the Internet protocol stack When a data unit moves from the upper layer to the lower layers, headers are added When a wireless network is operating in infrastructure mode, its hosts are normally associated with a base station Before an station transmits a data frame, it must first send an RTS (Request-to-Send) frame and receive a corresponding CTS (Clear-to-Send) frame TCP is always the preferred transport layer for live streaming media because it ensures that the content is transported to the client without error Circuit switching gives higher variation in the end-to-end transfer time than packet switching Connection-oriented service is always reliable Application Layer (10 points) For a P2P file-sharing application, there is no notion of client and server sides of a communication session HTTP runs on top of TCP SMTP runs on top of UDP FTP sends control information out-of-band DNS (Domain Name System) is used to map hostnames to IP addresses DNS uses a distributed database implemented in a hierarchy of DNS servers Web caching cannot reduce the delay in receiving a requested object SMTP is used between mail servers in the Internet Only SMTP can be used between a user agent and a mail server POP3 servers do not carry state information across POP3 sessions. 4/8

6 1.5. Link Layer and LANs (10 points) If all the links in the Internet were to provide reliable delivery service, then the TCP reliable delivery service would be redundant Link layer also needs to provide flow control In CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check), the generator polynomials used by the sender and the receiver need not be the same Dividing the binary value by 1001 gives a remainder of Suppose a parity bit is used to detect single bit errors in a bit-string of 7 bits. If even parity is used and the controlled bit-string has the value , then the value of the parity bit is With half-duplex, a node cannot transmit and receive at the same time The slotted ALOHA protocol is more efficient than the pure ALOHA Hubs use the frame destination address to route frames to their destination Ethernet only provides connectionless service to the network layer Ethernet only provides unreliable service to the network layer Physical Layer, Wireless/Mobile Networks, & Multimedia Networking (10 points) A signal coming out of a low-pass filter of bandwidth H can be completely reconstructed by sampling at the rate of 2H Frequency modulation, amplitude modulation and phase modulation can be used together There is no limit on the maximum data rate that can be achieved by an ideal channel with no error Consider the maximum data rate that can be achieved by a noisy channel. The rate calculated from the Shannon theorem is always smaller than the rate calculated from the Nyquist theorem A binary signal with period T cannot be represented by a Fourier series with limited frequency elements It is impossible for a CDN (Content Distribution Network) to provide worse performance to a host requesting a multimedia object than if the host has requested the object directly from the distant origin server In order to maintain registration, SIP (Session Initiation Protocol) clients must periodically send REGISTER messages If stored video is streamed directly from a Web server to a media player, the application is using TCP as the underlying transport protocol With mobile IP, mobility does not affect end-to-end delays between the source and destination If a node has a wireless connection to the Internet, it has to be mobile. 6/8

7 2. Discuss why you think P2P (peer-to-peer) file-sharing applications are so popular. Is it because they distribute free data, music or video? Is it because they work more efficiently when there are a massive number of servers and a massive demand for large content files? Or, are there any other reasons? (5 points) 3. Explain the functionality of each of the five layers, i.e. Application, Transport, Network, Link, and Physical Layer. (10 points) 4. Consider a datagram network using 32-bit addresses. (10 points) 4.1 Suppose a router in the network has four links, numbered 0 through 3. Also suppose packets are to be forwarded to the link interfaces in the way as shown by the following table. Provide a forwarding table that has four entries, uses longest prefix matching, and forwards packets to the correct link interfaces. Destination Address Range Link Interface through through through Otherwise Suppose in the network there is a router that interconnects three subnets: Subnet 1, Subnet 2, and Subnet 3. Suppose all of the interfaces in each of these three subnets are required to have the prefix /24. Also suppose that Subnet 1 is required to support up to 125 interfaces, and Subnet 2 and Subnet 3 are each required to support up to 60 interfaces. Provide three network addresses (of the form a.b.c.d/x) that satisfy these constraints. 7/8

8 5. Host A and Host B are communicating over a TCP connection, and Host B has already received from A all bytes up through byte 248. Suppose Host A then sends two segments to Host B back-to-back. The first and the second segments contain 40 and 60 bytes of data. In the first segment, the sequence number is 249, the source port number is 502, and the destination port number is 80. Host B sends an acknowledgement whenever it receives a segment from Host A. (9 points) 5.1.In the second segment sent from Host A to Host B, what are the sequence number, source port number, and destination port number? 5.2.If the first segment arrives before the second segment, in the acknowledgement of the first arriving segment, what are the acknowledgement number, the source port number, and the destination port number? 5.3.If the second segment arrives before the first segment, in the acknowledgement of the first arriving segment, what is the acknowledgement number? 6. Consider a broadcast channel with N nodes and transmission rate of R bps. (6 points) 6.1 Suppose the broadcast channel uses polling (with an additional polling node) for multiple access. Suppose the polling delay, which is the amount of time from when a node completes transmission until the subsequent node is permitted to transmit, is d. Suppose that within a polling round, a given node is allowed to transmit at most Q bits. What is the maximum throughput of the broadcast channel? 6.2 Suppose now the broadcast channel uses slotted ALOHA protocol for multiple access. The frame size is L bits and time is divided into slots of size L/R seconds. Suppose all nodes always have data frames to send, and each transmits in a slot with probability p. What is the probability that an arbitrary node has a successful transmission and what is the efficiency of the broadcast channel? 8/8

### Note! The problem set consists of two parts: Part I: The problem specifications pages Part II: The answer pages

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